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Full text of "Knight's American mechanical dictionary : a description of tools, instruments, machines, processes and engineering, history of inventions, general technological vocabulary ; and digest of mechanical appliances in science and the arts"

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'Thus Time brings all things, one by one, to sight, 
And Skill evolves them into perfect light." — Lucretius, Book V. 


Fiist Steam Engine. 


Elje KttJcrfiiDf prrssf, Cambriogc. 







Vol. III. 

Plate. Subject. Page. 

XLVI. THE CHAMPION HARVESTER . . . . " . . . 1892 

XLVII. REAPING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) 1894 

XLVIII. REAPING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) .... 1895 

XLIX. REAPING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) 1896 

L. REAPING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) .... 1897 

LI. HARVESTER AND BINDER. {Sylvmus B. Locke' s.) . . . 1893 

LII. ROOF. {Pancras Station, Midland Counties Railway, London, England.) 1972 



LV. SLAVING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) 2103 

LVI. SEWING MACHINES. {Principles of Action.) 2104 




LXI. STEAM BOILERS. {Various Forms.) 2327 

LXH. STEAM HAMMER. {Woobvich Arsenal, England.) .... 2348 





LXVII. SURFACE PRINTING. {Specimen of plate printed by that process.) . 2458 

LXVni. TARGETS. {Shots made at the International Pdfle Match, 1S75.) . . 2499 



LXXI. ILLINOIS AND ST. LOUIS BRIDGE. {Across the Mississippi River.) 2646 

LXXII. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. {Across the Menai Straits.) . Frontispiece 








liis shoulder, has a cup, ami a poor, naked gleaner 
with iu.s baskets puts in a claim tur a driuk. 

While, as has been stated, it was coiuiiicin to rea]i 
the stauding grain just below the ears, we also tiud 
two other modes, and they were also practiced iu 
Gaul iu the time of Pliuy, 1,500 years alterward. 
One was to cut low and bind in sheaves, and the 
other to pull up by the roots. The figures re])re- 
sent these two scenes. Tlie last-mentioned mode 

Fig. 4193. 

Binding and puUiit^ Grain in lite E^ypt oftke Pharaoiis. 

was practiced with tlie millet, doura, or whatever it 

was, — Wilkinson says soiyhum. This was |iulled, 

bound in sheaves, and carried to a place where the 

grain was .stripped from the stalk by a man who 

drew it, a bunch at a 

time, over a comb or 

hackle. The operation _ 

is illustrated iu a tomb 

at Eilethyas. The same 

instrument is now used 

for removing the capsule-- 

and seed from the Hax- 

plaiit. It is called a 

ripple. See RiPPLi:. 

This stripper is proba- 
bly like the pnddlc-fork 
mentioned by Pliny. 

The references in the 
Bible to reaping and to 
the sickle wlierewitli it 
was cut are frequent, bat 
add nothing to the per- 
.spicuity of the Egyptian 

Coming down to early 
classic periods, so called, 
we fiud that the Greeks 
adiled nothing and the 
Romans little to the crude 
old mode of cutting grain 
by the curved sickle of 

Varro describes three modes of reaping as common 
in Italy : — 

1. Cut low hy a hook, the ears being afterward cut ofT and 
Bent in bx-^kets to the granary. 

2 Cut ofT below the head by a toothed sickle, and the hcad3 
carried oTin ba-skcts 

3. Cut otT at half the length of the straw. 

In the Sist ceutury of the Christian era we hear 
from Gaul. Says Pliny (A. D. 70) : — 

" The mode of getting in the harvest varies considerably. Id 
the vast domains of the provinces of Oaul, a large hollow frame, 
armed with teeth and supported on two wheels, is driven 
through the standing grain, the beasts being .\oked behind it 
(/« contrn/ium jititcfo) ; the result being that the ears are torn 
off and fall witiiin the frame. In other countries the stalks are 
cut with the sickle in the middle, aud the ears anj separated by 
means of paddle-forlts." 

The accompanying cut is a good restoration of the 
Gallic harvester of I'liny's day. Palladius wrote the 
Ve re rusiica in tlut fourth century A. D., and 
gives a good descriirtion of this contrivance, which 
was similar to our "heiHling-mocliine.s," having a 
row of sharp teeth at the front edge, between which 
the straw passed, the head being torn otf at the 
angle where the teeth met, and lalling into the box 
of the machine. 

The description of Palladius is as follows : — 

" In the plaius of Gaul, they use this quick way of reaping, 
and without reapers cut large fields witii an ox in one day. 
For this purpose a machine is made, tariicd upon two wheels ; 
the square surface ha-s bo:irdserected at the side, uhii h, sloping 
outward, niaUe a wider space above ; the loard on tlie fore part 
is lower than the others; upon it there aic a great nian.\ small 
teeth, wide set in a row, answering to tlie higlit of the ears of 
the corn, aud turned upward at the ends; on the bai U part of 
this machine two short shafts aie fi.xed, like tile poles of a 
litter; to these an ox i#;oked, with his head to the ii.achine, 
and the \oke and traces likewifc turned the contrary way : he 
is well tl-aintd, and does not go fa^tcr than he is driven. \Vhen 
this machine is pushed through the st.inding torn, all the ears 
are comprehended by the teeth, and heaped up in the hollow 
part of it, being cut off from the straw, which is left behind; 
the driver setting it higher or lower, lis he finds it necessary : 
and thus, by a lew goings and returniligs, the whole field is 
reaped. This machine does very well in plain and smooth fields, 
and in places where there is no necessity Ibr feeding with stniw." 

After the lapse of fourteen centuries this maehine 
has been reinvented, and is now used as a header 
Ibi- gathering clover-seed. !>ee Figs. 1346, 2465. 

The separation of the ears from the grain in the sheaf, men- 
tioned above as being performed by paddle-forks, was probably 
done by drawing ths turcbss of grain over a paddle whose end 

Fig. 4199. 

Reaper in Gaul {A. D. 70). 

I was deeply notched and the teeth sharpened. The motioa 
! would he something like that of hackling iienip, and the cars 
I would be speedily removed by this means. The ohject in saving 
tlie wheat, etc . in the head instead of in the sheaf, was prob- 
ably to economize mow room. When stored in the car instead 
of being first thrashed, it wa.^ a** a precaution against weevil 
Some have interpreted the passajie of Pliny U) refer to a comb 
j of similar character, which cauglit the ears of the slantitng grain 
and tore them off or held them'wiiile they were beaten off by a 
! paddle. This reminds one of the still simpler plan of the North- 
I em iDdUas of Minnesota and Canada, who collect their store 




of wild rice by leaning the licads over the side of the canoe and i England, in 1811, and Scott, of Ormiston, in 1815, were made 
beating out the gmiu. ' on this princijilc, were used practically, and bad considerable 

The above plans of heading the grain leave the straw in the local celebrity. Smith's machine was illustrated in ''llall'B 
field, which is a uicrit or otherwise, according to the circum- Dictionary,'' in 3 vols., folio, 1811. 

stances of the case, — location, market, and mode of farming, j ISuti. Gladstone patented his front-draft , siflf-cut^ revolving- 
knife machine. A segment bar with Jiti^trs gatliered tlie grain 
It would be absmd to overlook the differeut cir- I and held the straw wuile the knife cut it, the Augers having 
cumstances of " ......-• . .... „,, , 

de.tennine the (jues 
says: — 

Jlilinesota and Middlesex which ' *!**' function of (-heiir-blades The forward Umft wiLs also 
^., t;«,. ^r :c,.«T.«ni,r p'lAiii- «-oll I adopted hy Mann iu 1820. and by Ogle, 1S22, in his reciprocat- 
(lUfstion ol economy, rliny well .^^j^t^.r-.b:ir machine -^ ^ , , v 

** The diversity of the methods employed in harvesting mainly 
depends upon the extent of the crops and the price of labor." 

The njodern era of reaping-machines commences 
with the latter portion of the last century. The 
names of those who made the earliest attempts 
sliould be preserved, for in this, as in almost all 
similar cases, it was after a succession of earnest at- 
tempts by different parties that the desired success 
was achieved. Eacli great invention that has blessed 
us in modern times has been fought over. Witness 
steam-engines, steam navigation, photogi-aphy, reap- 
ing-machines, and the electric telegraph. Most of 
those who worked at these problems added somewhat 
to the eventual success, and we may surely consider 
the matter with amiability and try to avoid acri- 

The first modern machine resembled the old Gallic imple- 
ment, iu the re.■^pect that it stripped the head from tlie straw. 
Tiie English machine of Pitt, in 1786, had a cylinder on which 
were rows oi combs or ripples, which tore o£f the ears and dis- 
charged them into the box of the machine. For about two- 
score years attention was principally directed to revolving cut- 
ters or systems of revolving blades. 

The motion of the cutting apparatus being derived from the 
rotary motion of the wheels supporting the implement, it natu- 
rally occurred to connect the axle or wheel witli a rotary cutter, 
and later wirh an oscillating one, which had its analogues in 
the swing of the scythe and the reach of the sickle. A few at- 
tempts were made at a reciprocating knife, but they were 
scarcely heeded, and probably never made. The first recipro- 
cating knife was in 1822. . 

As to the mode of attaching the horses, it was almost univer- 
sally deemed necessary to hitch them behind the implement, 
which they pushed before them. Up to 1S23 but four inventors 
hitched the team iu front of the implement : one was ia 1806 ; 
the others in 1820, 1822, 182a 

As soon as this idea (lid wcur to the inventors, they made 
fie horse walk alongside the swath, cue by the knives, consti- 
tuting what is known as the sitJe cut. 

1799. Boyce had a vertical shaft with six rotating scythes be- 
neath the frame of the implement. This was the first patented 

1800. Meares tried to adopt shears. 
Plucknett introduced a horizontal rotating circular 


18U7. Salmon had a machine with some new features, — arow 
of ZHbraiing knives over stationary blades; Jingtrs to gather 
the grain to the cutters ; a raAf , suspended and reciprocating 
sideways to carry the grain oflF to' the side. The machine was 
pushed ahead ot the horse, or was propelled by hand. The ma- 
chine of IJell, 1826, which was brought forward to confound the 
American exhiliitors in 1851, has the same kind of cutters, and 
was also propelled. 

1820. Mann had revolving rakes on a vertical axis, to sweep 
the standing grain past the cutter, and deliver it in a swath 

1822. Ogle shows the first reciprocating knife-bar. It is the 

Fig. 4201. 

Bailerfs American Mowing-Machinf (1822). 

type nf the succes.s;ful machines, but was constructed so poorly 
that its merits never became apparent. It was drawn by horses 
in advance; the cuttcThur projected at the jjVe, and it had a 
rrrl to gather the grain to the cutter. The machine had a 
srain-p/nt/orm, which was tilted to drop the gavel. The ^rjl 
f/ropff r. 

The machines previously mentioned are British. Fig. 4201 
represents a sclf-sharponingmowinp-niachine, the first patented 
in the United States, in 1822. It has a circular revolving 
scythe on a vertical axis, rotated by gearing from main axle. 
The edge of the scythe in its revolutions passes under a whet- 
stone fixed on an axis, and revolving with the .^cxthe. The 
horse is in shafts, and walks in front of the left side of the ma- 
chine, and always on the mowed ground after the first swath 
is cut. The grass, ns it is cut, is first thrown by the progressive 

motion against a rise in the scythe-frame ftoward the center, 
blade. He had a score of follower, and the first macliine used [ and by the same motion is afterward thrown off in a regular 

row, following the center of the 
Fig. 4200. 

. pjJ I iiL a^!^^!!^^ 

Gladstone's Reaping- Machine 1806) 


The machine of the Rev. Patrick 
Bell was tried at Powrie County, 
Forfar, Scotland, in 1828. It cut'a 
swath of five feet with the power of 
a single horse, about an acre an 
hour. It was n^ed again in 1829, 
and occasionally for a few years 
Bucceediug, then slept till 1851, 
when the World's Fair of 1851 iu 
London introduced the American 
machines to the British public. 
The old Scotch machine was then 
brought from its limbo to challenge 
the American stranger. 

The machine had a square frame 
on two wheels, which nin loc'^e on 
the axle, except when clutched 
thereto to give motion to the cut- 
ters. The cutter-bar had fixed 
triangular cutters, between each 
of which was a movable vibrating 
cutter, which made a shear cut 
ag;unst the edges of the stationary 
cutter on each side. It had a reel 
with twelve vanes to press the 
grain toward the cutters, and 
cause it to fall upon a traveling 
apron which carried away the cut' 
grain and deposited it at the side 
of the machine. The reel was 

in this country, and patented by Bailey (Fig. 4200) in 1822, was I driven by bevel -gearing. 

of this character. Two machines by Smith, of Deaustone, in t The following machines are American : - 




Fig. 4202. 

L' ■« /: s,j,ni--Ma 

1825. Ten Evk bad a horizontal cylinder, with spiral knives 
cutting as^iDSt sCmight edges. The same was shown by Bud- 
ding in 1830. 

182S. Samuel Lane, of Maine, combined the reaper and 

1S31. Manning had a row of fiogers and a reciprocating- 
knife. It was pushed in front of the horse. 

1833. Schnebly had a horizontal eudless apron traTeling in- 
termittingly, and delivering its gave! at the side. 

1833. Ilussev, of Maryland, made the first valuable harvester. 
It was patented as a mower. It had opfnjingersy the knife con- 
sisting of triangular sections reciprocating in the space, cutting 
shearwise against the guards. It was front draft, side cut, and 
had a platform The open-top slotted finger was patented by 
Hussey in 1847. The cutter-bar was on a hinged frame. The 
raker rode on the machine 

1834. MeCorniick, of Virginia, patented his reaper, which, 
with various improvements, in 1845 and 1847 received a Coun- 
cil medal at the Loudon U'orld's Fair in 1851. This machine 
bad a sickle-edged sectional knife, reciprocated by crank and 
pitman by gear connection to the drive-wheel, on which the 
frame rested. Spear-shaped fingers gathered the grain, which 
was laid over to the cutter by a revolving- reel, A divider was 
used on each end of the platform The driver and raker had 
seats on the machine. The gearing and crank were placed for- 
ward of the driving-wheel. 

1835 Randall hnwl a pair of knife-bars reciprocating post each 
other. ^V^ay, 1852, had the same 

183 3 Briggs and Carpenter combined the reaper and thrash- 
er. Moore and Haskell, the same year. Ridley, in Australia, 
seven years afterward, did the same, and supposed himself to 
be the first inventor. 

Hizard Kno.vles. the machinist of the Washington Patent 
Office, invented in 1837 a reaping-machine having a scalloped 
reciprocating cutter ; the cutting apparatus jointed to a double 
aPBi; the opposite end of which was in turn jointed to the main 
frame, coincident with the a)cis of the crank-.'^haft i both sup- 
porting-wheels were drivers for the cutters. It was a front-cut 
machine, and hail a lever to raise the cutting-bar to clear 
stumps and other obstructions. A machme was constructed in 
1838, and in 1839 was purchased by Joel Lupton, who rode 
upon the machine along the turnpike to his home, near Win- 
chester, Va. The machine waa used occasionally during a fc.v 
of the following years, but was soon laid aside, owing to a fear 
!of the neighbors that it would disturb the relations of labor. It 
was afterward purchased by one of the large firms of reaping- 
machine maker:?, who became involved m the tedious and ex- 
pensive litigation which ensued when the reaper became an im- 
portant article of manufacture and trade. This machine is 
principally curious in its anticipation of so many of the im- 
portant features of the more useful machines. Like Bell's ma- 
chine in its history, though fir superior to the Scotch machine 
in mechanical structure and adaptedness, it was a conception 
embodied in a single machine, and became an abandoned ex- 
periment, to be brought fom-ardwhen the inventions and con- 
tests of others give it an importance It was a machine of 
great possibihties, but its inventor failed to assert his rights. 
His position in the Patent OSce prevented his becoming a 
patentee, and he preferred to retain his salary to embarking in 
the bu.' of making machines of so novel a character 
About 1863 the m.ichine was brought forward in a patent suit. 
It may be presumed that it formed but another instance of the 
rule, that a single machine made and practically hidden away 
shall not be allowed to defeat a patent when a subset^uent in- 
ventor has showed due diligence U also indicates that the 
patent is a quid pro quo, an exclusive right in return for an in- 
vention alequately described on record. 

1S3S Wheeler had a machine with a revolving endless apron 
to deposit grain in a box with a sliding bottom, by which it was 
deposited in gavels. A dropper. 

1840. Lamb A platform to receive the gavels and carry the 
binder The first haud-binder 

1841. Churchill thrashed out the grain, the beads of grain 
being pushed into the thrasher-cylinder. 

1S42. Reed discharged the grain from the bed by rake-fingers 
projecting tlirough slots in platform. 

1846- Cook had a pen- 
dulous rake swinging 

1847- Ketchum had an 
endless chain cutter or 
belt of knives. 

1&47. Hussey'g stoltfd 
finder, open at top ; knife 
of triangular sections. 

1848. had a gTflin- 
rake traveling .sidtways 
beneath the platform, 
with slots for the fingers. 
Mann the same next year. 

184S. Goble and Stuart 
had a revolving rake pass- 
ing horizontally across 
the platform. 

1849. Hnincs suspend- 
ed the frame carrying the 

I conveyor, reel, and cutter to the axles of the bearing- wheels, 
I and hanged the frame to the tongue, so that it was capable of 
j turning upon its bearings by means of a lever, to elevate and 
I depress the cutter. 

In 1849, Jonathan Haines, of Illinois, invented the " header,-' 
which is the principal machine on the Pacific coiist. 

1849. Purviance made the platform removable, to convert 
the reaper into a mower. 

1849. Piatt's self-acting rake sweeping over quadrantal plat- 
firrtti. Same feature in Palmer and Williams's and in Sey- 
mours, 1851. 

1850. Adkins's cutter-bar on hinged frame. 

1850. Knowles and Bevington's side dropper. 

185C>. Heath's bindtr, with a reciprocating rake beneath the 
I85I Watson's automatic binder, 

1851. Miller's backivardly reciprocating rake. 

1851. Allen geared the operative parts from both wheels, to 
distribute the driving-power. 

1852. Atkins had a rake rigged on a vertical post. It had 
a jointed arm which swept across the curved platform and gath- 
ered the gavel against a shield : the post, rake, and shield then 
turned 90° on an axis, the rake was raised, and the gavel 
dropped in rear of the driving apparatus. 

This list is but a commencement, but brings us to a period 
when things became lively in this line. Since this period nearly 
3,000 patents have been granted in the United States for har- 
vesters and attachments therefor. 

In the summer of IS55,at a competitive trial of reapers about 
40 miles from Paris, France, three machines were exhibited, 
fi-om America, England, and Algiers. The following was the 
result in a field of oats : — 

The American machine cut an acre in 22 minutes. 

1 The English machine cut an acre in &i minutes. 

The Algerian machine cut an acre in 72 minutes. 

I In 1855, Jonathan Haines patented a machine in which the 
I finger-bar extended acros.s the rear end of the main frame, and 
I -was connected at each side with the front end of said frame by 
I rods jointed at one end to the frame, and at the other to the 
I finger-bar. The inner of the.^e rods was a drag-bar to advance 
the cuttingapparatus Theoutcrwasa brace to maintain its 
' position at right angles to the line of advance. It was sup- 
ported laterally by a brace jointed at one end to the end of the 
finger-bar. and at the other end to the main frame at or near 
the axis of the crank-shaft. 
I In the Ball machine, shortly afterward, the drag-bar was 
[ joined rigidly to the finger-bar, and thus united drag-bar and 
; brace in itself The lateral brace was the same, 

1856. The combined rake and reel of the " Dorsey " machine 
i sweeping in a general horizontal direction across the quadnintal 
I platform. 

1857- Crook introduced an arrangement of driving-gears of 
unequal size to be used separately for changing the rapidity of 
: vibration of the cutters. 

I 1860. The Henderson rake, or what is known as the " Wood" 
I machine, having a chain below the platform which carries the 
I rake in a curve*! path. 

1861. The Sielierling "dropper,'' which is a slatted plat- 
form that vibrates to discharge the gavel. 
I 1861. Button inclosed the gearing in a metalhc case, fomiing 
s part of the main frame. 

' Plate XLVI. shows three fomi.s of the "VVhiteley 
; " Champion '* harve.ster of Springtield, Ohio. The 
i upper figure is the mowing-mai:hine ; below it is tlie 
r.-aping-niachine, with dropphuj arrangement, which 
! (h'posits the gavel behind the cutter-bar ; the lower 
i figure is the self-ralciu;; reaper. 

The reaping luid automatic biiKling-machine of S. 

D. Locke, of Hoosick Falls, X. Y., made by Walter 

A. Wood of that place, and shown in Plate LI., is 

i believed to have overcome the difficulties of the 


.... .„ ' r~~/-" 

— - . . "J 

J JLLl^Jj r. 

Plate XLVI. 

^5 a Mower: a Dropper: a Stlf-Rakcr. 

Sec 'page 1893. 

Plate LI, 

(J(focM»co/lS74. Walter A. Wood, Uanv/acturer.) 

See page lS9i 




Binding Attachtnent to WoorPs Reaping and Autoinatic 
Binding- Mack iiu. 

binding problem, after ]>ersisteiit attempts for twelve 
years past. Some of the machines Were sent into 
the liarvest-fieMs the past summer (1874), and a 
thousand will probably go out next season. 

The grain , as it is cut, falls upon a, continuously moving:, side- 
delivery, elevating cArrier, and is delivered into the cradle or 
receptacle A of the binder, the operative mechanism of which 
comprises a right arm F, which carriea the head G with the 
end of the binding wire and the twisting device, and a com- 
pressing arm H, hoth rotiting upon a common axis above the 
cradle, and a vibrating left arm (, moving upon an axis parallel 
with the axis of the arm F. 

The arm /is vibrated by the rotation of the arm F; in one 
direction by segment-geiir teeth, and ia the other direction by 
a cam and pin. 

The motive power ts derived from the driving-wheel of the 
reaper, and is transmitted to the bindirtg arms through a scries 
of shafts with connecting gear-wheels, supported by a crane- 
post B ; a treadle-clutch serves to gear or ungear the bindiii j; 
mechanism at will. The bindiog-wirc is supplied from a reel fi 
mounted beneath the cradle A, and its feed is controlled by a 
spring take-up and tension /'. 

The end of the bindini,^-wire is held by a nipper at 
T. and from thence passes down tbroughuslit in head 
G, between the leaves of a pinion .Scontamed in said 
head, and thence over the extremity of arm H down 
to the guide-pulley u and to the reel. 

The rotation of arm F, from the position shown in 
Fig. 1, is accompanied by a movement of the arm / in an 
opposite dii-ection, to bundle, compress, and hold the 
straw l>etween the arms Hand 
/ (as shown at 2), while the 
head G Is conveying the bind- 
ing-wire completely around it 
and fastening the ends. The 
arm /then relaxes its prt-ssure, 
and tlie bound sheaf is dis- 
charged (3). The running and 
standing parts of the wire are 
brought together beneath the 
sheaf by the passiige oi the head 
G close to the guide-pulley t(, 
whereby the standing part is 
led into the mouth of the head Gand between the leaves of 
the pulley S on the side opposite to the end uf the wire ; at the 
next moment the head G strikes into the rack-box U, and the 
gripper at Tis caused to open and release the end of the wire, 
and immediately close again, severing the standing wire outside 
of the pinion Sand gripping the new end. The pinion S is 
immediately thereafter caused to revolve by engaging with the 

rack U, to twist together the ends of the wire and complete the 
In aiJdition to the above general movements may be men- 
tioned the following : Wheu the arm F has nearly reached the 
position shown iu Fig. 1, the long teeth O engage with the cor- 
responding teeth iVand advance the arm H more rapidly than 
the arm F. This pushes the wire furward, and ensures its en- 
gagement witli the pinion S. When tin- ai'm H recovers its 
position by the actiuii of the spring /*, the wire is retaiTjcd in 
engagement with the pinion 6" by a ledge or stop on the under 
side of the he;ul G. The spring A'' permits the arm H to com- 
press the sheaf with an eiastic pressure The arms H and / 
continue to approach each other until their segment-gears dis- 
engage, when the movement of the arm / beccmes coincident 
with the movement of arm F (2), This is ensured by the en- 
gagement of the pin L with tlie shoulder m and slot M, Wheu 
the pin L reaches the bottom of the slot and impinges against 
its fruut side w, the arm / is advanced fa.'^tcr than the arm F, 
and the sheaf is thereby released (3i. The final discharge is 
facilitated by the engagement of the pin e with the cam-sur- 
face/, whereby the compi-essor H is caused to advance faster 
than the arm F and discharge the sheaf from the uiachine. 

This apparatus is constructed so as to be easily removed from 
the reaper, either to facilitate transportation, or to permit its 
place to be occupied by u platform and stand for hand-binders. 
It is also constructed so that the removal of the ann /and some 
slight changes in other parts of the apparatus enable it to dis- 
charge the grain in unlmund gavels as a dropper 

Plate LI shows the inachjue as a binder in two positions, 
and also as a hand-binder. In the latter case the two men 
stand upon the platform and alternately take the gavels from 
the cnulle in which the grain accumulates as it falls down the 
incline. Each turns to his own binding-table, fastens his 
band, tips the sheaf off into the stubble, and then turns to 
gather another gavel . 

Among the successful binders must also be noticed that of 
James F. Gordon, of Ilochcster, New York. See his patents of 
August 27, 1872; June 16,1874; June 30, 1874. Speaking in 
general terms, his machine has an elevated side- delivery, by 
means of a traveling apron, the grain slides down an incline 
till arrested by a revolving gavelcr, and lies in the bight of the 
binding-wire. The end of the binding-arm is thrown forwai'd 
into the twister, carrying the wire arouml the gavel ; thebinder- 
fi'auic then reciprocates, the band is twisted, followed by the 
cutting of the wire, unclosing of the biuder-arui, and dropping 
of the sheaf 

Barta-s self-binder (1871) has also worked successfully in the 
field. It uses cord, makes a square knot, and binds a gavel of 
any size, even no larger than the arm. 

The following automatic binders may also be consulted : — 

Reapim; and Binding Machines. 

Bowron, January IG, 1872. cord band, secured by wire. 

Carpenter, December 22, 186S, wire. 

Clinton, July 13, 1869, cord. 

Chapman, May 7, 1872, wire. 

Fowler, June t, 1870, stitches woven from gavel. 

Withington, February 20, 1872, two wires. 

Whitney, May 26, 1874, wire. 


Plate XLVII. 

. (^Principles of Action.) 

See page 1893. 



^Principles of At:tion.) 

See page ISiS. 


Plate XLIX. 

{Principles of Action.) 

See page 1S9>. 


Plate L. 


(Principles of Action.') 

See page I89S. 




¥ig. 3247. page 148S, isan adaptatioD of a steam-eDgine to reap- 
ing and mowiug. 

The implement consists of a boiler and steam-engiDe, erected 
on a light wrouglit-irou girder-frame, the whole being carried 
on four wheels, of which the two hind wheels are utilized for 
propulsion and the two fore wheels for steerage and for carry- 
ing the cutting apparatus free of the ground. 

So far as the inowing-machlius and reapers are 
identical, they have been referred to under the 

former head. See cliart of mowing-machine mo- 
tions, Plate XXX., and the classilication o{ nioivcrs, 
page 1-488. The drawing and cutting portions of 
the apparatus are described in tlie clatjsitication re- 
ferred to, and are illustrated on Plates XXXI., 

For the distinctive features of a reaper, see the 
followiuff : — 

Discharging the gavel by 
movement of platform 

Classification of Reapers by Structural Features. 
The numbers refer to corresponding numbers on Plates XLVH., XLVIII., XLTX., L. 

[ Rear delivery 1 

Endlessapron Side deUveo' I 2?' IT' ? 

I *' I Llevatcd 3 

Rollers 4 

Screw-conveyors 5 

Tilting 1 J^?"*'"''^® S 

* - I To the rear 7 

Swinging g 

Revolving 9 

Gavel discharged from 
stationary platform. .. 

Teeth operating below platform . 

Rectilinear . 

Automatic rake 


Rotary . 

Hand- rakers. 

Teeth upon heads hung upon double cranks. . . 10 

Teeth upon endless belts 11 

Teeth upon heiid.^ hung on belts 12 

Teeth upon reciprocating beads 13 

I Front to rear. 14 

I Side to side 15 

[ Horizontal path 16 

! Vertical 17 

I Irregular 18 

I Upon horizontal shaft pulleys 19 

j Upon vertical shaft pulle>s 20 

1 Horizontal axis 21 

About an axis Vertical axis 22 

I Inclined axis 23 

Heads connected to an endless belt 24 

Reciprocating and rotary combined 25 


Endless belt. 


Revolving beaters on horizontal axis .....; 27 

Revolving beaters on vertical or inclined axis 28 

Revolving beaters carried on endless belts 29 

Reciprocating rising and falling beaters 30 

Cord 31 

Wir« 32 

Straw rope 33 

Stitches woven from gavel 34 

Tables rigid 35 

Tables hinged 36 

Tables swinging 37 

Tables revolving 38 


Fig. 4204 shows 37 and 38, the last two furnrs of 
binders cited in the classification. 

Reap'er-knife Grind'er. A form of grind- 
stone or emery-wheel for sharpening the knives or 
sickle sections of reaping and mowing machines. In 
the figm-e, one shows the machine as adapted for 
grinding, and tlie other as having two knife-rests 
for holding the knife-bar when tiling. The emery- 
wheel is driven by treadle. 

In Fig. 4*206, the saw is clamped to the adjustable 
bar at the top of the side frame. The stone has its 
periphery and a portion of its side faced for grind- 
ing. The grindstone standards are upon a liori- 
zontal disk w:hich is adjustable upon the carriage. 
The latter has longitudinal adjustment on the slide 
bars of the main frame. 

Reap 'ing-hook. (Husbandnj.) The reap- 
ing-hook is a curved blade of steel set in a short 
handle. It has no teeth, and this distinguishes it 
from the sickle. It superseded the sickle in the 

Rea/itr-Kin't firtn.i'i 




Fig 4206, 

FiK- 4207. 

which they are to be finally cut up. By this means 
the Tuachiiie may be supplied with timber to its full 
working capacity, while, at the same time, cutting 
the shingles or other j)ieces as narrow as desired. 

In the perspective view (Fig. 4208) a is the carriage which 
mov&« under the saw b. The depth of the carriage under the 
blade is such that the latter does not reach the bottom, so that 
the bolt, secured in the saw-carriage and shown by dotted lines, 
will not be cut entirely through at d in the section, c is a tilt- 
ing rest for the bolt, upon which the sap side of the latter, 
generally bevel to the other sides, is placed, and held so that 
the saw kerf will pass down to such a depth as to leave suffi- 
cient wood to hold the portions together, e, core-clamps which 
work upon right and left hand screws /. and are operated by 
the cranky. These serve to hold the bolts securely while be- 

Fig. 4208. 

— i 










Reaper-Knife Sharpener. 

best agricultural counties of Eng- 
land before the reaping-machine ap- 

The Hainault scythe is a reaping- 
hook. See Scythe. 

It is called the scythe-hook in Scot- 
land, and is there credited to tlie 
Irish. The Dutch hook is broad, 
thin, more nearly circular, but does 
not reach into the giaiu so far. Icli- 
abod ! 

Hutton's reaping-liook (English) is 
serrated from the point through half 
its Icngtli only. 

Reap'ing-ma-chine'. {Husband- 
rji.) A machine for cutting grain in 
tiie fii-ld. See Reapeu. 

Rear'ing-bit. {Menage.) A bit having a curved 
mouth-piece, which forms the flattened side of a 
ring, to each side of which are attached driving-rein 
rings, while on the lower side is another ring of the 
same size, into wliich the martingale-straji is buckled, 
to prevent the horse lifting his head when rearing. 

Rea'son-piece. (Bitildiiig.) A timber which 
lies under the beams on the brick or timber in the 
side of a house. X iraU-plnk. li'iising-piccc. 

Reau'mvir Ther-mom'e-ter. One in which the 
space between the freezing and boiling points is di- 
vided into 80°, the former being . See Ther- 

Re'bec. (ifusic.) A Moorish \nolin with three 
.strings tuned in fifths, and played with a bow. 

Re-bit'ing. {Engraving.) A process for deep- 
ening the lines on engraved plates. 

Tlie plate is cleaned perfectly and the surface pol- 
ished. A ground is then carefully made by a dahher, 
covering the face only of the plate and not clogging 
the lines. Tlie parts which do not require rehilimj 
are stopped out. A wall of wax is then laid around 
tlie engraving, the acid solution is poured on, and is 
allowed to remain till the required depth of lines is 
attained. As each portion acquires the required 
depth it is stopped out, and the bUing-in resumed on 
the remaining e.vposed parts. See Gkouxu ; ExcH- 


Re-bolt'ing-ma-chine'. A species of sawing- 
machiue for rebolting large blocks of timber withovit 
quite separating the smaller bolts from each other, so 
that they will hold together, admitting of handling 
or dogging in the shingling or other machine in 


ing cut. A portion of the carriage h is elevated, iu order to 
accommodate pieces which are tfl be divided entirely, as in 
ordinary sawing-machines. 

The track of the carriage is made in two portions, one above 
the other, so tliat the upper part can be vertically adjusted as 
may be required, for saws of dJtTereut sizes, or as the blade 
wears away. 

Re-bound'er. (Firc-artns.) A device in a gim- 
lock for throwing the hammer back from the nipple 
after striking and exploding the cap. 

Fig. 4209. 




This is usually ell'ectcd, as at B, Fig. 4209, by 
leugtheniiig tlie slioitL-r branch a of the inaiii-.sijring 
so that till' arm b of the tumbler shall strike it just 
previous to tlie inijjact of tlie haniiner on the cap, 
caused by the action of the long branch c of the 
main-spring transmitted through the swivel d; the 
effort made by 
the branch c in 
restoring itself, 
after the mo- 
mentary com- 
pression, throws 
back the tumbler 
sufficiently far to 
permit the sear c 
to enter the half- 
cock notch. 

In Dane's pat- 
ent (.■/), used in 
the Parker gun 
(see S)iOT-Gu.\), 
the long branch 
of the m a i n - 
spring is arrest- 
ed by a stop / at 
about the posi- 
tion of half-cock, 
the tumbler be- 
ing carried for- 
ward by its mo- 
mentum until it 
Strikes the cap, 

when the pressure of the sear on the cam-.sliaped ex- 
tension <j throws the tumbler back until the nose of 
the sear enters the half-cock notch, or sufficiently far 
to lift the hannucr clear of the nipple. 

Re-ceiv'er. 1. (Chanistry.) A vessel connect- 
ed with the neck of a retort for receiving the pro- 
ducts evolved therefrom during distillation or cheiu- 
ical reaction. See Alembic ; Co.ndenser ; Still. 

In the laboratory it is frequently made of glass, 
nnd is of globular form, but maj' be of any conven- 
ient shape ; tlie material must, however, be such as 
will not be acted on by the substances to be decom- 
posed or proiluced during the operation. 

2. (Piuuvmiks.) a. Tlie bell-glass on the table 
of an air-iniinp. 

b. The vessel which is adapted to collect the gas 
from the P.veumatic Trough (which see) ; or to 
contain gas for blow-pipes, exhibitions of stereopti- 
cons, oxyhydrogen light, or microscopes. 

Re-ceiv'ing-mag'net. (TcUgmpliy.) An elec- 
tro-magnet through which the current from the line 
wire passes and is inten-sified, in order to actuate the 
sounding or recording mechanism. 

Re-cip'i-an'gle. An in- 
strument («) with two legs 
and a graduated arc, used 
by military engineers for 
measuring and laying otf 
angles of fortifications. The 
legs are attached at one end 
by a double-headed screw, 
which forms the axis. The 
center of the protractor is ap- 
plied at the reentering angle 
of tlie instrument, and its 
grailuated margin .shows the 
angle of divergence of the 

Another form (6) of the re- 

cipianqle, called the pcirnlld- 

ogrnMiiuttic, has two links 

Rrnpmiislts, cpnuecting the legs and meet- 

ing at the center/. The length between the points 
a d and « e is exactly equal to the distances d/ and 
c f, so that when the legs are brought into liue, the 

Fig. 4211. 

Fig. 4210. 


point /coincides with the point a. The center of the 
protractor is exactly over the point/, which also bi- 
sects the angle of the instrument at all adjustiiients. 
The marginal gi'aduation of the protractor permits the 
angle subtended thereby to be read. Tlie protractor 
is hinged at (J, so that it may be lifted and stand 
perpendicular to the plane of the instrument. The 
instrument is adapted for taking salient or reenter- 
ing angles. 

Re-cip'ro-cat'ing-en'gine. (Slcam-nufmc.) 
The common I'oim tif engine, in which the piston 
and piston-rod move back and forth in a .straight 
line, absolutely as in the cut, or relatively to the 
cylinder, as in oscillating-cylinder engines. 

The term is used in contradistinction to Rotary- 
PI.STON Engine I'whieh see), and is a very general 
one, including as it does by far the greater number 
of .steam-i'Ugines. either ilevised or in use. 

Re-cip'ro-cat'ing-pro-pel'ler. One having a 
paddle nliieh has a limited stroke and returns in the 
same ]iath. The proiieller is reciprocated by a hori- 
zontal engine. It is enveloiied at the sides and be- 
fore, so tliat the water does not impinge against its 

Fig. 4212. 


forward side. The propeller is made sufficiently 
buoyant to raise it to position for making the efTec- 
tive stroke. 
Re-clin'ing-chair, One whose back admits of 




being tilted, allowing the occupant to assume an 
inclined or recumbent posture. In the figure, the 
back is hinged near the seat, and a given inclination 
is maintained by the engagement of notches beneath 

Fig. 4213. 

Fig 4215 


Reclining- Chair. 

the arms, with spring teeth on tlie front posts. A 
slide in front forms a foot-rest. Spring cords erect 
the back. See Folt>ixg-chaip, ; Invalid-chaik ; 

Re-coil'-es-cape'ment. A recoil-escapement is 
one in which, after tlie pullets leave the teeth at 
each oscillation of the penduhun, the extremities of 
the teeth slide along the snrlaces of the pallets, and 
thei'eby give an impulse to the pendulum or balance. 
The vertical escapement of a watch is a recoil, and 
the word is used as distingnislied from a dead-beat. 
In the former there is a recoil 
Fig. 4214. of the train, and in tlie latter 

the impinging surfac'cs of the 
pallets are cut to a curve con- 
centric with the axis of vibra- 
•^'y^ ir-\'-'( tion, and during tlie time one 
^/ ■ 1 1 \,'Y °^ ' teeth is against the ])al- 
" ' let the scape-wheel remains per- 

fectly at rest. See Escapement; 

The anchor-e.'icapement A 
■was inviMited by Clement, of i 
London, about 1680. The ! 
anchor is caused to vibrate on 
its axis by the oscillations of 
the pendulum. The teeth of 
the scape-wheel c impinge al- 
ternately against the outer sur- 
face of pallet h and the iimer 
surface of pallet a. As these 
surfaces are not concentric with 
the axis of oscillation, a recoil 
of tlie train ensues, for tlie reason just stateil, that 
as the pallets leave the teeth, the extremities of the 
latter slide along the acting surfai'cs of the pallets, 
and through them transmit a sufficient im]iiilse to 
the pendulum to overcome the loss by friction and 
the resistance of the atmospliere. See also Fig. 193, 
page 97. 

Another clock-escapement B has a pallet-ring sur- 
rounding the scape-wheel c, the pallets a b project- 
ing from its internal periphery and catching alter- 
nately, as the pendulum rod d oscillates, upon teeth 
on opposite sides of the scape-wheel. 

Tlie pallet-ring is suspended by a piece of watch- 
spring c from a stud. 

Re-cord'er. 1. (Music.) A musical instrument 
like a flageolet. 

Recoil Clnctc- Escape- 

" Flutes and soft recorders." 

" To Drumbleby's, and there did tails a great deal about 
pipes ; and did buy a recorder." — Pepvs's Diary, 1668. 

It was used in teaching birds to pipe. 

2. A registering apparatus. See Uegister. 

Re-cord'ing-gage. Generally speaking 
gage provided 
with means for 
leaving a visi- 
ble record of 

That shown 
(Fig. 4215) is 
designed for 
measuring gas 
pressures. The 
two cylinders 
a. b connected 
bya short pipe 
c are partially 
filled with wa- 
ter, a con- 
tains a float a' 

having an up- jBjSgl 
wardly pro- 
jecting rod 
d passing 
through a hole 
in its cover 
and connected 
with a guide- 
rod which car- 
ries a pencil-holder at the end of a flexible spring /, 
liy which the pencil is caused to press against a disk 
of cardboard g, ruled with radial divisions for the 
liours and circular divisions for inches of pressure, 
and rotated by clock-work. Gas being admitted to 
the upper part of the cylinder b,s the water 
therein, and causes a ditierence of level in the two 
cylinders which varies as the gaseous pressure fluctu- 
ates, its amount being registered by the line traced 
by the pencil on the cardboard, wliich is renewed at 
intervals of twelve hours. See also SrBED-RECoitDEK. 
Edson's recording-gage (Fig. 4216) has several air 
and steam tight connected drums made of thin elas- 
tic metal ; these, on being expanded by the influx 
of steam, raise a rod attached to tlie upjier drum, 
wliich operates a segment-rack connected by gearing 
with a horizontal rack and a pawl, causing a partial 
slight rotation of the drum a, which consenuently 
draws forward the paper previously wound upon the 
roll b, on to itself. The expansion or contraction of 
the connected drums also raises or depresses the arm 

Fig. 4216. 

Recorftin^- Gage /or Gas. 

llecortlia^ Steam- Gai:' 




c, carrying a pencil or tracer at its lower extremity, 
making vertical or iliagonal lines on the jiaper, which 
is ruled with horizontal lines indicating pounds, as 
the steaTn-pressure varies. The rolls may also be 
rotated by connection with the engine, affording a 
more continuous record. A graduated an; and pointer 
are attached, to more conveniently show the pressure 
at the moment ; and a hammer and bell or other de- 
vice may also be connected to sound an alarm when the 
pressure exceeds a given amount. See Steam-g.vge. 

Re-cord'ing-tel'e-graph. A telegraph provided 
with an aiiparatus which makes a record of the mes- 
sage transmitted, as the symbol telegraphs of Morse 
and Bain, and the type-printing telegraphs of House 
and Hughes, in contradistinctioa to the indicator- tele- 
graph of Cooke and Wheatstone, which has a point- 
ing needle or needle-s, and the audible one of Sir 
Charles Bright, which sounds upon bells, and the 
Morse as at present generally used, which is read by 
the sounds. See List under TEi,EGr..A.PH. 

Rec'ti-fi-ca'tion. Redistillation or resublima- 
tion to free a substance from impurities or from 

Rec'ti-fi'er. 1. A second still for redistilling 
spirits, or a second chamber connected to the main 
or primary still. lu the rectifier, the low wines are 
redistilled to concentrate them; or high irincs are 
farther concentrated and purihed to form alcohol. 

In some cases, flavoring matters, such as oil of 
juniper, to form gin, are yilaced with the low wines 
for redistillation ; or the flavor is added iu the form 
of vapor. 

In Fig. 4217, the tub has three cliambers and 
mc^ans for heating the sinjUnf/s before charging the 
lower chambers, so as not to check the continuous 

Rectijier for Spirits. 

process of evaporation incident to the use of a single- 
chambered vessel. The upper chamber receives the 
low wines, and they are heated by the steam in the 
midille chamber. The chambers are charged succes- 
sively from the upper one, and provision is made for 
avoiding collapse and for carrying off vapor. 

2. {Xaiitical.) An instrument for determining 
the variation of the compass on board .ship. It con- 
sists of two circles, either laid upon or let into each 
other, and so fastened together in their centers 
that they represent two compasses, the one fixed, the 
other movable ; each is divided into 32 ])oints of tin 
compass and 360°, and, numbered both ways from tli- 
north anil the south, end at the east and west in 3(i , 
The lixed compass represents the horizon, in which 
the north and all the other points are liable to vari- 
ation. — ADMin.\L Smyth. 

Re-dan'. (Fortification.) A work having two 

faces forming a salient F'g- 4218. 

angle in the direction 

from which an attack 

may be expected ; it is 

open at the gorge. Redans. 

A double, redan (6), 
or bonnet de])r&re, has a reentering angle for mutual 

The redan is the simplest field-work, and is used 
for defending the avenues of approach to a village, 
briiige, or defile. 

In front of another field-work, it is called afliche. 

\<\\<i\\ flanks are adde<l to the faces, the work be- 
comes a delaehcd busHon or lunette. 

Red Brass. An alloy containing 8 paits copper 
and 3 zinc. 

Red Brick-dust, {foundry.) Used as part- 
iiifi-wind (wliich see). 

Re-doubt'. (Fortification.) n. A detached field- 
work inclosed by a pai'apet, the salient points of 
which are but imperfectly or not at all jirotected 
by a flank fire. It may be square, star-shaped, or 
irregular in plan, according to the reipiirements of 
its site and .sunoundings. 

b. An interior work within the main line of ram- 
parts, as the redoubt of the rarcHn, redovht in the 
plnees-of-arms. See R.WEI.IN. 

These are designed as jilaces of assemblage in 
offensive exterior operations, or for retreat in case of 
a repulse. 

Red-short I'ron. Iron which is diflicult to 
weld and is brittle when heated is said to be red- 
short or hot-short. This defect is due to the presence 
of sulphur. 

Red-staff. (Milling.) A straight-edge em- 
ployed to detect irregularities in tlie i'aee of a mill- 
stone. The edge is reddened with ocher, and colors 
prominent irregularities on the face of the stone. 

Red-stuff. A trade term for the oxidesof iron used 
in grinding and polishing, such as crocus and rouge. 

Red Tom'bac. An alloy containing 11 parts 
co]iper and 1 zinc. 

Re-duc'ing-fur'nace. (^frtallurgy.) A funiaee 
in which ores are deprived of their oxygen and re- 
duced to the metallic state by the action of intensely 
heated vapors containing carbon, sometimes assisted 
by other reagents. 

It is generally of the veverberatory kind, and is 
used iu the reduction of litharge, the treatment of 
copper ore in several stages, and for obtaining the 
precious metals. See Blast-furnace ; Revekrer- 
.\Tor.Y-Fur.XACE ; S.melting-turxace ; and others 
cited in the lists under WETAi.i.rnGY and Furnace. 

Sieinen's furnace lias two parallel .=ides sloping downward, 
so as to form a kind of tronj^h between them. Tlie ore is 
charged at both sides on the top of the furnace- and slides 
down the inclined planes of the two sloping sides. At the bot- 
tom of the furnace the gn.'^es from the producer and the neces- 
sary supply of air are admitted, and produce an intense flan e, 
the products i f eomhiistion rising upward through the mas-^es 
of ore, which are acted upon in a similar manner to that in the 
blast furnace. 

Maunton's furnace (Fig. 4219) has regenerators i) D and 

Fig. 4219. 

Redurnti;- Fitrnacf Jor Orei. 




fuel-chambers E Eon each side of the reduciug-chamber F, 
which is charged with finely comminuted oiv. The hot-air 
blast is caused to pass into the red uci n ■; -chamber i^nlteraately 
from the regeaerators D D throut,'U opeuings b at its base. 

lu Ott's furnace for reducing the precious metals (Fig. 4220), 
the ore, having previously been separated from a portion of its 
impurities, may be mixed with two to four percent of sodium, 
potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, or with their 
hypochlorites. The ore, dry or with water, is introduced through 
the funnel M. In the upper oven the ore is heated. In the sec- 
ond oven D, where sulphur is eliminated, the steam and hot air 
are ityected, and most of the sulphur is carried off. In the 
lower oven Cit is farther heated and treated with hydro-car- 
bonaceous vapors from the furnace to decompose the sulphates. 
The volatile metals passing off from this chamber are condensed 

Fig. 4220. 

j The second is for the Holland reed, being i ^^ part of 40 inches. 
The third is i -^ part of 37 inches, and is adapted to the 
Scotch reed, so called by L"re, as being the regulation reed of 
that country. 
I The fourth is i sm of 34 inches, and is adapted for the French 
j Two warp-threads count for 1 split. 

2. {Miotic.) a. Formerly, an instrument made 
from a reed with lioles to be stopped by the fingers. 
b. A vibrating musical tongue of wood or metal 
(formerly made from a rccd). 

It is used in wind-instru- Fig- 4221. 
nients of two classes. . 



— '''^It^Si 

Ott's R^ I ucin^- Furnace for Ores. 

in the shower-bath of the diving-flue. Hyponitrous-acid gas 
or oxygen may l>e introduced iato the furnace. If the ore be 
auriferous it i.s placed in tiie tanks b 6, dampened with steam, 
and saturated with chlorine, after which it is treated in th« 
centrifugal machine. If the ore be argentiferous it is brought 
from the furnace immediately to the centrifugil machine and 
treated with hot water returned several times over and over tlij 
same ore, and the liquid requiting from that treatment is 
pumped up from the loiver tank to the upper tank, and from 
thence t'alli^ in a fine shower do^vn the diving-flue, where the 
sulphureted hydrogen produced in the furnace precipitates the 
silver in form of sulphite. This i.-t rei>e.Lted several times. The 
sulphite is melted w^ith iron, producing sulphuret of iron and 

Re-duc'tion-com'pas3-es, Proportional di- 
viders or who'c-aud-hii7/ dividers. 

Reed. 1. {JVcavimj.) Called also the shy or 
slay. An appurtenance of the loom, consi.^ting of 
two parallel bars set a few inches apart and furnished 
with a number of parallel slips of metal or reed, 
called dciits, between which the warp-threads are 
passed. The lengths of reeds are estimated in quar- 
ters of a yard, as 5-, |, 4 ^, etc., and, if necessary, 
by a smaller fractional denominator, as h I. or \h 
\h etc. 

In Scotland they are estimated thus : — 

2I.> splits 1 porter. 

.5 porters 1 hundred. 

In other parts of Britain the estimate is hy the number of 
splits or dents in 2\k inches, or in 1 inch. 

Tlie reed is set in a .swinging; frame, called the 
lathe, lay, or bnltcn. In the hand-lathe, the bottom 
of the batten is furnished with a shelf, called the 
shulflc-race, along which the shuttle is driven. 

The office of the reed is to beat the ur/t up to the 
web, and the force of the blow determines the com- 
pactness of the fabric. Two threads of yarn pa-ss 
between each of the rccd-spl ilx or dents. 

The number of dents in a reed of a given length 
determines the fineness of the cloth. 

One form of linen-prover has 4 perforations to adapt it to the 
varying modes of estimating. The number of threads visible in 
this perforation ascertains the number of threads in the stand- 
ard measure of the rfed. 

The first is i of an inch in diameter, and is intended to ascer- 
tain the number of threads per inch. j 


1. The oboe, clarinet, 

2. The accordeoii, conccr- 
parlor-organ, and that vari- 
ety of pipe in the large 
organ known as the reed- 
pipe, in contradistinction 
to the flvle or mouth pipe. 
Sec Okg.\n-pipe. 

Some reeds batter against 
the seat and some are free. 

3. (Minintj.) The tube 
conveying the train to the 
charge in the blast-hole. 

Also called the spire. 

4. (Ornamentation.) a. Semi-cylindrical ridges, 
closely aiTanged in parallel order and designed for 

b. A succession of beads on an object. 

Reed'ing. This temi is apjilicd (technically) to 
the niirling on the edge of coins. It was originally 
]ilaccd upon coin to prevent it being filed away or 
clipped. It is done at the same time that the im- 
pression is given to the obverse and reverse faces of 
the coin, the collar which holds the blank being 
fluted or indented on its inner perijiheiy for that 
purpose. The pres.sure on the dies expands the 
metal into the imlentations of the collar, giving the 
reeded or Qrenated Ibrm to the edge. 

It is sometimes called milUnr/, but that term is 
also applied to the swaging pressure by which the 
edge is expanded and a flange raise^l, which protects 
the faces of the coin and enables them to be built 
into a pile. 

Reed-or'gan. (Mnsie.) A melodeon, or parlor- 

An organ whose pipes are provided with reed.t, in 
contradistinction to the flute or mouth organ, whose 
pipes have a lip to cut the wind escaping through 
an aperture in a diaphragm. See Fn'TE-or.c.^x. 

The reed-pipes consist of a foot to carry the wind 
to the reed, a thin tongue of hard brass, whose ex- 
tremity is fitted into a niolil by a wooden jdug. Its 
free extremity is vibrated by the force of the wind, 
and gives a sound of a pitch firoportioned to the 
length, tliickness, and elasticity of the tongue. 

The wind from the reed traverses a long pipe, 
which gives character and quality to the sound. 
Both classes of pipes are employed in large or- 

Reed-pipe. {Mnsie.) An organ-pipe in which 
the musical tone is produced by the vibration of a 
metallic tongue. 

In some reed-pipes the tongue is made to batter against its 
seat as in the clarinet ; in others the tongue plays in the open- 
ing of the reed. The/ree-reedhas been used in China from time 




immemorial, but was iatroduced into Europe bj M. Grenie id 


The reed or tube has a longrttudinal, narrow opening in front, 
covered by the toii^w^ whicli is tiruily fixed to the reed at its 
.upper end, but plays freely at the lower end, where it is some- 
what bentaway from theV«(f/. A turning wirf presses against 
the tongue so as to regulate the length of the portion sub- 
ject to vibration. The reed terminates below in a cone, into 
which the air is driven. The shape of the tube above the cone 
is viried so as to obtain the required quality of tone, while the 
pitch depends upon the length, thickness, and elasticity of the 
tongue. A given number of vibnitions per .second are neces- 
sary to the production of a certain note; the slower the vibra- 
tions, the graver tlie tone, and conversely. See Pipe. 

The free-reed, instead of beating on the edges of the opening, 
plays back and forth in the slot. 

Reed-plane. (Joincrij.) A concave-soled plane 
lisnl in making beads. 

Reed-stop. (Music.) A set of pipes furnished 
nitli reeds, and associated with tlie./iitte-stops of an 
organ, to give a variety to the etl'ects. 

Reef. {Xauliail.) a. Tlie ])ortion of a square 
sail lietwecn the head of a sail and any of the reef- 
bands. On the lablings of tlie leech of the sail arc 
earings and cringles, to which the rccf-taekle is se- 
cured. The reef is tied up by reef-points, tlie knot 
being a reef-knot. The first reef in a square sail is 
included between the head and the upper reef- band ; 
the seeo7id reef between this and the next lower reet- 
iKind, and so on. 

Fore-and-aft sails are reefed from the foot, the 
first reef being tlie lowest. The uppermost, called a 
balance reef, extemls iliagonally upward from the 
outer leech when close-reefed ; that is, when all the 
reefs are taken in, the area of the sail exposed to 
the wind is reduced about one half. 

The object of the reef is to diminish the surface of 
the sail when the wind is blowing hard. 

In the ordinary process of reefing square sails, the seamen 
a-scend the rigging and [ai/ out on the yard, standing on the 
horses or foot-rope-i while they gather in and secure the hauled- 
up portion of the sail. -Many attempts have been made to avoid 
the neces.sity for this difficult and dimgerous operation, which is 
a fruitful source of accident. The first, we believe, was by 
Captain Forbes, of Boston. 

In IngersoU's apparatus two rolling spars a a are joumaled 
beneath and connected with the yard C. These are rotated by 
parbuckles b b operated from the deck ; the sail is wound around 

Fig 4222. 

Hee/in§- Gear. 

them to Any desired extent, and prevented from unrolling by 
ratchets and pawls at their ends. 

■ h. The bowsprit of a cutter or that of a ship-of-war 
with a ram-bow is said to rfc/when it is run-in or 
shorteneil by sliding' in -lioard. 

c. Reefing the paddles in steamships is efTected hy 
di^.connecting the float-boards from the paddle-arms, 
and bolting them again nearer the center of the 
wheel, to diminish the dip when the vessel is deep. 

Reef-band. (Nautical.) A strong horizontal 
stri)) of canvas extending across a sail at right angles 
to the lengths of cloth. 

In square-rigged vessels there are four of these 
bands to the topsails, from three to six feet apart, 
according to the size of the sail, and two banils to 
the foresail and mainsail. Fore-and-aft .sails have 
also a band extending diagonally upward from the 
outer leecli, for balance-reeling. 

Each band is pierced with holes for the reef-points, 
by which it is tied to the yard in .shortening sail. 

Reef-knot (Xautical.) A knot formed by 
passing the ends of the two parts of one rope through 
the loop formed by another whose two ends are simi- 
larly passed through a loop on the tiist ; the two 
parts of one rope are pa.ssed above, and of the other 
below the loop through whiih they are inserted. A 
longitudinal pull tightens the knot, which can only 
be untied by pushing the loops in opposite directions. 
Called also sqiiare-hwt, flat-hitch. 
When one end of one rope is passed above and 
the otlii-r below the loop it forms a granny' s-knot. 

Reef-line. (Xautical.) A line sometimes (sel- 
dom) used in reeling. It passes spirally around tlie 
yard, and through the eyelets in the reef-band suc- 
cessively, so as to draw the latter up to the yard 
when the line is hauled upon. 

Reef-pen'dant. (Xautical.) A tackle by which 
the after leech of a fore-and-aft sail is drawn down 
to the boom in reeling. 

Reef-point. (Xautical.) One of the flat pieces 
of braided cord attached by eyelets to the reef-band 
of a sail, and serving to diminish its area. 

The reef-band has usually two holes in each width 
of cloth, and the ^jOTJite taper toward each end. The 
small end of each is passed through an eye in the 
large end of the other, and being rove througli the 
eyelets in the recf-haiid, one hangs down before and 
tile other abaft the sail. 

Reef-tack'le. (Xautical.) A tackle by which 
the reef-cringles on the leeches of a sail are drawn 
up to the yard for reeling. 

Reel. A revolving device on 
which tiller, thread, cord, rope, 
fabric, etc., are wound, to ibmi 
them into hanks or skeins, and 
for various other purjioses. 

1. (Cotton -ineichincri/.) A 
machine on which cotton is 
wound, making hanks each hav- 
ing S40yards inlengthof thread. 
The circumference of the reel 
is 4i feet ; when it has per- 
fornjed 80 revolutions a lay is 
formed, measuring 120 yards, 
<t - and 7 of these lays make up 
a hank. 

The hank -yarn is specially designed for 

2. (Silk.) The revolving frame on which 
silk is wound fiom the cocoons, or yarn is 
wound off from the spindle of a hand-spin- 
ning machine, and reeled into cuts or hanks. 

3. (Hope-making.) Spun yarns are wound 
on a reel preparatory to tarring or laying 

up into strands as the twisting of each length is 
completed. See Ropf. 

4. (Xautical.) A revolving frame to hold a line 
or cord, as, — 

. a. Tlie log-reel or spool for the log-line. See Log. 
■ b. The deep-sea reel for the deep-sea lead-line of 
150 or 200 fathoms. See SoUNDlSG. 
c. The spun-yam reel, etc. 

5. (Angling.) A skeleton barrel attached to the 




Fig. 4223. 

Reel for Cotton Yams. 

butt of an angler's rod, around which the inner end 
of the line is wound, and fioni which it is payed out 
as the fish runs off with the bait, and is gradually 
wound in again as his struggles become less violent, 
bringing him to land or to the landing-net. A fish- 

The reel represented in the accompanying figure 
is from an ancient painting 
Fig. 4224. at Beni-Hassan, and was 

iUscd for winding the cord 
by which the fish-spear or 
bident was recovered after 
tlirowing. In its construc- 
tion it was merely a stirrup- 
shaped piece of metal, and 
a turning pin on which the 
cord was wound. 

6. (Telegraphy.) A bar- 
rel on which the strip of pa- 
per for receiving the message is wound in a recording 

7. (Oven.) A cylinder with radial arms rotating 
in a heated chamber carrying pans in which loaves 
of bread are placed for baking in the reel-oven. See 

8. (Milling.) The barrel or drum on which the 
bolting cloth is fastened. 

Fig. 4225 

Egyptian Cord-Reel. 


9. (Agriculture.) A device having radial arms 
carrying horizontal slats, and rotated by gear or pul- 
ley connection with the axle of a harvester, tor press- 
ing backward and holding the stalks of grain ill 
position for being severed by the knives. 

The example shows the reel and the dropper. See 
Reafek, Plates XLIX., L. 

Reel'lng-ma-chine'. (Cotton-manufcKture.) a. 
A machine for winding the yam ofl' the bobbins of 
the spinning or twisting frames, and foiming it 
into hanks or skeins. Fig. 4223. 

b. A machine for winding thread on to reels or 
spools. See Spooling-machine ; Silk-reel. 

Reel-ov'en. A baker's oven in which the bread- 
paus are swung on the horizontal arms of a rotating 

The reel has a horizontal axis, which is rotated by 
gearing on the outside. To each arm of the reel — 
the number of the arms varying with the capacity of 
the oven — is a pendulous shelf or bread-pan. These 
at one part of their revolution are presented at an 
opening, through which the unbaked loaves are in- 
troduced, and thence pass dowmward toward the 
arch of tlie furnace. As each pan comes opposite to 
the oiiening it receives its loail, and by the time all 
are filled the first one is again at the ojiening, the 
loaves baked and ready tn be removed, clearing the 
pan for another batch. The baking is thus a con- 
tinuous operation, the time of rotation of the reel 
being adapted to the completion of the process. In 
a later invention the pans, instead of being pendu- 
lous, are placed above the reel-arms, and the latter 
are preserved in horizontal yiosition by pendulous 
weights beneath. See Oven (Fig. ,3444, page 1583). 
Reem'ing. (Shipbuilding.) 0])ening the seams 
between planks for the insertion of new oakum. 

The tool is a reeming-iron struck by a recming- 

Reem'ing-bee'tle. (Skiphui'ding.) The larger 
mallet of the calker by which he drives the reeming- 

Reem'ing-i'ron. (Sliipbuildin^.) A sharp iron 
wedge used by calkers to force the planks apart tem- 
porarily, to admit the oakum. 

Re-en'ter-ing. 1. (Calico-printing.) A term in 
the hand-block calico-printing applied to the secon- 
dary and subsequent colors, which are adapted to 
their proper place in the pattern on the cloth by 
means of pin-points. These are the equivalents of 
the register-points of the chromo-lithogia]ihic pro- 
cess or the typographic printing in colore. Also 
known as grounding-in. 

2. (Engraving.) The deepening of lines by a 
graver, either in repairing a plate or for perfecting 
an etching. 

Re-en'ter-ing-an'gle. (Fortification, etc.) An 
angle pointing inward (a), as in a re- 
doubt, or at the junction of theyfaiiA"* 
of a bastion with the curtain. 

Re-fin'er-y. An • 
apparatus for reinov- 
ing impurities or 
crudities from met- 
als, spirits, ]ietr()le- 
um, sugar, and what 

The term is a gen- 
eral one, and with 
metals may include rcducing-fni- 
naces of various kimls. Also roast- 
ing, decarbonising, and desulphur- 
izing furnaces, Bessemer jn-occsses, 
etc. (which .see). See also Max- 
LEABLE Iron, page 1378. 

Fig. 4226. 






VVitU li(|Uois, the term includes apparatus and 
mafhiiiery for rectifyinf; and ageing liquors. 

With petroleum, it includes apparatus for remov- 
ing the various crudities which are in the raw pro- 

Re-fin'ing. The pi-ocess of freeing metals, liquids, 
or otiier substances from impurities or crudities 
which iinpair their quality or unht them for their 
appropriate uses. 

1. Li([uids are, in some cases, refined by adding 
soluble substances which entangle the foreign mat- 
ters, and sink to the bottom, as with wine and cider. 
This is termed fining. In other cases, the refining 
is by chemicals which combine with the impurities 
and form a precipitate. 

Sometimes standing a length of time suffices to 
ell'ect the separation, the supernatant liquid being 

2. Saltpeter is refined by dissolving it in hot wa- 
ter until the water is saturated with salt. On cool- 
ing, the salt la deposited in a comparatively pure 

3. Vinegar is refined by passing it through a filter 
to separate the mucilaginous matter. See R.\rK. 

4. Alcoholic spirits ami liquids generally are re- 
fined by successive distillations. (See Rectifica- 
tion ; Still.) The same process is applicable to 
mercury, sulphur, and other substances, which may 
be volatilized at a high temperature and afterward 

Tu one form of app:ir.atu.^ for refining and ageing liquors air 
from a blower Cis lieated in a coil Hcommunicatiig witii the 
pipe F, which has t'.vobranche-^cf extending do.vnward through 
H di^k near the bottom of the tuba A B. The liquor in the tub 
B i^ first heated to the temperature of 90°. and agitated by air 
pa'fsing from the coil H through the pipes F c, and rising from 
beneath the disk '/, the cock k is closed and k opened, and cool 
air forced in through the pipe F These processes are continued 
for the space of about a month, or until the desired result is 

Fig. 4227. 

See Parting ; 

Lif/uor-Agein^ Apparatus. 

attained. The air and alcoholic vapors pass over from B to A 
through the condensing-pipe /in the water-chamber Z), the air 
being discharged from A through an aperture above. 

5. Petroleum is refined by treatment with sul- 
phuric acid and by distillation. 

6. The process of cupellation (see Cupel) is largely 
employed for refining silver. In this, lead, already 
in combination with or added to the silver, is oxi- 
dized by heat and absorbed in a )iorous cup, taking 
with it most of the other impurities which ai'e not 
previnuslv expelled by the heat. 

7. Gold is refined by cupellation and by parting. 

I that is, dissolving in nitric acid. 
j Gold. 

8. Iron is refined in the furnace and by puddHiig. 
I See Ikon ; Rkfining-fuknace ; Puddling ; Biis- 


Re-fin'ing-fur'nace. (Mdallurgii.) The fur- 
nace in whicli metals undergo a ju'ocess of puriHca- 
tiou and separation from the impurities with wbieh 
they are usually contaminated, and are rendered fit 
for use in the arts. In some eases the metal is re- 
duced from the ore and refined by one continuous 
operation ; in others, two or more are required. 

The art of refining gold, silver, iron, tin, and cop- 
per wad practiced previous to times of which we liave 
any authentic history, implements of bronze and 
co)iper and ornaments of the precious metals being 
found among other relics of the prehistoric age, 
both in the Old and New Worlds. 

In ancient times, the precious metals were refined 
by successive reheatiiigs. 

" Silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times." — 
Psalm xii. 6. 

" They gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin. 
into the midst of the furnace to blow the fire upon it, to melt 
it.'' — Ezekiel xxii. 20. 

From the former of these passages we may infer that a high 
degree of purity was attained by seven successive refinings. 
Purifying tlie precious metals and then reducing their standard 
by means of alloj ing does not appear to have been generally 
practiced, and is not to this day in the East. 

At Freiburg, Saxony, silver amalgamated by the barrel pro- 
cess is, after distillation, refined in crucibles, previously brought 
to a red heat. The silver is gradually introduced in lumps, iinil 
when fused strewn with powdered charcoal, and the cruiilde 
covered with an iron plate. Alter the lapse of a few minutes 
the impurities which had risen to the surface, together with 
tlie unconsumed charcoal, are skimmed off, more charcoal 
added, and the process repeated, occa.sionally stirring the molt- 
en metal, until its surface becomes bright and clean. When 
the process is complete, the silver should be malleable and dis- 
solve completely in nitric acid. It is afterward cast into hemi- 
spherical ingots. The dust from the furnace flues is, after being 
sifled, mixed with and treated as orriinnry -silver ore. The slugs 
and sweepings from the various melting operations are crushed 
and afterward fused with carbonate of soda and niter, by which 
means the silver is obtiiined in the metallic state. 

At Constante, Spain, the porous silver obtained from the dis- 
tillation of amalgam is melted in a species of cupola called a 

If pure, a loss of silver is entailed by exposing it to the action 
of a powerful blast; but if, as is generally the, the metal is 
contitminated by impurities, such as lead, sulphur, antimony, 
and iron, which impair its malleability, their removal is readily 
effected by this apparatus. 

Fig. 4228 is a section of a furnace for re- 
fining metals in pots. It is 
lined with the most refractory 
fire-brick, and has an ojiening 
of some 12 or 15 inches diame- 
ter, protected by a cover at top, 
through which the crucibles are 
introduced and the ojieration 
attendeil to. The grate-bars 
are removable, and, when re- 
quired, an artificial is in- 
troduced beneath them by pipes. 
The operation of refining 
cast-iron consists in exposing it Hrfining-Fur. 
to heat and agents by which nnce. 
' the carbon, silicon, and other extrane- 
ous matters are oxidized and removed. The pig-iron 
is either subjected tn a lU'eliminary purification in a 
rcfining-furiiacc or on a hearth, and the operation 
completed in a pudd/ing-furnnce (the English meth- 
od), or it is efi'ected in one operation in a puddling- 
furnace by an operation termed boiling (the Ameri- 
can method). See Puddling. 

When the operation is an intermediate one, the 
partially refined metal is run from the hearth into a 
bed, quenched with water, and In-oken with sledges 

Fig. 4228. 

to enable it to be handled into the puddling-furnace. 




The bed of the rcfining-furnace is small, and the 
hollow boshes are of cast-iron, through which water 
fiows, to resist the influence of the tire upon tlie 
sides of the chamber. Blasts of air are admitted 
through tuyeres, and the process consists in expos- 
ing the molten iron to the oxygen of tlie air, so as 
to burn away a part of the carbon and also remove 
certain noxious matters with which the iron is com- 
bined. The iron is then run into molds. 

Lewises refining re Terbera to ry -furnace is thus worked. The 
fire of pitcoal is m;iiie on the grate bars, and when a melting 
heat i3 attained, the door of the iron-chamber is opened, and the 
basin occupying the middle of the Hoor is covered with a bushel 
of charcoal laid over a stratum of silicious sand, previously in- 
troJuced A bushel of hammer or forgp cinder and then a ton 
of pig-metal is laid around the basin, which is about 10 inches 
deep, a space being left between the pigs so as to allow full ac- 
cess to the fiauie. The door of the iron-chamber is closed, and 
the fire pushed until the iron is about to melt. The iron is 
then dragged by a rabble into the basin, and the moIt*;n surface 
covered with a bushel of charcoil The fire is kept up and the 
metal frequently stirred. When the decarbonization has pro- 
ceeded to a suflicieat degree, the metil is run oEf. 

Tne consumption is said to be 15 to 18 bushels of pitcoal, 2 
bushels of charcoal, making a ton of refined from 22 cwt. of pig 

The fluid iron from the blast-furnace is sometimes transferred 
direct to the refinery, thus saving the time and fuel required 
fur remelting the pig-metal. 

Variou-i fluxes have been patented or proposed for assistiog 
the process. 

UtaiptjD, lSo6. slakes quicklime with a solution of alkali or 
alkili.'ie salt. Du Motayand Fontaine use scoriae from the 
puJdiing-furnace, oxides of iron and alkaline silicates or car- 
bon ite* ; Sanderson, 1855, uses substances containing oxygen or 
other element, by woicb silicium, aluminium, etc., arc removed. 
Black well proposed remelting in a cupola furnace alone, or with 
the ad Ution of substances containing nearly pure iron oxides. 

N-ismyth and others have employed steim piSi^ed throng i or 
caused to impinge upon the molten metal in astateof ebullitioD. 

Bessemer, in 1855, patented a process of this kind. 

In Martin's furnace (French), pig-iron is fused and 
maintained at a temperature of 1,600" to 2,000"^ C. 
on the hearth 1) of a reverberatoiy-furnace having a 

Fig. 4229. 

In Eck's furnace (German), coal gas is used. A quantity of 

coal is iatroduced into the generator o through an opening in 
the bottom, and wiien this nas be^-omc fully ignited the open- 
ing is bricked up and the generator filled with coal from above; 
a moderate supply of air to support combustion is allowed to 
enter through the lower tuyeres b. When the refining-hearth c 
ixjA become thoroughly dried and heated, about 40 cwt- of iron 

Fig. 4230. 

Margin'* Re/inin§-Furnare. 

covering of refra>:tory sand and heated by means of 
a Siemens regenerator G G. Ore, or puddled steel, 
or old iron in small jneces, is thrown in, and raan- 
ganiftTOUS iron afterward added. 

At some of the Pittsburg iron-work."! the metal is refined by 
mechanically mingling pulverized oxides of iron with the molten 
crude metal direct from the blast-furnace. This i^ run from 
the furnace into a large kettle, and thence poured into a re 
Tolving circuUr trouch. Pulverizi'd ore from a hopper descends 
and covers t'le melted metal as fast as it runs into the trough, 
whose continuous rotation causes the formation of alternate 
thin lasers ot the crude metal and ore which combine to form 
malleable iron Lake Superior, Champlain, or Iron Mountain 
ore is employed 

Chlorine, hydrogen, and coal gas. the oxides pf manganese 
and zinc, etc. , have al£o been employed. 

Gas Reverberator y- Fu mnce . 

is distributed over the hearth, so as to expose a» much surface 
as possible to the action of the flame. The fu>ion of the ch.':rge 
is effected in about three hours, the gas genenttor being always 
kept filled and the supply of air from the lower tu\eres din in- 
ished after each introduction of fresh coal, as the latter yif'.ds 
its gas more freely at first. 

Air introduced through the upper tuyeres*/ effects the com- 
bustion of the gas as it pa.«Fes from the generator on to the 
hearth. During the progress of fusion the metal is shifted, yo 
that each p:irt may in turn become exposed to the hottest pnr- 
tion of the blast, in the vicinity of the fire bridge. 

\\'hen all the iron is (Used, about five pounds of limcstoreare 
thrown over its surface, in order to convert the dross into fu- 
sible slag 

The blast from two ride tuyeres is now directed upon the 
fused metal, blowing aside the slag and creating currents in the 
mass, so that a fresh surface is continually exposed ; the opera- 
tion is assisted by stirring with an iron rod, and fresh limestone 
occasionally added, the total amount used being about 1 jcr 
cent of the crude metal. 

The iron is withdrawn through a tap-bole at the side of the 
furnace, the opposite tu\ere being employed to aid in forcirg it 
cut. The duration of the treatn.ent after fusion varies from 
2i to 5 hours, the latter time being required to produce pure 
white iron. 

Re-fin'ing-hearth. The copper-refining hearth 
has a hemispheiical crucible of about 16 inches 
diameter, and lined with a 
puddle of 2 parts charcoal, 1 Fig. 4231. 

part clay. It is paiily sur- 
rounded by a raised border, 
the o])en portion of whicli lias 
a door to prevent the escape ^ 
of the fuel. The lining is re- *"~ 
newed before each operation, _^^_^^___ 
and is burnt on by a fire ig- "^per-R^Jimng Hearth, 
nited m the crucible before 

charging with the fresh charcoal and pieces of black 
cojipcr. The blast being let on and tlie copper fused, 
metal and fuel are added fiom time to time, the 
scorise being let ofl'by a side-channel. 

Sulphurous acid escapes and other volatile in- 
gredients, if present. AVhen the operation is com- 
plete the workman stops the blast, throws water on 
the hearth, rakes back the scorire with his ralhJe^ 
and throws water on the metal, which congeals a 
thick film on the surface ; this is of a red color, and 
is known as a rosctU^ the metal l>eing rosc-ccppcr^ 
and obtained by successive quenching and removal 
of the rnscttcs. 

A farther refining, to reduce the .suboxide of cop- 
per and obtain malleable metnl, is conducted in a 
cruoiblp covered with small charcoal and placed in 
a hearth similar to the foi-egoing. 




Re-flect'ing-cir'ole. (OptU-ji.) An instrument 
for measuring altitudes and angular distances, in- 
vented by Mayer about 174-1, and afterward imjiroved 
by Borda and Trougliton. 

In principle and construction it is similar to the 
Sextant (.which see), the graduations, however, 
being continued completely round the limb ot" the 
circle. Troughtou's has three arms radiating from 
the center at angular distances of 120° apart, each 
])rovided with a vernier, so that each angle measured 
is ilerived from the mean of three readings at oppo- 
sit • i» liuts of the arc, which tends to correct errors 
of ■»: -linn and gradu^ition. See Repeating-cikcle. 

iie-flect'ing-gal'va-nom'e-ter. Sir William 
Thomson's rellecting-galvanometer consists of a very 
small magnet, made of a piece of watch-spring, sus- 
pended between two llat bobbins of fine insulated 
copper wire. The magnet cairies a very small con- 

Fig 4232, 

Thomson's Receding- Oalvanometer. 

cave mirror, which is adjusted by means of a direct- 
ing-magnet to throw the rays of light issuing from a 
lamp and reliected from the mirror upon the zero of 
a horizontal graduateil scale when no current is pass- 
ing or when two equal and opposite currents neutral- 
ize each other. In any other case the vibrations of 
the magnet cause the image to be ileflected to the 
right or left of zero by an amount proportional to the 
force and duration of the current. 

The figure shows the instrument employed in de- 
termining resistances in connection with Wheat- 
stone's hriijjr. 

Re-flect'iag-lev'el. The reflecting-level repre- 
sentsthe object as reflected upon a long surface of 
water in an inverted position. Invented by Mariotti. 

Another kind consists of a polished metallic mirror, 
placed at a small distance before the object-glass of 
a telescope, suspended perpendicularly. This mirror 
being set at an angle of 45', the perpendicular line of 
the telescope will become a horizontal line, that is, 
a line of level. Invented by Cassini. See LEVEf.. 

Re-flect'ing-mi'cro-scope. A form of micro- 
scope first proposed by Newton, in which the image 
formed by a small concave speculum may be viewed 
either by the naked eye or through an eye-piece. 
Owing to the difficulty of illuminating the object, it 
was long disused, but has been revived bv Professor 
Amici, who places the object out.sicle of the tube of 
the microscope, and reflects its image to the specu- 
lum by means of a plane mirror, inclined at an angle 
of 4.=;' to the axis of the former. 

Re-flect'ing-tel'e-scope. A telescope in which 
the rays are received ujion an ohject-mirror and con- 
veyed to a focus, at which the image is viewed by an 

There are four principal varieties : — 

Rfjiecttn^- TetfScoprs. 

A Gregorian. 
B CufsegraJDian. 

C \ewtoniin. 
D Uerscheliaa. 

The Gregorian telescope (A, Fig. 4233) was invent- 
ed by Gregory, and described by him in his Optica 
Pruynotti, 1063. 

The object-mirror is f'R 4'.3.3 

perforated in the axis, 
and the rays of light, 
being refiecteil from the 
surface of a, cross eac.h 
other in the focus, where 
they form an inverted 
image, and are then in- 
tercepted by a small 
concave miiTor b, which 
causes them again to 
converge to a focus, 
where they form a di- 
rect image viewed by 
the eye-piece c, screwed 
into the tube behind a. 

The Cassegrainian 
telescope (J?) differs from 
the Gregorian in having 
the small mirror b con- 
vex, but not sufficiently 
so to render the rays reflected from a divergent ; 
they are therefore brought to a focus just in front of 
the large speculum, forujing an inverted image wliieh 
is viewed by the eye-tube. 

In the Newtonian form {O, invented by Sir Isaac 
Newton, 1669, the raj's falling on the concave specu- 
lum a are iuterce[ited before being converged to a 
focus by the small plane mirror b, placed diagonally 
in the main tube, which reflects the image to the 
eye-piece inserted in the side of the tube. The small 
mirror b may be caused to approach or recede from 
the large speculum by means of a sliding device on 
which the wire supporting it is mounted. 

In the Herschelian or front-view telescope (D), the 
open end of the tube is directed toward t)ie object to 
which the observer turns his back. The small mirror 
is dispensed with, the image foinied by the large 
mirror being viewed directly through the eye-[iiece. 
Less light is lost by this arrangement than where 
two mirrors are em])loyed. 

Re-flect'or. 1. (Optics.) A device by which 
tlie rays proceeding from a luminous or n heated ob- 
ject are thrown back or diverted in a given direc- 
tion. A mirror. The latter term, however, apjiears 
to be less comprehensive, being usually onlya|iplied 
to such surfaces as aflord definite images and colors, 
while a reflector may not merely be used for throw- 
ing back the rays of light and heat, or of heat only, 
but also the waves of sound. 

The reflecting surface maj be either plane or 
curved. In practice it is often made spherical or 
parabolic. Tlie former does not bring the rays to a 
tme focus, but is easily formed, and is conseipiently 
generally employed where extreme accuracy is not 
sought for. 

" Tho surfaces formed by tlie revolution of the ellipse, para- 
bola, and hyperbola are such that the first accurately retiecta 
diverged rays to a focus, the second parallel rays, and the third 
divergent rays.'' — Brande. 

The material should be as smooth and highly pol- 
ished as possible. Sheet-tin is frequently used for 
common purposes, as for door or hall lamps, or those 
carried by vehicles, while for other purposes a more 
perfectly reflecting surface is employed, such as 
speculum metal or silver protected by glass. See 
Sii.vERixo ; Platixizino. 

Silver is the most ))erfeetly reflecting substance 
known, absorbing but 9 per cent of the incident 
rays, while speculum metal absorbs 37 per cent. 
Glass itself, owing to its property of totally reflect- 




iiig incident rays at a low angle, is used in ceitain 

Reflectors with parabolic surfaces are employed for 
throwing the light emanating from objects placed in 
their foci in parallel straight lines to a gi-eat dis- 
tance, and for converging the heat rays from a distant 
object, as the sun, to a focus, and also, in connection 
with eye-glasses, in the retiecting-telescope, which is 
itself olten simply denominated a reflector. See Re- 
flkcting-telescope ; catoptric llght; mirkor ; 

The reflectors used with microscopes are various, 
according to the e.xigencies of the position, shortness 
of the focus, etc. 

Under Illuminator are cited Beck's, white- 
cloud, side-rcfltetor, parabolic reflector, Litbcrkuhn, 
etc., — all forms of reflectors adajited to microsci pes. 

Paruboloidiil reHectors were employed in the lighthouses at 
BidstODe and Uoyiake, at the entrance of the Mersey, as early 
as 1763. These were of wooi lined with mirror gias.^ ; smaller 
ones of tin were also employed- At present, lightaouse rchect- 
ore are made of copper lieavily plated with silver. The proper 
curve is imp'irted by beating with malletsand bammersof various 
forms and materi ils ; a bezel is formed around the rim, which 
is afterward stiifened by a metallic strap, and the interior sur- 
face polished with powder. Two ingots of pure silver and cop- 
Fig. 4234. 


per, of equ!ll surface, weighing respectively 6 and 16 ounces, 
are tied together with wire, a flux of burnt borax and niter ap- 
plied, and the ioijots placed in a furnace. By repeated reheats 
i;igs, rolling, and annealing, a plate 28 inches square is formed, 
wuich is then cut into a circular disk. A slignt convexity is 
then formed at t'-i2 b;ick by beating wita a round-f iced boxwood 
mallet. The silvered side of tlie plate is placed on a slightly 
concave beochwood block and beaten from the edge gradually 
to.vard the center The partially rounded tii--k is then pLaced 
concave side downward on a rounded steel former mounted on 
a horse, and tie^ten first with the peen and afterv%-ard with tue 
face of the mallet until the proper form and size are ne.irly at- 
tained : it is next planished and afterward smootheil with a 
light hammer muffled with parchment at each end. To facili- 
tiite handling, the reflector is slung in a flexible frame counter- 
bal.inccd by a weight suspended from a cord passing over pul- 
leys. It is finally finished by carefully beating up all depres- 
sions, the accuracy of the work being continually tested by a 
gage or templet. 

Fig. 4235 is a reflector for workshop and house- 
liold purposes. It has a globular polished surface, 
so that the light of the several gas-jets hy which it 
is surrounded may be equally difl'iised on every side. 

Mulch's reflector for lamps of street cars ha.s a 
jiair of parabolic reflectors a a, bh, joined at their 
apexes, where a portion of each is removed. At this 
central position, which is aiiproximately at the foci 
of the reHector.s, is a lamp c, whose beams are thus 
tlirowH in botli directions in nearly horizontal beams 
of limited lateral divergence. 

2. A .short name for the Reflecting-telescope 
(which see). 

3. The reflector ha.s also been extensively used for 

Fig. 4235. radiating the heat from an open 

tire into an apartment. 

Fig. 4236. 

Gas-Lighl Reflector. 

Street-Car Lantp-Rfflectors, 

Dr. Franklin and Count Rumford appear to hiive 
lieeii the first who put forward intelligent ideas on 
tliis subject. 

As early as 1795, a patent was taken out in England for a 
removable reflecior, and in 1805, polished metallic reflectors were 
placed on each side of the fireplaie, to be turned at any angle 
to reflect the heat of the fireplace into the room. In 1816, the 
fire-grate was inclosed in a hollow metallic globe opening in front 
of the grate In 1852, the hearth, cheeks, and laces of the 
grate were made of polished steel. Several devices for radiating 
heat were patented in this \ car. 

Sylvester's invention for this purpose is described as follows : 
The hearth is fom:ed cf a framework of hollow radiating metallic 
bars, diverging and fanlike in arrangtment, upon the fiirthest 
end of which the fuel is supported. The air for con.bustion 
passes through the hollow to the fire, which also derives a 
supply in Iroiit in the usual way. The ends of the bars on 
which the fuel rests betcme intensely hot. The remaining por- 
tion or hearth from conduction lecou es likewise healed, aid 
r.idiates its warmth around. The fire, leing situated upon the 
hearth, allows the greatest possible length of surface to the 
cheeks or sides of the stove, whit h are of pohshcd D:etal, and 
contribute gieatly to the aniount of heat afforded by radiation; 
The smoke escapes through the apertures of a kind of louver at 
the back, and tlie ashes pass between the bare into a PLceptatle 

He-fract'ing-tel'e-scope. A telescope in which 
the rays are refracted by an object-glass, at wl.ose 
focus they are viewed by an eye-]iiece. It is the 
ordinal^' form of telescoj e. St e Telescope ; Astko- 
Mi.MiCAL Telescope ; Eqi'-^torial, Tekrlstkial 
Kefracting-telescope, etc. 

The oiiginnl foi-m of the telescope, as used by 
Galileo, had a convex object- 
glass and a concave eje- Fig. 4237. 

The rays converged by the . 
object-glass a fall upon the 
double concave lens li, which GaliUan Telescope. 
intercepts them before they 

arrive at the principal focus, where they would make 
an inverted image. Being tliiis rendei-ed iiandlel, 
they give a distinct vision to the eye at c. 

The lens b is therefore jilaced lietweeii the object- 
glass and the image, and at a distance from the 
image equal to its piincipal focal distance. The 
magnifying power is equal to the focal length of the divided by the focal length of the eye- 

Re-frac'tion-ciT'cle. (Optics.) The refraction- 
circle of the Washington Observatory was made by 
Ertel and Son, of Munich. The telescope has a clear 
aperture of 7 inches, and is SJ feet in length. It is 
supported in the middle of the axis between two 
piers, and it has two circles of 4 feet diameter, one 
on each end of the axis, divided on gold into arcs of 




2'. Each circle is ^jrovided with six reading micro- 
sooi>es. See also Tuansit-ciuole. 

Re-frac'tor. A retVactiiig-telescope. See Tel- 

Re-frac'to-ry. {Pottery.) A piece of ware cov- 
ered with a vaporable Uux and placed in a kiln, to 
comniunicate a glaze to the other articles; an opera- 
lion termed snicarbuj. 

Re-frig'er-at'ing-cham'ber. An apartment for 
the storage of perishable provisions during warm 
weather. It is frei^ueutly a structure in connection 
with an ice-house. 

In the example, the ice is stored overhead and the meat or 
vegetables in t!ie larger rooiii beneath. The cool air descends 
by gravity and displaces the moist and warmer air» which 

Fig 4238. 




Ke/ri^erat ing- Chamber. 

ascend^- The moisturecondeDsea upon theceiUncra of the meat- 
chamber and the ice-chamber, which are formed of angularly 
corrugated metallic plates: and the drip from the salient 
angles u caught in troughs, by which the liquid is conveyed to 
the exit-pipe. 

Re-frig'er-a'tor. Refi-igeration, natural or arti- 
ficial, is used for keeping animal or vegetable sub- 
.stances by reducing the temperature below the point 
of fermentative disorganization. Such are fruit and 
meat (-ellars and cars. 

Wort, mash, or beer coolers are of this elasa ; also apparatus 
for reducing the temperature of the must of wine, the juice of 
BUs^ar-cane or beets. 

Siiccharine juices and wines may be concentrated to a certain 
extent by freezing; the watery particles becoming congealed 
are removed, leaving _ 

the remainder of a Fig. 4241. 

greiter strength. 

1 A refri^frntnr for 
cooling wort consists of 
a large shallow vat trav- 
ersed by a continucus 
pipe, through which a 
Rtrcain of cold water is 
pas.'^ed. The xvori runs 
in one direction and the 
water in the other, so 
that the delivery end of 
the wort is exposed to 
the coolest part of the 
stream of water. See al- 
so Li'^uiD cooler; Beer- 


2. {'Stpnin.) a. A cas- 
ing with ronnecting- 
tube^, through which 
feed-water pisses on its 
way to the boiler, and is 
warmed by the current 
of hot brine passing in 
t le other direction, on 
the outside nf the tubes. 
The hot brine, at a teni- 
peniture of stiy 213'' 
I'ah., is that which haa 

been removed from the boiler by the brine'pump. The term 
re/rigerator is a misnomer. It should be L-alled & /leJ- water 
heater. The latter name is applied to a somewhat simi.ur ar- 
rangement in wiiich the feed-water is heated by exhau^t steam. 
b. The chamber in one form of condenser, in which the injec- 
tion-water (fre.'ih) is cooled by a surface application of cold sea- 
water. Hmv lNJ£CriO>'-CONDG>SER. 

Fig. 4239. 


3. ( Dovifstic.) A chest or closet holding a supply of ii-e to 
cool provisions and keep them from spoiling in \.arm weatlier. 
In the example, a vertical channel divides the refrigerator into 
two separate chambers, 

each partitioned into three Fig. 4240. 

receptacles. Air circulates 
between the interior and 
exterior walls. Two front 
doors and one on top afford 
access. £" is the ice-box, 
which cools tlie air in each 
of the side chambers. 

Fig. 4240 shows a chest 
whose melting ice passes 
through a filter into a 
chamber, whi nee it is 
drawn as ice-water. Drip 
and water of condensation 
are v.lthdrawn at the lower 

Figs. 4241,4242, are re- 
spectively a sectional in- 
terior viuw and an exterior 
perspective view of the 
Allegretti refrigerator, 
which has an inner me- 
tallic chamber a lor con- 
t.iiuing the articles to be 
preserved, and an outer 
inclosing case b, with a 
packing of non-conduct- 
ing material r around it 
to preserve the ire from being melted by access of he:it to it. 
The inner and outer ca^es are so arranged that there shall be 
ice-chamber or space above and around, and cold-air !*pa(e 
below the inner chamber. A close, tight frame is made around 
the opening to the inner chamber, to 
admit access thereto without expo.>;ing 
the ice or cold-air space to the exter- 
nal air. A pipe h carries off the water 
of liquefaction from the ice. 
When it is desired to produce a very 

Ice-jChest and Water-Cooler. 



Fig. 4242. 


Ailfgretti\f Refri^ifralor, 

AlU^rettCs Refrigerator. 
{Perspective View.) 




5. (Domestic.) The chamber in which provisions 
are kept by exposure to a cool atmosphere. See PiiE- 
sKRVi.NG i"ooD ; Refrigekatok ; Ice-chest ; Ice- 
s.tFK, etc. 

Re-fus'aL (Hydraulic Enginecrinq.) The re- 
the refrigerator with double glass door and ' sistaiice to tarther driving ofteved by a pile. For 
double glass panel iu the .-^ide. | instance, the refusal of a pile intended to support 

This machine will permit the experiment of transporting fish I i;j^ tons may be taken at 10 blows of a ram of 
r-„^„«., ,„ w ,.« o,,.,»«*,^n B^».c /^ 1^350 pounds, falling 12 feet and depressing the pile 

.8 (tf an inch at each stroke. 
Re-gen'er-at'ing-fur'nace. A furnace in which 

intense degree of cold, chemicals are added to the ice. In most 
cases it is desirable to maintain a constant temperature of about 
32* Fah., 80 as not to disorganize the tissues of the meat or 
vegetables. The even temperature, neither too high nor too low, 
is necessary to produce the best results; with a temperature of 
32* Fah. meat wilt ripen but remain perfectly fresh for any 
length of time, being much better than when fresh killed 
Fig. 4242 shows 

be suspended, they remaining perfectly inert whether in or out 
of water. 

The apparatus is also cordi-iily recommended to the scientific 
successors of Professor John Meiser, of Dantzic, and Dr Mar- 
tout, of Fontaiuebleau, when another sv4(,'b subject as Colonel 
i'ougas shall be available. See Edmond About' s " The Man 
with the Broken Ear." 

Re-frig'er-a'tor-car. {Railvmy.) A car through 
which a current of artificially cooled air is caused to 
circulate, for the purpose of preserving meats, game, 
etc., during their transportation over long lines of rail. 

The experiment of constructing cars specially for this purpose 
vas first tried in 1S67, and was successful ; meat slaughtered in i iron. 

Fig. 4243. 

the outgoing heated volatile products are caused to 
heat a mass of material, which, when the direction 
of the current is reversed, heats the incoming air or 
gas with which the furnace is supplied. 

In Siemens's apparatus both heated vapor, or vapor and 
steam, and atmospheric air are pas.'^fd through the regenerators 
and consumed in the furnace. It has of late been extensively 
employed for gla«8, pottery, and metjil-reducing furnaces, and 
in the production of steel, either directly from the ore or from 


Refrigerator- Car. 

Illinois being delivered in sweet and fresh condition at New 
York ten days thereafter, during the hottest part of the sum- 

In Fig 4243, the refrigerating chamber A is surrounded by 
an air-space Air is forced by the blower £ into the chamber 
through an ice-box /. which may contain a case in which i.'* a 
freezing mixture, in this ca-se passing through the pipe J. The 
water is drawn off by a trap C. 

The ext<>rnal appearance of one of these cars is similar to that 
of an ordinary freight-car. In a box at each end of the car are 
blocks of ice placed on a grate in such a manner as to allow a 
current of cold air to circuUt* constantly through a flue neat 
t le top of the car, over the ice, down to the tioor, then 
up among the poultry, mutton, and beef, and again around 
t'lrough the tlue and over the ice. The circulation of air is 
elTected by a large veutiiator-wheel placed horizontally at the 
top of the car near the middle The forward movement of 
the car keeps this wheel in motion, which, in turn, produces 
a current of cold air constantly from the ice to the meat in 
one direction, and from the meat to the ice in another direc- 
tion. By this means, every piece of meat is kept at a uniform 
temperature of about 40° Fah. The cars are built double all 
' around, with inside double doors, filled in with charcoal, and 
I have a capacity for holding two tons of ice. At the principal 
I stations they are carefully examined, and ice added whenever 
1 it is deemed necessary. 

Fig. 4244 illustrates an apparatus particu- 
larly designed for making steel from the ore. 
CO, E E' , are the regenerators. These 
are filled in with fire-brick, .=0 laid as to 
leave a large number of passages between 
them, through which the air or gas may 
circulate on its passage to and from the fur- 

Heated gas from the prorJitcer^ a furnace 
in which ga^es are generated by the com- 
bustion of coal, and into which steam may 
be injected to form hydrogen gas by its de- 
composition, passes through a pipe to tbe 
generator Cat the same time that a current 
of hot air is passing through the gt-neri-tor 
E. These are conducted to the furuate /* 
by pipes J J* in the cylinders i i', through 
which the mixed ores, charcoal, and Hux, if 
any, are introduced. A quantity of pig-metal 
is placed in the bottom of the furnace, and 
the reduced ore from the cylinders J I' is 
forced downward and mixed with it, and 
spiegeleisen added if required. The mingled 
air and gas, having eflected the work of reduction, pass out 
through the generators ( ' £', and are conducted away to the 
chimney. Chambers F' on either siJe of the furnace also 
communicate with it and with the chinmcy. When the gen- 
erators have become heated to a thoroughly white heat, the 
currents are, by means of a revert-ing valve, diverted so as to 
tlow in the opposite direction, entering through the generators 

Fig. 4244. 

Re-frig' er-a-to-ry. A chamber, ves- 
sel, or pipe, in which a cooling is eifect- 
ed, as, — 

1. The worm of a still. See Still. 

2. {Steam-enghu.) a. The condenser 
of an engine. See Condenser. 

h. A form of lieater in which feed-wa- 
ter extracts a jwrtion of heat from the 
liot water driven out of the boiler by the 

3. The worm or chamber of a liquid- 
cooler for beer, wort, wash, etc. See 
Liquid-cooler; Beer-cooler. 

4. The chamber in which ice is artificially formed. 
See Ice-making Machine. 

Metaliurgieal Furnace* 

(y E' and pa.<^Fing out through C E. The products of combua- 

tion are thus alternately heated by each pet, and coo'eil by the 

I other, to which they impart their beat, so that when discharged 




into tbe chimney they are at a comparatively low tempera- 

Re-gen'er-a-tor. A device to abstract the head 
from an escaping volume of air or gas, in order that 
it may be imparted to a body of incoming air. The 
object is economy of fuel by conservation of heat. 

An illustration of this may lie fouiid in the air- 
engine of Glazebrook, English patent, 1797, and in 
Stirling's English patent, 1816. The latter had the 
metallic sieves of wire gauze afterward ado[itcd by 
Erics.son. Their use in this connection is a fallacy. 
See Air-engine. See also 

Reg'is-ter. 1. A device for automatically indi- 
cating the number of revolutions made or amount of 
work <lone by machinery, or recording steam, air, or 
water pressure, or other data, by means of apparatus 
deriving motion from the object or objects whose 
force, distance, velocity, direction, elevation, or nu- 
merical amount it is desired to ascertain. 

There are various special appliances of this kind, 
each particularly adapted for the peculiar operation 
which is to be investigated ; many depending on the 
action of clock-work mechanism, which indicates 
results on dials, but others, as in registering mete- 
orological instnnnents, having means for recording 
varying conditions, as with the mumometer, baro- 
graph, etc. 

As counters, are the various devices known as 
AuiTH.MOMETERS (which See). These, in their pri- 
mai'y intention as calculating instruments, are not 
mere registers, but they are attached to other de- 
vices to keep count of motions, and so become regis- 
ters or rccorrkrs. Instances may be found in the 
recording devices of 







Printing-press registers. 


Steam-engine registers. 

Street-car registers. 




Watchman's registers. 


See also list under Meters. 

drawn off therefrom by the roller // rotated by con- 
nection with the engine. Clock-work mechanism 
causes a point at the lower end of the lever / to 
puncture the paper at hourly intervals. The pa])er 
being pieviously ruled with "vertical hour-lines with 
intervals coiresponding to a given rate of speed, the 
relation of the punctures to these lines indicates 
whether the engine has been run at the proper ve- 

The device so common in arith- 
mometers, calculating-machines, 
and registeis, consisting of a se- 
ries of wheels numbered to 9, 
and gearing into each other, so as 
respectively to represent units, 
tens, hundreds, etc., was invented 
by Pascal when 19 years of age 

Among the applications of gear- 
ing to produce exticmely slow 
motions which may be utilized in counting, and are, 
therefore, applicable to registers, may be 
Fig. 4245. cited epicyclic and differential gears. 
/^;r\ The matter as to the former has been 

.^J 1 considered at as full a length as admissi- 
ble under Epicyclic Trains (which see). 
A differential device is shown in Fig. 
4245. Two worm-wheels of equal diam- 
' eter (teeth omitted in the illustration) 
have respectively 100 and 101 teeth, and 
are in gear with the same worm. One 
wheel gains 1 revolution over the other 
DiJTertntial <luring 10,100 revolutions of the worm. 
Counter. Each wheel has an index-finger, and the 
angular distance between them on a 
graduated dial will form a register. 

Watt first applied a register to the steam-engine 
to count the strokes. 

The term register is also applied to a recording indi- 
cntar^aee Indicator), asintheex.ample (Fig. 4246), in 
which an endless roll of pa]ier wound on to the upright 
cylinder F and held thereto by a pad Q is uniformly 


V.,„. I-.„-lr E- M It^l,. ir.^t \,„. J^lfl, f 

; <ltt..eki:' 


1 u 1 

; 4 














Clarke and Edson's Steam-Pressure RegiMtr. 

locity. The rate of pressure is recorded by a marker 
on the piston-rod W of a cylinder connected by a 
pipe with the steam-chest. For this j>urpose hori- 
zontal lines corresponding to different pressures are 
ruled on the cylinder. 

The rolling-mills in the United States Mint at 
Philadelphia are provided with dials having a hand 
indicating the exact distance between the rolls. It 
is the invention of Franklin Peale. A crank on the 
arbor of the index-hand is the metiiis of adjusting 
the set of the rolls, and ceitain points on the gradu- 
ated dial indicate the distance for half-dimes, dimes, 
quarters, gold dollars, eagles, and all the varieties 
of coin which are mnde at the mint. The process of 
rolling is called hrcaK'ing doirn, and the ultimate 
size is obtained by repeated rolling, perhaps ten times 
for gold and eight times for silver. The register is 
set to a certain mark for each thickness, to which 
the bar is reduced during the successive rolling.s. 

2. (Printing.) Agreement of tw;o printed forms 
to be applied to the same sheet, either on the same 
or the respective sides thereof. 




The former is used in chromatic printing, where a 
number of colors are laid on consecutively. 

The latter is found in book and newspaper print- 
ing, where the correspondence of pages or columns 
on the respective sides is required. 

The registering apparatus of the printing-press 
consists of points which pass through the paper and 
serve as guides for relaying the paper on the tympan 
in printing a second color, or as guides in folding. 

3. (Hcatinr).) A sliding plate acting as a damper 
or valve to close or open an aperture for the passage 
of air. As, — 

a. The draft-regulating plate of a stove or fur- 
nace. Sometimes connected with a pivoted plate in 
the chimney, so as to be self-operating. The dami)er- 
plate of a locomotive engine. 

b. A perforated plate governing the opening into 
a duet which admits warm air into a room for heat, 
or fresh air for ventilation, or which allows foul air 
to eswipe. 

Savot ia hia work '*L' Architecture Fran9oL<ide3Bastiinenspar. 
ticuiiers," Paris, 1624, is the first to meatioa the r'l^ixler-p'.ate. 
He creiits the invention to the English, saying that it is custo- 
mary in England when a brazier full of fuel is welllig".itej,andhaa 
ceased to smoke, to piss an iron plate {parte df fer If gcre ) across 
the chimney, and so confine the heat to the room. This plate 
i3 the SAme as the damper^ but the term register is the older. 

In the furnaces of the alchemists, opening? left for the supply 
of air, and which could be contracted or closed by pieces of clay, 
were termed rfghters. 

Ben Jonson says : — 

" Look well to the register. 
And let your heat still lessen by degrees." 

i. (Mimic.) A stop of an organ. 
5. ( TeUrirapluj. ) The part of a telegraph appara- 
tus used for recording upon a strip of paper the 

message received. It consists of a clock-work, which 
moves the strip of paper at a unifonii speed in con- 
tiguity to the stylus or marking-pen, whose move- 
ments are controlled by the electrical current. In 

Fig. 4247. 

yioTSe Rigiscer. 

the ordinarj- Morse apparatus this stylus is simply 
a sharp metallic point on the end of the armature 
lever, which embosses the character on the strip of 
paper on being brought in contact therewith. 

An inking stylus or an inking roller is sometimes 
used in lieu of a plain stylus. 

The fire-alarm telegraph register records all the 
alaiTOS and tests which are sent into the central 
office. The line currents from the stations are re- 
ceived through a series of fifty-six relay magnets, 
which also act upon anminciators indicating the 
number of the station turned in. 

Fig. 4248. 

A'arm R'gister. 

When a siinal is struck at a street box the cir- 
cuit is broken, the magnet appropriate to that sta- 
tion drops, operating a lever which throws down the 
annunciator corresponding to that number, rings a 
bell, sets in motion the register train, carrying for- 
ward a broad, endless roll of paper, and by means of 
a pen, of which there are fifty-six, actuated by as 
many magnets, imprints the signal on the endless 
roll. The condition of the line is also hourly tested 
through this apparatus. 

Res'iB-ter-point (Printing.) A device for 
puncturing or holding a sheet of paper, serving as a 

guide in laying on the sheet, so that the impressions 
on each side shall accurately correspond or register 
correctly. One •- 

placed on each side 
of the table. In 
the example, the 
pivoted pointers S 
are snapped by a' 
spring into the 
sheet and hold it 
in position till the 
nippers of the cyl- 

Fig. 4249. 

Register- Point* 




inder draw the sheet, when the point automatically 

Reg'is-ter-ing-ther-mom'e-ter. A thermom- 
eter ill wliieh the column of niereury moves a glass 
or porcelain bar and leaves it at the maximum or 
minimum point which is reached by it between ob- 
servations. See Thermometer ; Maximum Thek- 
mometek; Minimum Thermometeu. 

Reg'let. \. (Prinlintj.) A strip of wood or metal 
with parallel sides and of the hight of a quadrat, and 
used for separating pages in the chase, etc. 

They are sometimes made type-high to form black 

2. (Architecture.) A flat, narrow molding, em- 
ployed to separate panels or other members ; or to 
form knots, trets, and similar ornaments. 

Reg'let-plane. A j>lane used in making reglets 
or printer's furniture for spacing lines. The adjus- 
table /citccs are screwed fast to the body of the plane, 
and (iroject from the sole a distanne equal to the 
hight of a quadrat, so that when the fences rest on 
the bench the plane-bit will cut no longer. See cut 
under Rounuing-pl.we. 

Re-grat'ing. (Masonry.) Taking off' the surface 
of an old hewn-stone wall in order to whiten it and 
make it look fresh again. 

Reg'u-la. (Architecture.) A band below the 
taenia of the Doric epistylium, extending the width 
of the triglyjih, and having si.\ gutt^ depending 
from it. It also signifies the space between two ad- 
joining canals of the triglyphs. 

Reg'u-lat ing-scrcw. A screw used for deter- 
mining a motion. 

The motion of the roller of a copperplate press, 
upward from the bed, is regulated by screws which 
bear upon the journal-boxes. 

The upper roll of a bar, sheet, or other iron mill 
is similarly arranged. 

The motions of the slides and moving parts of 
machinery are sometimes regulated by screws, which 
act as stops or .slides. 

Reg'u-la'tor. A mechanical contrivance for 
equalizing motion. 

The generic name may be held to incdude govern- 
ors, thermostats, gas-regulators, fiy-wlieels, flyers, 
dampers, pendulums, balnncc-whcels, throttle-valves, 
compensation arrangements in timepieces, etc. These 
will be found under their specific heads. 

1. The brake-band of a crab or crane. 

2. (Steam-engine.) a. The governor of a steam- 
engine. See Governor. 

6. The cataract of a steam-engine. See Cataract. 

c. A device for admitting steam in regulatahle 
quantity to the valve-chamber of the steam-cylinder. 
See Regulator-box. 

3. (Furnace.) A device for regulating access of 
air to a stove or furnace. Known as a draft-regu- 
lator. It may consist of a register, damper, or door. 
Automatic appliances actuated by the variations of 
heat are Thermostats (which see). 

4. (Horology.) a. A clock keeping accurate time, 
used for regulating other timepieces. 

b. The device by which the pendulum-bob is ele- 
vated or depressed. 

c. The fly of the striking part of a clock or musi- 
cal box. 

d. An aiAi which determines the length of the 
balance (or hair) spring of a watch. By shortening 
the length of spring involved in the action, the rate 
of motion is increased, and conversely. On the un- 
der side of the arm are two pins, which embrace the 
spring, the center of motion of the arm being con- 
centric with the arbor of the balance. As the 
arm is rotated, the pins slip on the spring, the 

Fig. 4250. 

extent of movement of the arm being indicated by a 
pointer on a graduated arc. 

The balanc*;-8priQg a ia attached at its outer end to a stud 
b on the watcll. plate, and at its iuuer end to the statf of the 
balance. The balance pulsates in one 
direction under the influence of the 
Diain-spriugcommuuicated through the 
train, and is returned by the recoil of 
the spring after passing the point at 
which these forces are in equilibrio. 
The duration of the pulsation is deter- 
mined by the length of the hair-spring 
a, a longer spring allowing a longer 
movement of the balance. The lever c 
has two curb-pins, between which the 
hair-spring passes, and its activity is siotF/: 
checked at this point. By moving the 
lever to the right, the eflective length 
of tlio spring ia decreased, and the pul- H^atch- Regulator. 
sations are shortened, the balance mov- 
ing quicker. When the watch ia too fast, motion in the other 
direction corrects it. 

Means have been employed for the more delicate adjustment 
of this arm, other than by a mere push. Among these are the 
worm-wheel and rack, as in Fig. 4252. 

Ijq Fig. 4251 , the pointer which curries the pins embracing the 

Fig 4251. 

Fig. 4252. 


Worm-Wheel Arljustment 
for Regulator. 

hair-spring is connected to a bar having a segmental rack .actu- 
ated by a small cog-wheel ; the shaft of the latter carries a 
pointer, by moving which a delicate adjustment ia obtained. 

Reg'u-la'tor-box. A valve-motion contrived 
by Watt for his double-action, condensing pumping- 
engines (A). A spindle passes through one side of 
the box, on which a toothed sector moves as a cen- 
ter, working a rack fixed to a valve n, which 
is accurately ground to its seat. The plug-tree 4 is 
provided with a pin which tiips the lever, whose 
upper arm is connected to the toothed sector, so that 

Fig. 4253. 


the reciprocations of the plug-tree open and shut the 

In locomotives (see E) a pipe conducts steam from 
the steam-drum to the regulator a, connected with 
the cylinders by two pipes h b', which are opened or 
closed by the valves c c', operated by a rod running 
longitudinally of the engine and turned by a lever 
within reach of the engineer. 




The regidalor-cock admits oil or tallow for lubri- 
cating thu faces of the regulator. 

Reg'u-lus. (Melallurriij.) The relatively pure 
metal tthicli sinks to the bottom of a crucible or a 
furnace in the fusing and retiuing process. The slag 
or seori* floats upon it, and is skimmed ofl' or con- 
ducted in another direction. 

The term is not now often used, except when ap- 
plied to antimony. 

Re-heat'ing-fur'nace. (Metallurgy.) A rever- 
beratory-farnaoe, resembling a puddling-furnace, in 
wliich blooms or piles of slieared or scrap iron are 
reheated for rolling or rerolling. A bal ling-furnace. 

Rein. \. (Saddlcrij.) A strap or cord by which a 
hoise is driven or controlled. The ends of the rein 
are fastened to the bit-rings, as, — 
Driving-reio, Check-rein. 

Bearing-rein. Gag-rein. 

Safety-rein. Overhead-rein. 

The Scythians hung the scalps of their enemies to 
their bridle-reins. The Rid Indians do the same. 
Attila is similarly represented. 

The Japanese bridle-rein is often of silk. 

2. (Architecture.) A springer or lower votissoir 
of an arcdi, which rests upon the imposts. 

3. A rope of twisted and greased raw-hide. 
Reius. Tlie liandles of a blacksmith's tongs, on 

whicli the ring or coupler slides. 

Re-in-force'. An additional thickness imparted 
to any portion of an object in order to strengthen 
it, as, — 

1. (Ordnance.) The enlarged portion of a can- 
non, extending from the base ring to the chase. It is 
formed in casting, or by shrinking on a band of 

Tlie _fi7-st reinforce is that nearest the breech, where 
the metal is thickest. 

The second reinforce extends from the termination 
of the lirst to a point forward of the trunnioiis. 
These distinctions are obliterated in American guns 
of the later patterns. 

The Armstrong gun (English) is built up of coils 
and reinforces around a steel tube. 

2. A strengthening patch, (See Patch.) It may 
be an additional thickness sewed around a cringle or 
eyelet-hole in a sail or tent-cover ; a piece pasted 
around the buttonhole of a paper collar, etc. 

3. A piitch on a tube, boiler, tank, etc. 
Re-in-force'-ring. (Ordnance.) A flat mold- 
ing at the breech end of the reinforce. 

Rein-hold'er. (Menage.) A clip or clasp on 
the dasliboard of a carriage, to hold the reins when 
the driver ha.'* alighted. 

Rein-hook, (ffamess.) A hook on a gig-sad- 
dle to hold the bearing-rein. 
Kg. 4254. Rein-slide. (Harness.) A 

slipping loop on an extensible 
rein, which holds the two parts 

Chech-Rein Hook. 

Re in- Snap. 

together near the buckle, which is adjustable on the 
standing ]iart. 

Rein-snap. (Harness.) A spring hook for hold- 
ing the reins. In the example, one s]iring c retains 
the ring in the hook, and the other, d, fomis a mous- 
ing to keep anything from accidental engagement 
with the point of the hook. See also S.nap-hook ; 

Reis'ner-vrork. Inlaid work on the ))rinci|ile 
of tlie BuHI. (which see). Reisner was a skillful prac- 
titioner of tlie art about the time of Louis XIV. He 
principally used woods of contrasted colors, while 
Buhl used metals and tortoise-shell by prefeience. 

Imitations of this and buhl are now made by 
stamping in.stead of cutting out with the saw. At 
Birmingham, devices are stamped from sheet-brass 
and applied to papier-mache, the intervening depres- 
sions being filled up with successive coatings of black 
Japan varnish. See also Buhl ; MAEyuETuy ; Paii- 
QUKTKY ; Inlaying, etc. 

Re-joint'ing. (Masoni-y.) Pointing, as of 

Re-lay'. (Telegraphy.) A subsidiary electro- 
magnetic circuit made and brokefi by the primary 
circuit. By means of the relay-magnet, a curiciit 
too feeble to produce sensible mechanical eH'ects at 
a di.stance is made to set in action an auxiliary cur- 
rent competent for the work. Invented by Piofes.-.or 
Joseph Henry. — PRESCorr, History of the Electric 

Re-lay '-mag'net. (Telegraphy.) A small elec- 
tro-magnet reijuiring but a weak current to charge 
it, and having an armature to whicli is attached a 
lever ending in a platinum point, which impinges 
against a back stop whenever the armature is attracted 
by the electro-magnet. This back stop and armature 
form part of the circuit of a local battery to the 
sounder or register. If the main-line current arriv- 
ing at an oftice is too weak to work the sounder or 
register, the relay is placed in the main circuit and 
operates to close a local circuit to the sounder or 
register whenever its armature lever is attracted 
against its back stop. This device, indispensable on 
long Hues of telegraph, was invented by Professor 
Henry. See Mop.sF. Instrument. 

Re-lief. 1. (Sculpture.) The prominence of a 
sculptured figure from the plane surface to which it 
is attached. According to the degree of prominence, 
it is known as alto or high relief, mezzo or demi-re- 
lief and basso or low relief. See Rilievo. 

2. (Fortification.) The total hight of the parapet 
above the bottom of the ditch. 

Re-lief -line En-grav'ing. The process of Mr. 
Palmer of England, about 1840, in which a black- 
ened copper plate is covered with a ground of a defi- 
nite thickness of sulphate of lead, wax, and resin ; 
a tracing or photographic image is transferred to the 
ground: the ground is cut away by gravers or etch- 
ing-points, so as to make lines down to the metallic 
surface, which is blackened so as to enable the effect 
of the work to be seen. The plate then receives a 
coating of graiihite, and an electro-cast is made, 
forming a raised surface from which to print. 

The hight of the little ridges in the cameo cast in 
copper is e(|ual to the depth of the ground through 
wliich the design was cut. In the broad spaces — 
the lights, where the lines are at a considerable dis- 
tance apart and tliere is a danger of ink attaching 
itself to the plate in inking — wax is dropped upon 
the ground before blackleading, so as to make eleva- 
tions at those points which become drepressions in 
the electro-cast. 

This process was adopted by Jewett and Chandler 
of Buff'alo for many years in making the cuts for the 
Patent Office reports, and is still practiced by Mr. 
Chandler in making the cuts forming the illustra- 
tions of thi.'* Dictionary and numerous other works. 

Re-lief-pro'cess. See Piiuto- relief Process. 

Re-lief -valve. 1. (Steam-engine.) A valve be- 
longing to the feeding apparatus of a marine-engine, 
through- which the water escapes into the hot-well 
when it is shut off from the boUer. 




Fig. 4257. 


2. A valve so arranged as to open 
outward when a dangerous pressure or 
sliock oecurs, to allow 
escape of water. 

3. A valve to allow 
access of air to a bai- 
rel from which liquor 
is drawn. 

Re-lie V 'in g-arch. 
An arch at the hack 
of a revetment or re- 
taining wall, to relieve 
the pressure of the 
bank upon the wall, 
anil act as a tie or interior buttress. Arches of this 
description have*their a.xes and the faces of their 
piers at right angles to the face of the bank. The 
front end is usually closed by a vertical wall. The 
arches of two stories are shown in section, with the 
retaining wall, and a talus of soil occupying a part 
of the space beneath e.ich. 

Re-liev'ing-tack'le. (Nautical.) a. A tackle 
temporarily attached to the end of the tiller, to assist 
the helmsman in bad weather, and act as a guard in 
case of accident to the tiller ropes or wheel. 

b. A tackle from a wharf passed beneath a vessel 
when careened, and secured to the opposite side, to act 
as a guard against upsetting and to assist in righting. 
Rel'ish. {Joinery.) The pi'ojection of the shoul- 
der of a tenoned piece beyond the part which enteis 
the mortise. See Tenon. 

Rem'berge. (I'essd.) A long, narrow, low 

rowing vessel of war, formerly used tiy the English. 

Rem'blai. (Furtificalion.) The elevated portion 

of earthworks formed by the disposition of the 

d hhii, or excavateil materials. # 

Rem'e-dy. (Coining.) The allowance at the 
mint for deviation from the e.xact standard fineness 
and weight of coin. In England the remedy of the 
mint is: Gold, 12 grains per pound in weight; 
iV of a carat in fineness. Silver, 1 dwt. per pound 
in weight ; 1 dwt. per pound in fineness. Copper, 
-^<s of the weight, both in weight and fineness. 

The remedy of United States gold coin is, double- 
eagle, one half grain ; smaller gold coins, one ijuar- 
ter grain. 

On coin in bulk, i-Ju of an ounce in 5,000 gold 
pieces of the denominations g20, $10, S5, $2.50; 
Tnhr of an ounce in 1,000 gold pieces of the values 
$3 ind $1. 

Tlie remedy on United States .silver coin is IJ 
grains to the piece. Or, on coin in bulk, vfrci of an 
ounce in 1,000 silver pieces of the values $1, 50 c., 
25 c. ; j4); of an ounce on 1,000 dimes. On the mi- 
nor coins, 3 grains for the 5-cent piece ; 2 grains for 
the 3 and 1 cent pieces. 

Re-mon'toir. (Horology.) A mechanism de- 
signed to render the force which sustains the move- 
^nient of the escapement perfectly even. 

Re-mon'toir-es-cape'ment. An escapement 
in which the scape-wheel is ilriven by a small weight 
raised by tlie clock at intervals of thirty seconds, 
usually ; or by a spiral spring on the scape-wheel 
arVior, wound up a quarter or half turn at the said 

Rem'o-ra. (Surgical.) An instrument to retain 
parts in place ; as one to keep the intestines from 
protruding at the inguinal ring after the operation 
of castrating, or one to maintain a fracture in place 
or a lu.\ation reduced. 

Ren'der. 1. (Nautical.) To pass through the 
block ; said of a rope. To reeve. To rack a tackle 
is to seize the parts together and prevent rendering. 
2. To try out lard or tallow. 

Ren'der-ing. 1. (Plastering.) The lirst coat of 
plaster on brick-work. It is followed by the float- 
ing coat and the setting coat, the latter of fine stutf. 

The first coat is sometimes termed the pricking- 
up coat. When on lath it is said to be laid. Ren- 
dered and set is complete two-coat work on brick or 

2. The process of trying out oil or lard from fat. 
See Ren1)Eking-app.vk.\tus ; Lard-ta.vk. 

Ren'der-ing-ap'pa-ra'tus. An ap]inratus for 
extracting oil and lard from fatty animal matters. 
The object to be attained is to separate the purely 
oleaginous part from the cellular tissue inclosing it. 
In household economy this is effected by simply 
heating the fat, previously cut into small pieces, iu 
an open vessel over the fire ; this sejiarates the 
greater part of the purely oily nuitter. The scraps, 
called cracklings, are treed from the remainder by 
straining and ju'essure. 

Somewhat more complicated annngements are in- 
troduced when the process is conducted on a large 
scale, in order to more perfectly extract the oily 
matter with economy of labor and material. 

Black's apparatus consists of a jian set in a fur- 
nace, which lias two Hues, the lower one communi- 
cating with the fireplace by means of apertures, 

Fig 4258. 

Rendering- Pan. 

which may be closed when desired by dampers. The 
pan has a perforated false bottom, and in the s])ace 
between the bottom and false bottom is arranged a 
rotary stirrer. Above the false bottom is a hollow 
rotary shaft pro^^ded with arms. The pan has a 
tight cover, to which are suspended two plates, the 
upper one being provided with gutters. The interior 
of the pan communicates with a condenser w liich is 
connected with a drain or sewer. The vnpcus are 
condensed by means of cold water supplied by per- 
forated boxes. 

Gray's ajuiaratus (Fig. 4259) consists of a closed 
tank or kettle A having a jacket covering the part 
which comes in contact with the fire. The space 
contains water, which is heated so as to render the 
lard in the kettle. The vapors and gases which 
escape from the lard during the process of rendering 
are carried through a coil Z in a condensci', and 
afterward through a gas-purifier, or they may be 
conducted into the furnace and burner. A gage H 
indicates the amount of steam-pressure ; try-cocks at 
different bights are provided for drawing 6ft' the lard 
in a fluid state. See also Laud-boiler ; Lakd- 





Fig. 4259 


Rendering- Apparatus. 

into two or more shorter cir- 
cuits, the sounder or armature 
lever of one circuit opens and 
closes another circuit by an 
action similar to that of a 

Pig. 4260 is a plan of Milliken's. 
The luaiu-liDe wire from one direction 
(west, for exaoiple) passes through 
the lelay-maffnet a and tlie repeat- 
ing points b I? of the opposite sound- 
er, and thence to the battery and 
o^ ground at^; the eastern line passes 
^ through d, e e' , and to c. 

The extra local magnets g h are so 
arranged that when either of their 
armatures is released, it is drawn 
batk by the spring attached to its 
lever, bringing fhe latter firmly in 
contact with the armature lever of 
the corresponding relay. The dotted 
lines show the circuits from the extra 
local batteries at i k. If the main 
circuit be broken in the western 
wire, the relay a breaks the local 
circuit in the sounder at /. Tho 
movement of the lever in of the 
sounder first breaks the extra local 
circuit at n, causing the magnet A 
to release the armature o which is 
drawn back by the springe' agjiinst 
the top of the lever p, and the east- 
em main circuit is also broken at 
e e'. The lever p is prevented from 
filing back vhen the circuit of d is broken by the tension of 
the spring o', which is so adjusted as to be greater than that 
of the spring p'. The apparatus on the right-hand side of the 
repeater therefore remains quiet while the west is working, 
and vice vtrsa; the current through d being always restored 

Fig. 4260. 

Re-peat'er. 1. 

(Horology.) A watch 
made to strike the ', 
time when the stem L 
is pushed in. Some '^ 
strilce the hour and 
quarters ; otliers, ihe 
hour, quarter, and odd 
minutes. They are 
expensive and deli- 
cate, owinj; to the as- 
seml)lu(;c of so rainy parts within so limited a space. 

Some rcpent/'rs, in addition to their announcement 
of the hour when called on, will .strike the hours and 
quarters as they recur. A slrikiitg watch merely 
has not the faculty for repealing when called on so 
to do. 

Alarms are also attached to watches. Tlie ma- 
chinery is somewhvt .similar to that of the alarm- 

James II., in person, heard arguments on interfer- 
ing applications for patents for repeating-watches 
(Rirlow r,«. Qaare), and dei;ided in favor of Quare 
(1676). Priority of invention belonged, however, 
to Barlow, who employed two pins to strike the 
hours and quarters, while Quare afterward effected 
this with one only. 

The smallest repeating-watch ever known was 
made by Arnold for George III., to whom it was 
presented on his birthday, June 4, 1 764. Although 
less than six tenths of an inch in diameter, it re- 
peated the hours, quarters, and lialf-quarters, and 
contained the first ruby cylinder ever made. Its 
weiglit was that of an English silver si.Kpence. Ar- 
nold made it himself, and also the tools employed 
in its constrnction. The king presented Arnold with 
500 guineas (-?2,500) for this curious watch, and the 
Emperor of R'.i.ssia afterward offered the maker 1,000 
guineas for a duplicate of it, which Arnold declined. 

2. {Fire-arms.) An arm which may be caused to 
fire several successive shots without reloading. In 
Colt's and other revolvers, the charges are placeil 
in chimbers in a rotating cylinder, and brought 
successively in line with th'" barrel; while in the 
Spencr, Winchester, and Henry rifles, and others 
of that class, a number of the cartridges are inserted 

in a chamber .at the butt or beneath the barrel, and tor mav desire. 

fe.l and discharged singly bv mechanism connected a switch-board. Numerical signals from 1 to 998 may be trans- 
.., ^1 1 1 1^ . ^" ^"11. 1. -J 1 mitted. In ortler that these may be repeated automatically, a 

witlithe lock devices; metallic cartridges only are Sfof toXd reAlatin-wheels. .nairangeda. to be readily 
emp.oyed, the case being automatically ejected alter attached or detached, is provided. Eirh of these has only the 
each discharge. See FikE-AIIMS ; Revolver. teeth correspondinir to the particular ripnal which it rrpre.«entfl. 

'\ (Tclr'nynnhti 'S All iTKttrnTTipnf for Mntomafipftllv 3""^ ""h^" placed in the train the current i= not transn-.itted 

.5. {Iclegrapny.) An in:>truraent lor automancain j^^^^j^ ^^^ cum-nt-wheela bv the springs which make the cir- 
cuit through it and the circuit wheels, when the interspaces be- 
tween the omitted teeth are out of contact with the f prinf?*. 
The time* in which these and the circuit-wheels make a revo- 
lution are automatically adjusted, po that equjil interval* shall 
elapse between the strikinc of each tap of the si^ial. which de- 
notes thp uuit^, tens, or hundreds, as the case may be; the 

before that through h is broken, which is effect«d by the 
U-shaped spriuf: on the screw e. 

Fi?. 4261 is a fire-alarm telegraph -repeater. It has a senes 
of l.'irge broad-fiiced circuit-wheels having teeth, in sets of 8, 
arranged spiraUv on its periphery. The.^e are faced with plati- 
num, and as tV.e wheels are revolved bv clock-work and weight, 
make contact %vith spring:^ also armed with platinum and ar- 
ranged in set? of 8. throwing the current into the line wires to 
the different stations in order, or to jiuch of them as the opera- 
Those not wanted are thrown out of circuit by 

reseniling a telegraphic message at an intermediate 
]>oint, when, by reason of length of circuit, defective 
insulation, etc.^ the original line current becomes too 
entVebled to transmit intelligible signals through the 
whole circuit. The original circuit being divided 




Fis. 4261. 

geiring then ensures a complete revolution of the circuit-wheel ; 
vhe remaining; pirt of the signal, if it consists of more than one 
place of fi;;ures, is struck in a similar way, and t!ie operation 
is continuously repeateil until the regulator-wheel is displaced. 

Re-peat'ing-cir'cle. A reflecting-in.'iti-unicnt, 
on tlic |ii'iiiri[ile of the sextant, for mea.suriiij; aiigu- 
liir distances. Tlie image of one of the observed 
objects, after being reflected from a mirror on a 
pivoteil arm and again from a fi.xed mirror, is brought 
into coincidence with the other seen by direct vision ; 
the app'irent angular distance is thus doubled, and 
the gradtiations of the circle, which are continued 
all the way aro\ind its limb, thus embrace 720' of arc. 

It was first invented by Mayer about 1744. Bor- 
da, after whom it is frequently called, in 1780, intro- 
duced a second arm and vernier, to which Troughton 
subsequently added a third. 

The mean of the readings given by each arm is 
taken as the true angular measurement, which may 
be repeated continuously around the circle, bringing 
a different part of the limb into use at each repe- 
tition, thus tending to eliminate errors of centering 
and grailuation. 

Notwithstanding the accuracy theoretically ob- 
tainable by this principle, there appears to be, says 
Sir John Herschel, some constant source of error in 
this instrninent which in a large degree counterbal- 
ances its theoretical advantages. It has consei|Uently 
never come into extensive either in this country 
or England. See Reflecting-cikcle ; Sextant ; 


Re-peat'ing Fire-arm. One which discharges 

several successive shots without reloading. 

*' Afler dinner was brought to Sir W. Compton a gun to dis- 
ch.^rgc seven times, the best of all devices that ever I saw, and 
very servicealile, and not a bawble : for it is much approved of, 
and many thereof made." — Pepys's Diary ^ 16tr2. 

In the armory of the Tower of London are several 
Indian pieces known to be as old as the fifteenth 
century, and in principle similar to our revolvers. 
They have the defect of liability to ignite all the 
charges at once, and were abandoned as dangerous 
and Specimens of and French 
manufacture are in the museums of England and 
Fiance : and the tire-arms of Collier, an American 
gunsmith, 1818, and of anothei American in 1810, 
have the defects of their jiredecessors. Colonel Colt 
is believed to be the first inventor of a really avail- 
able repeating pistol. (Temple.) His first device 

.ilann llfptater. — 

was a number of barrels, but he subsequently de- 
vised the rotating cylinder breech and single barrel. 
Sec al.'io Magazin'p; Fuie-aum ; Revolver. 

Re-peat'ing-'watch. (Horology.) One con- 
structiMl to strike the lioui-s and quarters when the 
stem is pu.shed in. See Repratek. 

Re-plac'ing-s'TOitcli. A device forming a bridge 
by which the wheels 
of I'ars are replaced 
upon the track. 
A section is laid 
upon each track, 
and has a shoe E to 
which an inclined 
piece B is jointed. 
The inclined sec- 
tion rests upon an- 
other shoe. D I 
are farther exten- 
.sion- pieces which 
are pushed in below 
the wheels. 

■work. A kind of 
chasing. It is ef- 
fected entirely by 
the hammer. The 
workman a 
plain flat sheet of 
silver, having be- 
fore him a model ™ 
of the article to he 
produced. The 
plate i-ests upon a 
soft bed of pitch or 
other composition, 
and with a small 
hammer the work- 
man produces indentations on the inner surface of 
the plate, corresponding to the design. A snjall 
steel punch is, in some cases, employed ; and if the 
relief is accidentally made too high, it is reduced by 
counter hammering. 

Benvenuto Cellini, 1.500-70, is celebrated in this 
and kiiiilred branches of the arts. 

Re-pres8'ing-ma-chine'. A machine for re- 
pressing lirick after being partially dried. Also 
used for making brick direct fi'oin the clay, in warm 
climates, where brick are used without burning ; 

Switch for replacing Cars. 




Fig. 4263. 

Repressing- ^la chine. 

adobes. In that illustrated, the brick is placed 
within the mold, the sliding cover which had been 
pushed aside for that purpose being replaced, the 
lever is de[iressed, raising a platen forming the bot- 
tom of the mold ; on throwing up the Ipvcr the re- 
verse movement of the eccentric allows the platen to 
' descend a certain distance, the sliding cover is 
slipped aside, and a farther upward movement of 
the lever causes the platen to rise sufficiently to per- 
mit the brick to be removeiL 
Re-press 'ing-press. A press designed for corn- 

Fig. 4264. 

pacting bales of cotton, etc., into the smallest pos- 
sible compass for transportation. Grader's (Fig. 
4264) has two steam-cylinders ab, the upper one of 
which is of Greater diameter than the lower. The 
piston of the lower has a ratchet which engages with 
the toothed arcs c d, to whose upper e.xtremities are 
attached rods c «' /7"' connected with the platen g. 
Steam admitted below the lower piston causes an 
upward movement of the segments, which, through 
the medium of the rotis e c' f f, raise the platen and 
compress the bales placed between it and the immov- 
able bed h. If a greater pressure is desired than is 
thus obtainable, the piston of the large cylinder n is 
caused to descend ; a clutch on its piston-rod then 
engages the teeth on the ratcheted piston-rod of tlie 
lower cylinder, and on admitting steam below the 
upper piston a farther upward njoveraent is imparted 
to the platen g through the medium of the ratchet, 
arcs, and connecting-rods. 

The power of the ])ress may be varied, — by using 
the lower cylinder alone ; by working the up]ier 
cylinder expansively ; by working the upper cylinder 
ex]iansively and the 
lower under full boil- ^'g- ^65- 

er pressure ; and by 
using full hoilerpress- 
ure in both cylinders. 

The re]irpssing- may be of any 
suitable form andcon- 
.stmction, but the 
steam or hydraulic 
form shown in Fig. 
4265 is compact and 

Rere'dos. 1. 
(Architecture.) The 
wall at the back of 
an altar or seat. In 
Gothic churches it is 
usually in the form 
of a screen detached 
from the eastern wall, 
and is ornamented i. 
with niches, statues, 
etc., paintings, or 
tapestry. Fine ex- 

Rfpressing- Press. 

anjples occur at Durham and St. Albans, England. 

Fig. 42S6. 

Grader's Repressing' Press, 

Resencin^ Maeftine. 




2. A projecting buttress on the back of a fire- 
place, or a movable plate occupying a similar posi- 
tion. It is called a fire-bofk, and its office is to 
throw forward the fire, so that it may radiate into 
the room. HoUinshed calls it a rere-durse. 

Re-savT^Lng-ma-chine'. (Wood-working.) A 
inaL-hine lor cutting u;) sc^uared timber into small 
stuti" or Itoards. 

In the machine, Fig. 4266, a reciprocating-saw is 
employed. The longitudinal feed is effected by the 
usual Vertical rollers, rotated by gear connection with 
a shaft caused to revolve by a pawl at the end of a 
lever connected with the journal of the ])itman, 
which causes the reciprocation of the saw-frame. 

A hand-crank and screw control the transverse 
feed of the stuff. 

In Fig. 4267, the squared piece to be cut up is 
drawn between the adjustable feed-rollers a b, by 
which it is presented to the saw c ; the sword d guides 

Fig. 4267. 

the ground at the lower Ride, aDil was backed on the upper f^ide 
with a bank of earth iDterwoven with branche'* of trees. The 
dam had been built eight years at the time of the catastrophe. 
See Dax. 

2. An attachment to a stove or range to hold hot 

It is heated by proximity to the stove itself or to 

Fig. 4268. 


the severed board and prevents its fouling the opera- 
tive mechanism. The roller-turning and saw-rotat- 
ing gears are driven by the band pulleys e e, and the 
transverse ninvenient of the carriage /may be effected 
by turning the hanil-wheel i/. 

Re-serve'-9tyle. (Cotton -mnntifacture.) A 
method of calico-printing in which the white cloth 
is impressed with figures in resist paste, and is after- 
ward subjected first to a cold dye, a.s the indigo vat, 
and then to a hot dye-bath ; the effect being the 
production of white or colored spots upon a blue 
groind. Al-^o known as the rcsist-sti/k. 

Res'er-voir. 1. A pond for containing a .supply 
of water for canal supply, irrigation, or the use of 
dwellers in cities. 

A reservoir erected by Nebuchadnezzar at Sippara 
wai 140 miles in circumference. 

The lake of M;eris, constructed by the Pharaoh of 
th;it name to receive the superabundant waters of 
the Nile at the time of overllow, and afterward 
yield them for prolonged irrigation, wa3descriV)ed by 
Diodorus Siculus (60 B. c.) as existing till his day. 
The circuit he gives, 3,600 furlongs, is almost in- 
credible. The canal connecting it with the river 
wa-! 80 furlongs long and 300 feet wide. Sluices 
commanded the water-w.iy by opening and shutting. 

The re.«ervoiron Mill River, Ma.o8., which hurst with immense 
damage to life and property, Mav 16, l'^74, was an artificial lake 
between his'l hill.i. The conflnine dam at the lower end wa.<i a 
Btone-wall tive and a half feet thick at bottom, three feet at the 
top, ind C'l feet hi^h This -.nil was about 3 lU feet ions, built 
of uncut stoue from a foundation four feet below the level of 


the stovepipe. In Fig. 4268, it is liehind the stove, ' 
haWng a Hue b b around and beneath it. 

In Fig. 4269, it is on top of the stove. In a modi- 
fication of the latter form the boiler is made to sur- 
round the stovepipe. 

The leservoirs of ranges are usually vertical iron 
boilers, connected by pipes with the water sujiply of 
the city. The water from the main passes through 
pipes in the fire-chamber, or through a water-back, 

Fig. 4269. 

Stove with Reservoir. 

and tlience to the boiler. A pipe from the boiler 
jiroceeds to the sink to supply hot water at that 
point, a branch leading to the bath-room and another 
to the laundry. 

Res'er-voir-stove. One having a large boiler 
attached, to be constantly heated by the fire in the 
stove. See RE.SEnvniR. 

Re-sid'u-a-ry-gum. Also known as cnndk- 
pitch or cknndlcr'.<! (lum. The dark residuary matter 
from the treatment of oils and fats in the manufac- 
ture of stearine. It is darkened by the action of 
acid, and thence derives its name. It is used in 
coating fabrics for the manufacture of roofing, and 
combineil with tar and asphate in making mastics 
and cement. 

Res'in. A vegetable product composed of hydro- 
gen, carbon, and oxygen. Distinguishable generally 
from gum by its solubility in alcoliol and insolu- 
bility in water, while gums are soluble in water and 
insoluble in alcohol. There are many varieties of 
resins, derived liom different s])ecies of trees. Some 
are naturally combineil with the gums, forming what 
are known as gum-resins. Both these and the pure 




resins are generally termed gums. Resins become 
negatively electrified by friction. They are largely 
employed in making varnishes, and some are used 
as medicines. The most common variety, known 
as rosm, is derived from the distillation of crude 

Dr Sacc, of Nnenburg, Switz., gives the following summary 
fts to the resins of commerce : — 

Copal, amber, dammar, common rosin, shellac, elemi, sanda- 
rach, mastic, and Caramba wax can be reduced to powder. 

The following will become pa^ty before melting : amber, shel- 
lac, elemi, sandarach, and mastic ; the' others will become liq- 
uid at once. 

In boiling water, Caramba wax will melt ; common rosin will 
form a semifluid mass ; dammar, shellac, elemi, and mastic will 
become sticky ; while copal, amber, and sandarach will remain 

Dammar and amber do not dissolve in alcohol : copal be- 
comes pasty ; elemi and Caramba wax dissolve with difficulty ; 
while rosin, shellac, sandarach, and mastic dissolve easily. 

Acetic acid makes common rosia swell ; on all the others it 
has no effect. 

Caustic soda dissolves shellac readily, rosin partly j but has 
no influence on the others. 

Amber and shellac do not dissolve in sulphide of carbon ; co- 
pal becomes soft and expands; elemi, sandarach, mastic, and 
Caramba wax dissolve slowly ; while rosin and dammar disjoive 

Oil of turpentine dissolves neither amber nor shellac, but 
swells copal; dissolves dammar, rosin, elemi, sandarach, and 
Caramba wax easily, and mastic very eaiiily. 

Boiling linseed oil has no effect on amber and Caramba wax ; 
copal, shellac, elemi, and sandarach dis.solve in it slowly, while 
dammai, rosin, and mastic dissolve easily. 

Benzine does not dissolve copal, amber, and shellac, but does 
elemi and sandarach toa limited extent, and Carnn ba waxt ore 
easily ; while dammar, rosin, and mastic offer no diffioult.v 

Petroleum ether has no effect on copal, amber, and shellac ; 
it is a poor solvent for rosin, elemi, sandarach, and Caramba 
wax, and a good one for dammar and mastic. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid is indifferent to Caramba wax ; 
it dissolves all resins, imparting to them a dark brown color, 
excepting dammar, which takes a brilliant red tint. 

Nitric acid imparts to Caramba wax a straw color ; to elemi, 
a dirty yellow ; to mastic and sandarach, a light brown: it does 
not affect the others. 

Ammonia is indifferent toamber, dammar, shellac, elemi, and 
Caramba wax ; copal, sandarach. and mastic become soft, and 
finally dissolve ; while rosin will dissolve at once. 

It is not difficult by means of these reactions to test the dif- 
ferent resins for their purity. 


Common Napie. 



Anime or Animi . . \ 



Australian gum- I 

resins I 


Benzoin or BeQJamin 
Canada balsam 

Caoutchouc \ 



Dragon^s blood . . . j 





Gum-dragon. .. . 

Gutta-percha . . . 

Indian copal .... 
India-rubber . . . 




Piney vamisli ., 

Pitch , 



Scammony .... 



Botanical Name. 

Native Place. 

Dorema ammoniacum . 
Hymenaea courbaril . . . 
Vateria indica 

Nartbex assafoetida, etc. 
Eucalyptus (various). . j 

Achras dissecta 

Styrax benzoin 

Prussia, Poland, 
' etc 

Persia, etc 

I Brazil C 

India ) 

I Trinidad, Dc 
I Sea, etc 

! Central Asia... 


, Tasmania 


Abies balsamea, etc .... 

Siphonia brosiliensi. . . . 

Ficua elastica, etc 

Urceola elastica 

Hymenaea (various). . . | 

Dammara anstralis New Zealand. 

- , , (\ East Indies 

Calamus draco } Canaries 

£. Indian Islands i 



East Indies 

E. Indian Islands 

W. Africa, E. In 
dies, S. America I 

Dracaenadraco,etc.... I g America. 

I Tropics 

Ferula galbaniflua j levant 

Cambo-ia gutta 1 ; Cambogia, Siam, 

Hebradondron J gj^, 

Gambogioide^, etc. 

Monsonia burmanni .... 
(See Dragon's blood.) 

Isonandra gutta. 

Vateria indica 

{See Caoutchouc.) 
Pterocarpus erinaceua. . 

Ficus religiosa . . 
Butea frondosa . 

9. Africa . 

Malay Islands . 

India . . . 
Gambia . 


Pistacia lentiscus Scio 

Balsamodendron myrrh Shores of Red Sea ■ 
(See Animi and Indian copal.) 

Quality, Use, etc. 

Pin us sylvestris 

Pinus palustris , etc. , . . . 
Callitris quadrivalvis. .. 
Convolvus scammonia.. 
(See Lac.) 
Styrax officinale 


Sweden, etc 

X. .\.mertca,etc. 


Asia Minor 

Found in the mines, rivers, and sea coasts of Prussia. 
Used in varnish and for mouth-pieces of pipes. 

Used as a stimulant in medicine. 

Used for varnish. The Indian kind known in commerce 
OS " Indian Copal." 

Forms a basis of black varnishes, as Japan black, etc. 
Used with sand for paving material. Affords petrole- 
um or rock oil. 

Used as a stimulant and antispasmodic in medicine. 

Affords resins for varnishes, and produces tan»iu. 

One of the Sapotese ; allied in quahtiea to gutta-percha. 
Fragrant. Used in incense, perfumerj-, pastilles ; affords 

benzoic acid. 
Becomes solid on exposure to the air. Used to mount 

microscopic objects, for varnish, and as a cement for 

optical glasses. 
The solidified milky juice of many families of plants. Is 

very elastic ; has the property of uniting with sulphur, 

magnesia, etc. ; is used for submarine coating, etc.; 

is of the highest value in mechanica and manufactures. 

Used for varnish. 

Used in making varnish. Obtained from Cowdi pine. 
Found where the tree has formerly grown. 

Deep reddish-brown color. Used (after being dissolved in 
alcohol) for staining material for marble, wood, leath- 
er, etc., and to color varnishes. 

Ointment, plasters, varnish. 

Used in pharmacy. 

Yellow. Used as a pigment and as a gold lacquer, etc. 

Produces much resin. Found in the sands about the 
Cape of Good Hope- The resin is produced afur the 
death of the plant. 

The solidified milky juice of many species of Sapotacese. 
Being plastic when heated, l** u^ed in molding, electro- 
plating, etc. Is a bad conductor of both heat and 

Called "Piney Varnish." Sunilar to Animi. 

Used as an astringent in medicine. 

Resin produced by the puncture of a hemipterous insect 
on the tree, especially the " Pecpul." Sold in com- 
merce as shellac, threadlac, blwklac. Used to make 
sealing-wax, glass-cement, varnishes , and for bodies of 
hats, etc. [astringent. 

Used for varnish. Employed by dentists. A,roniatic, 

Used as an antispasmodic , stomachic , etc. , and in tooth- 
I powder. 

The residuum of the distillation of pyroligneous acid 
I from wood-tar. [from the raw turpentine. 

I The residue left after the distillation of oil of tur;>entine 
I Used in varnishes. When powdered, affords pounce. 
1 Used as a purgative in medicine. [Incense. 

Asia Minor i Soft ; unctuous, and used as an expectorant. 




Common Name. 

Botanical Name. 

Native Place. 

Quality, Use, etc. 

Storax (liquid) 

Tar (wood) 


Turpentine (Stras- | 

burg) ( 

Turpentine (Venice) 


Pinus sylvestris j 

Pinus palustris 

Abies picea 

Larix europoea 

United States 

Sweden, and Kua- 

Fragrant; bitter; expectorant. 

Obtained by kIovv distillation of the branches and roots 

of the pine, etc., whilst burning in a nearly closed 

Used in medicine, painting, and as a solvent for resins. 



Gums Phoper. 



Gum-tragacanth.. | 

Gum (various) 

Acoia arabica et vera. . . 

Solanum tuberosum . . . 
Astragalus tragacan- ( 

tha, etc J 

P>Tus, prunus, etc 

N Africa, Asia, etc. 
Britain, etc 

Asia Minor, Persia 

Britain, etc j 

Finest of the gums. Soluble in water. 
Torrefied potato-starch Called dextrine. 

For mucilage and as a substitute for gum-arabic. 
Soluble in water. Exudes from apple, pear, cherry, and 
other trees. 

Re-sist'. (Pj/evtfj.) A material applied to cot- 
ton clotli to prevent tlie action of a mordant or color 
on those portions to which it is applied in the forai 
of a pattern. 

Resists act mechanically or chemically. 

Fat or paste forms a mechanical resist, as it pre- 
vents the access of the mordant or color. 

Chendcal resists act upon the color, and prevent 
its fixing itself in the fabric. 

2. (Calico-dyeing.) A process in which those por- 
tions of the cloth which are intended to remain un- 
eolored are saturated with a substance which resists 
the action of the dye when immersed in the dye-vat. 

The resist; a preparation of copper, imparts a brown 
tint to those parts to which it is applied, and the cloth 
is dipped in the dyeing solution, indigo in lime-water, 
with a proportion of copperas, which deoxidizes and 
decolorates the indigo ; on being removed I'rom the 
vat the cloth is of a greenish hue, which .soon becomes 
blue by the reoxidation of the indigo on its contact 
with the air ; the parts covered by the resist become 
charged with blue in the vat, the copper salt parting 
with its oxygen to the indigo. The blue thus formed 
has no union with the fiber, and is easily removed 
by weak acid, while that formed in the spots not 
touched by the resist remains fast. 

In the china blue process the figures are printed 
with indigo thickened with paste, and by alternate 
immersion in lime-water and solution of copjieras 
the indigo is dissolved and fixed in the spots where 
so applied by similar chemical reactions. 

In the discharge process, employed for black and 
white, or red or chocolate and white, the cloth is 
passed through red or iron liquor, dried, and dijiped 
in a mordant, — this is termed padding ; it i.s then 
printed with citric acid, thickened with wasted 
starch, wliich discharges the mordant, so that when 
dyed the discharged figures are left white. Logwood 
is used for black, and madder for red and chocolate. 

Re-sist'ance-box. (Telegraphy.) Aninclosing- 
box for a resistance-coil. 

Re-sist'ance-coil. (Telegraphy.) A coil intro- 
duced into a circuit to increase the resistance. It 
has normally a greater resistance than the remainder 
of the circuit. It is usually of a material of a less 
conducting power than the main circuit, say of Ger- 
man silver in a circuit of copper. See Rheostat. 

Res'o-na'tor. An instrument invented by Pro- 
fessor Helndioltz for facilitating the analysis of com- 
pound sounds. It consists, in its simplest form, of 
a tapering tube or a hollow bulb, s])herical or nearly 
so in form, having an ojiening at one side for the 
air and a tube adapted to the ear at the other. When 
the instrument is fitted to one ear, the other being 
stopped, tones above or below the pitch of the reso- 

nator will be but imperfectly heard ; but if a note be 
sounded corresponding to the peculiar or proper note 
of the resonator, it will appear gre.atly intensified. 

Each resonator of this kind is adapted to the de- 
tection of but a single tone ; but Helmholtz has also 
devised a compound resonator, consisting of three 
tubes sliding one within the other, so as to adapt it 
to notes of different pitch. Aiiotlier fflrni has been 
constructed, having holes like a tiute, which are 
openeil and closed by the fingers. 

If the particular tone to which the resonator employee! is at- 
tuned is contained in the sound under investigation, that tone 
will be sounded by the resonator. 

By employing a set of these any sound or sounds may be 
wholly or partially resolved into elementary notes, proving that 

Fig. 4270. 


those emitted by the voice or by musical instruments are not 
simple, but compound tones of different intensity and pitch, 
blending so as to form an apparently simple note when beard 
by the unassisted ear. 

Fig. an. 





Fig. 4271 is an instrument for illustrating the influence of 
different musical tones upon ttie vibrations of flames. A series 
of organ-pipes tuned to produce the various notes of the gamut 
are arranged one above the other upon a vertical stand ; at the 
side of ttiis stand are a series of gas-jets. When air is forced 
into the pipes each flame wijl vibrate in concord with the pipe 
to which it is opposite. 

A four-sided mirror, on a vertical axis, is rapidly rotated by 
means of a crank and bevel-gears, when the reflections of the 

A lathe-rest is a horizontal bar attached to the 
bed or shears, for the support of the turning-tool. 

A slide-rest supports the turning-tool, and has 
motion in several directions by means of screw s. See 
Lathe ; Slide-kkst. 

2. A support for the muzzle of a gun in aiming 
and firing. The arbalest or cross-bow and the earlier 

flames in the mirror present the appearance of a series of teeth hand fire-arms were always thus supported, and the 
im the flames rise and laU. j^^g gy^^, ^f jj^^ Jloors and Arabs are still univer- 

Res'pi-ra'tor. A device worn over the mouth 
to exclude injurious matters, such as smoke or dust, 
from the lungs ; or to change the condition of the 
air by passing it through medicaments or gauze. 

Respirators are used by cutlers and other grinders 
to exclude the dust from the lungs. Such respi- 
rators may have magnetic gauze, to attract the pass- 
ing particles of steel. Respirators for persons hav- 
ing weak lungs have several plies of fine gauze, which 
warm the air as it passes through. Professor Tyn- 
dall's fireman's respirator is attached to a mask, and 
consists of an iron cylinder packed with cotton wool, 
glycerine, and charcoal. The wearer is enabled to 
remain from a quarter to half an hour in an at- 
mosphere of smoke, which he could not otherwise 

Galibert's respirator (a) is designed for the use of 
firemen and others who may be compelled to enter 
places filled with smoke or no.xious gases. It con- 
sists of a fire-proofed canvas sack, inflated with air 

Fig 4272. 

Fig. 4273. 




by a bellows and strapped to the back ; this is pro- 
vided with two pipes leading to a horn mouthpiece, 
through which the wearer breathes ; a nose piece for 
expiration and goggles to protect the eyes complete 
the apparatus. 

The apparatus of Rouqnayrol and Dcnayrouze (J) is 
used by divers in submarine operations. It embraces 
nil iron or steel reservoir, capable of resisting great 
pressure, and surmounted by a valved chamber 
which regulates the amount and pressure of the air 
inhaled by the workman. From this chamber a 
valved pipe having a mouthpiece, to be held between 
the lips, is conducted through the helmet which 
forms part of the armor worn by the diver. The 
cylinder is charged with compressed air by an air- 
pump at the surface, which need not be kept in con- 
tinuous operation. The valves admitting air from 
the cylinder to the chamber, ami from the latter to 
the lungs, open and close automatically during the 
jirocess of breathing. 

The cut illustrates a party of divers recovering a 
chest of gold which had been lost overboard from a 
steamer in the harbor of Marseilles. 

Rest. 1. (Lathf.) A device for supporting a 
piece of work in a lathe or vise. 


sally provided with a device of this kind. In civil- 
ized countries the rest is employed by sharp-shooters 
and in practice-firing. See Rifle. 

It may consist of a stake or picket, whose pointeil 

end is driven into the ground, the gun resting in a 

crotch at the upper extremity ; or, as in some of the 

European amiies, of a device having a screw point, 

by which it may be attached to a tree or 

other support. 

—-■~~—^ jn experimental firing, an adjustable 

table or trestle, on which all that pait 

of the gun in front of the trigger-guard 

rests, is sometimes employed. 

Fig. 4273 is Kinman's rest. It is 
strapped around the body of the rifleman 
by the belts J d. It has a rigid vertical 
aim E carrying the adjustable pivote<l 
arm F. This has a free movement cor- 
resj ending with the natural movement 
of the aru], and may be made to bear 
rigidly on the arm E, so as to afford a 
fiiTu support to the piece in aiming and 
: ^:g^s-iisb: Res'tau-rant-car. One adapted for 
' ^ ' affording meals to passengers on board 

■Rliile traveling. See HoTEL-tAU. 
Re-tain'ing-^all. (Engineering.) 
A wall erected to maintain a bank of earth in posi- 
tion, as in sunk fences, faces of earthwuiks, railway 
cuttings, sea-walls, etc, 

A rctaining-wall is, strictly speaking, one erected 
to hold an artificial bank in upright or nearly up- 

Fig. 4274. 

Retaining and Breast Walls. 

right position. A breast-wall is one erected against 
a natural bank, or one whose materials are undis- 
turbed, but whose face has been made by excava- 

The proportions of rptaininir-walls vary with the character 
and dip of the material at tile back, and also with the defrrcc cf 
huntidity of the strata cut by the excavation. They arv re- 




quired to stand ogaiost the lateral thrust and perpendicular 

The thickness under average circumstances may be, at the 
bottom, one third of the higiu, diuiiuishej by .set-ofTs on the 
inside- For walla exposed to the wash of water on the outside, 
and to the percolation of water, a greater thickness is required, 
say one half the liigiit. 

The maetrial will vary with local and economic considerations, 
stone, brick, or concrete: of the latter the French form (see 
R^ON) may be considered the most perfect. 

Re-tic'u-lat'ed Glass. (Glass.) A species of 
onianieutal ghissware loniierly made in Venice and 
recently revived by Pohl. It is produced by a net- 
work of air-bubbles inclosed in the glass and arranged 
in regular interlacing series. A bundle of small 
glass rods are arranged cylindrically, fixed by melted 
glass, and lieated till the rods cohere. The bunch 
is tlien drawn out to a long cone and spirally twist- 
ed. Anotlier bunch is similarly elongated and twisted 
in the other direction. One of these cones is inserted 
in the other and the two fused together. Wherever 
the little rods cross each other a bublile of air is in- 
closed, and the reticulated ap]iearanee is thus given. 
Re-tic'u-laf ed Mi-crom'e-ter. Invented by 
Malvasia, about IGtiO, who constructed a network of 
silver wires, crossing ench other at right angles, and 
dividing the field of the telescope into a number of 
equal S'piares. It is used for measuring small celes- 
tial distances. The reticulated micrometer consists 
of an eye-piece of low power, having stretched across 
it a number of wires at right angles to and at equal 
and known ilistances from each other. The wires 
are illuminated with the lantern, and the object 
measured by noting the number of divisions covered 
by it. See Wike MiciioMF.rErt. 

Re-tic'u-Iat ed Work. (Masonry.) Masonry 
formed of small square stones or bricks placed loz- 
enge-wise. See Rktioulatum. 

Re-tic'u-la'tion. A method of copying a paint- 
ing or drawing liy the help of threads stretched across 
a frame so as to form S([uares. 

Re-tic'u-la'tum. A form of masonry consisting 
of layers of squared 
r« *27o. stone laid horizon- 

tally and obliquely 
so as to present 
their edges at the 
face of the wall, 
giving an appear- 
ance of network: 
hence the name. 

Layei-s laid as 
described usually 
alternate with 
courses laid flat- 

It is a fanciful 
style of masonry, adopted in ancient Rome, involv- 
ing great labor, and is not now in use. 

Re-tired' riank. (ForHfication.) A flank bent 
inwaid toward the rear of the work. For instance, 
the addition of such flanks, partially closing the 
garrr, changes a rcdui to a lunette. See Lunette. 
Re-tort'. A vessel in whose chamber an object 
is subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat, 
a neck conducting off' the volatile products. 

1. The retort of the pharmacy or laboratory is a 
v_es.sel of glas.s, platinum, porcelain, or other mate- 
rial, and its various uses may lie understood by con- 
sulting Muspratt, Morfitt, and lire. 

2. The retort of the gas-works is a cylinder or 
segment of a cylinder, and is formed of clay or of 
iron. The results are carbureted hydrogen, which 
passes off with various imjnirities which" are elimi- 
nated by watei-, lime, copperas, etc. ; and coke, which 
forms a valuable fuel. See Gas. 

Opus Reticulatum. 

Clegg's revolving-web retort, for making coal-gas 
(Fig. 4276), has a hoj)per a from which the coal, in 
small fragments, is delivered by a feed-wheel b on to 
an endless web c made of plate iron, passing around 
two drums d d, whose revolution causes it to travel 
at a slow, fixed rate, so that the coal may be cxjiosed 
a sufficient length of time to the heat of the flues e e 
from a lateral furnace by which the retort is heated. 

Fig. 4276. 

Clegg's Gas- Retort. 

On reaching the pipe/, which is made air-tight by a 
suitable door or by dipping into water, the coke is 
discharged from the web. 

Retorts for gas are now frequently made of clay, 
insteail of iron, and are sometimes nearly 20 feet 
long, being charged from and discharging at each end. 
See Gas-ketort. 

Fig. 4277 shows the relation of the different parts 
forming the ordinary gas ajiparatiis. Tlie coal is 
heated in the retorts, and the resulting gas conducted 
by pipes to the hydraulic main, the pijies dipping 
beneath the surface of water in the main, consti- 
tuting what is known as a seal, to prevent reflow 
of the gas. From the vtain the gas passes to the 
co^idcnser, where it is cooled and the tar precipi- 
tated ; thence to the washer, in which the ammonia 
is removed by passing the gas through water ; thence 
to the purifier, where the sulphur comjiounds are 
removed by lime, .sesquioxide of iron, iron ore, or 
other material. (See pages 953, 954.) From the 
purifier it passes to the holder, where it is stored for 
use. (See Gas, pages 943 - 957.) 

3. The retorts for the distillation of mercury from 
cinnabar, as erected by Dr. Ure at Landsberg, in 
Bavaria, resemble gas-retorts. 

In the quicksilver works of New Almaden, in California, the 
ore is roasted in closed chambers with luted covers. At Idria, 
in Austria, the mode is a true furnace process, the ore being 
above the fire, the volatile results, both of combustion and sub- 
limation, being conducted to condensing-chambers. In the 
Palatinate, retorts of pottery are used, their necks being luted 
into receivers containing water. See Mercurt-fcrnace. 

4. The retort for silver amalgam is shown at a (Fig. 
4278). It is commonly made twelve inches diameter 
inside, with a hood at the mouth having lugs to catch 
the (damp which fastens the door. The whole retort 
is set on cast-iron bearers in an arch, with the fire- 
grate under it. The neck of the retort passes through 
the back wall and connects with the condenser. The 
condensed quicksilver filters through a bag fastened 
on the end of the pipe, and is received into a tray. 
A cast-iron front, with closed doors, prevents the 
fumes from passing into the retort-room, an<l com- 
pels them to pass into the flue. Two tiers of amal- 
gam trays may be used in this retort at the same 
time, one above the other. The bottoms of the low er 
tier are circular, so as to conform to the shape of 
the retort. 

The iron retort for gold amalgam is a cast-iron 
crucible-like cup h, to which a Hat iron tiqi is fas- 
tened, a bent pipe of the size of small g.ts tubing 
passing out at the center, forming the neck of the 




Gas Retort^ Condenser, Purifier, and Ho'det 

retort. Upon the application of heat the niercurj' 
is expelled ami collected under water at the end of 
the Uihf, for future use. c is a section of another 
foiin of retort for gold amalgam. 
Kg. 4278. 

Re-touch'ing-ta'ble. (Photography.) A glass- 
top table, 01- one with an opening to suit the size of 
a negative, inclined for the convenience of the art- 
ist, and used 

Fig. 428(1 

Fig. 4279. 

Retiirisfor Gold and Silver Amalgams. 

5. Nitric-acid retorts are cast-iron cylinders, and ! 
resemble those fur coal-gas, or are made of glass or 
p^>ttery in a sand pot heated by the furnace fire. 

There are many other retort-s used in distillation 
and sublimation, such as those in which carbureted 
hydrogen and pyroligneous acid are obtained from 
woo 1, g:u< from tar, oil and other materials yielding 
hydrocarbons. See works on practical chemistry and 
chemical manipulations. 
Re-tort'-scal'er. An instrument to cleanse the 
incrustation from the inside of coal- 
gas retorts. 

It acts mechanically to break 
away the scale, or is an arrangement 
for dri\ing air into the red-hot iv- 
tort to burn away the incrusted mat- 

Re-tort'-stand. {Chemical.) A 
device («) for holding retorts or flasks 
while heat is applied by a spirit- 
' lamp. It consists of a flat plate 
carrying an upright rod to which 
sliding lings of va- 
rious sizi'S are fit- 
ted ; these may he 
held at any suit- 
able liight by clamp 
screws. A similar 
upright with slid- 
ing rings is fre- 
quently added for 
holding the recciv- 
R, tort- Stands. er, as at b. 

with a mirror 
below to throw 
light through a 
negative for the 
purjwise of re- 
touihing. For- 
merly, india- 
ink and a hair 

Retouching- Table. 

pencil were used to improve and repair the surface, 
but a lead- pencil used as a stipple is now the usual 

Re-tract'or. 1. (Surgcnj.) a. A towel or rub- 
ber cloth, which is employed to hold back the flaps 
while the bone is being sawn off. 

6. A hook or hoe-like instrument of metal, hard 
mbl>er, or horn, to hoM back of flesh or any- 
thing obstructing the view while operating on deep- 
seated organs. 

2. (Fire-arms.) A device by which the metallic 

rig. 4281. 

Cartridge- Retractor. 




Fig. 4282. 


cartiiilgi- - cases employed in brecch-lo.iding guns 
are withdrawn alter tiring. A lug or prong rests 
behind the flange of the 
cartridge and withdraws 
the spent shell when the 
breech is opened. In Fig. 
4282, the positive move- 
ment of the notched ex- 
tractor-plate loosens the 
shell from the bore, and 
after passing a certain point 
a spring conies into play, 
and gives a sudden impulse 
to the shell, which throws 
it clear of the fire-arm. 
Re-trench'meut (Fortijication.) a. A traverse 
or defense against Hanking fire in a covered way or 
other portion of a work liable to be enfiladed. 

b. A breastwork and ditch behind another defen- 
sive work. 

c. An interior rampart or defensible line to which 
a girrison may retreat to prolong a defense. 

Re-tTO-ver'sion-iu'stru-ment. (Surgery.) An 
instrument lor lectifying an entire or partial inver- 
sion of the womb. 

Sinis's uterine repo-sitor consists of a short metallic 
sounder, rotatable on a long shaft, through which 
runs a rod, by means of which the sounder may be 
fixed at any angle after introduction in utero, and 
the uterus restored to its normal position. 

Ret'ting, Rot'ting, Rat'ing. (Fiber.) Steep- 
ing III' W.ix or lifiup, for the purpose of loosening the 
fiber from tlie boon and woody portion by the soften- 
ing of the gummy portion which binds "them. 

Flax, after the removal of the bolls and seed by rippb'n^, is 
bound in sheaves and immersed in water, the alieaves beinK 
p.icked loosely and re.sting on their butts. They are covered 
with sods, grass side down, or by straw and poles. The water 
should be soft and in gentle motion. Fermentation softens the 
gum. which binds the fibers and loosens the hare from the bark 
and boon. 

The process having continued till the fibers part from 
the^oo't (the pith or infernal woody portion), the bunches 
are raised, drained for twenty-four hours, and then spread 
on the grass to dry and get wet alternately ; the showers, 
sun, and air completing the preparation of the fiber for 
the mechanical treatment, — the brake and 
the scutcher. This exposure to weather ■ — r' 

is termei ^rassiii^. , 

The time occupied in retting is from six ■ ■ 

to twenty days, according to tempeniture. y ^ 

Dnv rettirtg is accomplished by expos ng the Hax stjilks 
to the weather, without steeping, the sun, showers, and 
air rotting the woody portion and washing away the mu- 

Schenck's retting apparatus, 1851, consists of circular 
Tats, in which the flax is placed, being kept down by a 
weight while it is swelled by water maintained at a heat of 
90^ by the introduction of steam Passing to the acetous 
fermentation, the mucilage is rendered perfectly soluble 
and is run off, the flax being then removed and dried. The pro- 
cess takes about sixty hours. The flax is exposed to the air 
upon frames or dried by steam heat. 

Bower's retting process { English ) consists in alternately steep- 
ing and rolling the stalks, so as to soften and press out the 
mucilage by the alternate process 

Caustic ammonia, or other salt, is added to the rain water, in 
which the plant is steeped. (Ammonia, 1 pound : water, at 90** 
to 120°, 1.50 pounds.) The process takes about thirty hours 

Another process consists in the repeated application of an 
alkaline solution in a vessel exhausted of air. This is said to 
take but a few hours. Heat is probably applied. 

The process with hemp is .lubstantially similar to the wateiv 
retting of flax 

The stalks in bundles are steeped in running streams until 
the cellular portion is rotting, the gummy so much softened 
as to wash away, and the woody so far loosened as to readily fall 
away from the fiber when the stalk is dried and operated upon 
by the brake. 

Re-turn '-flue Boil'er. (Steam-engine.) A 
steam-boiler iu which the heated gases return 
tlirough a flue in the water space, after passing 
thiough a direct flue, or alongside of the boiler. See 

Re-tum'-valve. A valve which opens to allow 
reflux of a fluid under certain conditions. In some 
cases it is merely an overflow-valve which allow s ex- 
cess of liquid to return to a reservoir. 

Re-veal'. (Carpentry and Masonru.) The verti- 
cal retuni or side of an aperture, chimney, doorway, 
or window. 

In a chimney it is equivalent to the jamb, or, 
when beveleil, the coning. 

In windows tlie reveal is the outside-return, or the 
space between the window-frame and the exteriorarri-s. 

Re-verTjer-a-to'iy-fur'nace. (Mctallurgi/.) H 
furnace in which ore, metal, or other material is ex- 
posed to the action of flame, but not to the contact 
of burning fuel. 

The flame passes over a bridge and then downward 
upon the material, 

which is spread up- Fig. 4283. 

on the hearth. 

Seneca credits 
Democritus with the 
invention of the re- (r 

The revei'beratory 
is a very usual form 
of furnace, and is 
used in the treat- 
ment of many met- 
als. See list under. 
FuRNACE.s; also 



Fig. 4283 is a re- 
verberatory, with 
around the fire-box and in the fire-bridge. 

In Fig. 4284, air is heated by contact w'ith the 
walls and introduced into the metal chamber in con- 
verging currents the full width of the throat. 

Fig 4284. 

ReverberaloTy, with Water-Boshes, 

Reverberatory with Air-Ducts. 

The reverberatory-funiace for copper has a fur- 
nace-chamber, hearth, two tuyeres, and two cisterns, 
into which the molten results of the process are dis- 

The .tole of the chamber is covered with a composition of clay 
and pounded charcoal, and thecharge of black copper laid upon 
it. The furnace is filled with wood and lighted, and when the 
metal is melted, a blast from the two tuveres r * is matle to 
spread over the surface of the metal in chamber A, oxidizing 
the sulphur, lead, and iron. The slags are raked off l\v the 
door D Red scoriae are formed containing suboxide of cop- 
per, which affects the malleability of the resulting meUil. 
The operator withdraw.s a small quantity of metal from lime 
to time, and tests it under the hammer to judge of ita condi- 

The metal is flowed from the hearth to the cisterns B B, and 
water thrown on the surface, producing a congealed scale of red 
metal This Is removed, and the process rej^eated until the 
metal is all reduced to the form of blistered scales or platen. See 
Calcinino-purnace, Fig. 1023; Copper-furmace, page 618. 

Re-verse'. The back of a coin ; in contradis- 
tinction to the obverse, or face. 




Fig. 4285. 

Severberatory Copper Furnace. 


Fig. 4286. 

Reversible Filter. 

R e- verse d' 
Arch. An arch 
with its convexity 
downward. An in- 
vcrtcd aveh. 

Re- verse d ' 
Curve. (Uail- 
way Eiiquuiering.) 
When a curved part 
of the track, in- 
stead of terminating 
in a tangent, joins 
another curving in 
an opposite direc- 
tion, tile two are 
said to form a re- 
versed curve. 

Re-verse d' 
O-gee'. (Architcc- 
litre.) Tlie cyma 
rcvcrsa, a molding 
composed of two 
circular arcs, the 
upper convex and 
the lower concave 
to the surface from 
which it projects. 
{Steam-engine.) A valve in 
a steam-boiler opening 
inward to the pressure 
of the atmosphere when 
there is a negative press- 
ure in the boiler. A 

Re-vers'i-ble Pil'- 
ter. One through which 
the fluid may flow in 
either direction. In 
thatshown, the filter- 
ing material is inclosed' 
in a porous cylinder, 
and between two dia 
pliragms in the chamber. 
Valves ceif have their 
seatsin these diaphragms 
and open in reverse direc- 

tions ; either may act as 
the inlet or outlet, according to the way the water 
Re-vers'i-ble Lock. A lock which may be ap- 
plied to a door hinged 
to the jamb of either 
side, or opening either 
inward or outward. 
This involves turning 
the latch-bolt over, so 
that its beveled edge 
may slide freely over 
the catch, without re- 
quiring the knob to be 
turned in order to close 
the door. 

In Mallory, Wheeler, 
&Co.'slork (Fig. 4287), 
this is eff'ected by sim- 
ply pulling the bolt 
forward until it clears 
the notch in the rim, 
MalloTy, Wheelrr, If Co. U Reversible s,nA turning it half 
■^'*- round. 

Re-vers'i-ble Mouth-bit (Menage.) A bit 
having a rule joint ; when in one position it works the 
same as the Pelham, while, if reversed, it becomes a 
BtitiVmouth bit. 

Fig. 4288, 

Re-vers'i-ble Plow. (Agriculture.) A plow 
whose cutting apparatus is capable of being revei-sed, 
to throw the furrow slice in either dii'ectiou, as re- 
quired. See Side-hill Plow. 

Re-vers'i-ble Seat. One for railway-cars, so as 
to be laid over on either side, 
according to the direction in 
which the car is traveling. 
In Fig. 4288, the head-rest is 
liadded, and traverses the 
seat-back, so as to be drawn 
upward from either side. 

Fig. 4289 has a hinged 
back, is reversible on its 
frame, and has hooks and 
fle.\ible side-straps for sup- 
porting the arms of the sitter. 

Re-vers'ing. (Engrav- 
ing.) Obliterating engraved 
lines on plate by means of 
blows of a bare hammer on 
the engraved plate, W'hose back 
rests on a sheet-lead covering 
to the anvil. The reaction of the lead causes it to 
rise in ridges corresponding to the eugiaved lines, 

Fig. 4289 

Reversible Car-Seat. 

Reversible and Reclining Seat. 

and to drive the thin plate liefore it, filling up the 
cuts in the face of the plate, and making a corre- 
sponding concavity in the back. 

Re-vers'ing-coun'ter-shaft. (Machinei-ii.) One 
which may be rotated either way for changing the 
direction of motion in the machine driven by it. 
One of the pulleys a b, which are loose on the shaft, 
carries a straight and the other a crossed belt pass- 
Fig. 4290. 

Reversing' Countershaft, 

ing through the forks c d; nn moving the lever e to 
the right or left, either belt may be transferred to 




the fast iiulley/, causing it and the countershaft on 
which it iy keyed to turn in either direction, 

Re-vers'ing-gear. (Steam.) The apparatus for 
reversing tlie motion of a marine or locomotive en- 
gine, hy changing the time of action of the sHde- 
valve ; the eccentric being in advance of the crank 
for the forward motion will, if turned to an eiiual 
distance beljind the crank, produce a backward mo- 

Re-vers'ing-han'dle. (Steam-engine.) A lever 
which oiierates the valve so as to reverse the action 
of the steam. A revcrshuj -lever. 

In locomotives, the lever of the link-motion con- 
trols the valve entirely, both tor forward and revers- 
ing motions and for throttling. 

In marine engines, the reversing movement is by 
means of a wheel and worm acting upon a rack. 

Re-vers'ing-mo'tion. An appliance by which 
the motion of the engi?ie is changed from the direct 
to the reverse^ as in the case of a crank which is 
caused to turn in a direction contrary to its former 
motion, or the driving-wheels of a locomotive to 
rotate backwardly. 

The action of the steam is reversed before the pis- 
ton has completed a given stroke, so that the ]iarts 
which receive motion therefrom return on their for- 
mer motion, or hack^ so to speak. 

The reversing-apparatus of the locomotive, where 
it is most used, is the Link-motion (which see). 

Another common form is the eccentric -rod, whose 
gab-hook is attached to one or the other of the wrists 
on an arm keyed to the rock-shaft. 

Re-vert'ing-draft. In steam-boilers, when the 
current of hot air and smoke returns backward on a 
course parallel to its former one. In contradistinc- 
tion to a direct^ wheel, or split draft. 

Re -vet' men t. 1. (Fortification,) A facing to 
a wall or bank, as of a scarp or parapet. 

The material depends upon the character of the 
work, whether permanent or field works. In the 
former the revetment is usually of masonry ; in the 
latter it may be of sods, gabions, timber, hurdles, 
rails, or stones. 

KfnV revetment is carried up the scarp, exterior slope, and su- 
perior dnpe. See Parapet. 

A demi-revetinent is when a portion only of the rampart is 

A recian^itlar revetment is one in which the vertical walls 
have an equal thickness throu;;hout. 

A lenninfi revetment hiis a wall of even thickness, sloping to- 
ward ttie 

A slnping revetment is thicker at the base, the back Tertical. 

A coitnttr-sloinng rtvetment hua a sloping back and vertical 

A hollow revetment has a vaulted or defensive gallery in the 

A counter-arched revetment is similar to the hollow, having a 
gallery with embrasures or tonp-holes. 

2. (Civil Engineeriiuj.) A retaining or breast wall 
at the foot or on the face of a slope. See Retaining- 
WALL ; Ri:kakt-\vall ; Dike; Sea-wall. 

Re-vise'. (Printlnrj.) The second proof sub- 
mitted to the author, in order that he may examine 
whether the correetions have been made. 

The first proof is for the office reader. 

The second, or clean proof, for the author. 

The revise, for the author. 

Re-volv'er. 1. (JVcapon.) A fire-arm having 
a revolving barrel or breech cylinder, so as to dis- 
charge several loads in quick succession without 
being reloaded. In some pistols the barrel has a 
phirality of bores, in which the charges are inserted 
and from which they are fired ; more commonly, as 
in Colt's, the weapon has a cylinder at the base of 
the barrel, containing several chambers, generally 
six, in which the loads are placed, and all are fired 

through the single tube which constitutes the bar- 
rel ; in all the rotation is caused by devices actuated 
by the lock mechanism. 

The principle is not new, but it was first made a 
practical success by the late Colonel Sanmel Colt. 

Colt's revolving pistol is shown in section at D, and the cyl- 
inder and revolving mechanism detached at E. In general 
construction it closely resembles the ritie. The barrel c is of 
steel aud rifled. It has a socket beneath for receiving the ram- 
mer d with its lever d' and fixtures, and a longitudinal socket 
and transverse slot to receive and secure the cylinder-pin e. 

The cylinder / is of eteel, and has five or six chambers, of the 
same size as the barrel, or a very little larger, bored through it 
nearly to the rear end, leaving a sufficient thickness of metal to 
insure against bursting. Behind and entering each chamber a 
cavity is made, at the ba*e of which is a screw-threaded orifice, 
entering the cylinder, into which a cone is screwed. 

In another hole bored axially through the cylinder, the pin 
on which it turns passes, one end entering a cavity in the base 
of the lock-frame, and the other a socket in the enlarged por- 
tion beneath the barrel, where it is Pecurud by a key. 

On the base of the cylinder/is a ratchet having aa many 
teeth, five or six, as the chamber has barrels. The teeth are 
so arranged that when the hammer is at full cock, a chamber 
is directly in line with the barrel. On the surface of the cylin- 
der are cut as many small slots as there are chambers. That 
which happen.'* to be lowest at the time is entered by a bolt 
which is moved by the action of the lock, and is pressed into 
the slot by a spring, so that while in this position the cylinder 
is immovable. 

The lock-frame is directly in rear of the cylinder, and con- 
tains the firing mechanism. 

The sear and trigger are in one piece, as are also the hammer 
and tumbler g, upon which the main-spring acts directly. On 
the fiice of the tumbler is a pawl or hand h, which successively 
engages each of the teeth on the rear of the cylinder ; and the 
tumbler has also a projecting pin which at the proper time en- 
gages the bolt that locks the cylinder, lifting it out of the slot 
and allowing the cylinder to rotate under the action of the 
hand. When the pin no longer acts upon the bolt, it is forced 
by the spring into the next notch which presents itself. 

CoWs Revolver, 

The operation is as follows : The chambers having been 
loaded by inserting a cartridge successively in each and forcing 
it home by the rammer and its lever, and capping each cone, 
the hammer, supposed to be resting on one of the cones, is 
drawn back ; this causes the pin on the tumbler to disengage the 
bolt from the lowermost plot in the cylinder, and tlie hand en- 
gages a tooth and rotates the cylinder ' f, or i ,, of a revolution ; 
on arriving at full cock the pin is disengaged from the bolt, 
which then falls into the next slot and locks the cylinder; the 
weapon may then be discharged by pulling the trigger. 

In those pistols which are designed for firing metallic car- 
tridges, the cartridge is inserted at the base of the cylinder, the 
case being afterward pushed out by a device analogous to the 
rammer just described. 

Fig. 4292 shows a group of Colt's revolvers. 
jty the revolver musket for infantry. 
^, a revolving rifle for sporting. 
C, a revolver-carbine. 
d, a ]iistol. 

€, a i^istol mounted on a supplementary stock for 
shooting from the shoulder. 

Colonel Colt obtained his first patent in 1835, but his weapon 
was not perfected until 1845 On visiting England, he under- 
took to investigate the origin of repeating fire-arms, and the re- 
sult of his researches was that arms similar in principle to his 
own revolver had been invented four centuries before. 

In the Tower of London he was shown a match-lock gun, dating 
back to the fifteenth century, and closely resembling, in the 
principle of its construction, the revolver of the present day. 
It has a revolving breech with four chambers, mounted on an 
axis fixed parallel to the barrel, and on that axis it may be 




Fig. 4292. 

CoWs Revolvera. 

tQm<Nl round, to bring any one of the foor loaded chambers in 
Buccession in a line with the barrel, to be discharged through 
it. There are notches in a flange at the fore end of the revolv- 
ing brtrech to receive the end of a spring, which is fixed to the 
slock of the gun, for the purpose of locking the breech when a 
chamber is brought round into the proper position. The ham- 
mer i^ split at the end, so as to clasp a match, and to carry its 
ignited end down to the priming powder, when the trigger is 
pulled. Each chamber is provided with a priming-pan that is 
covered by a swing lid, and. before firing, the lid is pushed aside 
by the finger, to expose the priming powder to the action of the 
lighted match. In the lower armory was a specimen of a re- 
peating fire-arm of a more recent date, though still very ancient, 
and presenting considerable improvement on the preceding one. 
IthiLs six chambers in the rotating breech, and is furnished 
with a b;irytes lock and one priming-pan, to fire all the cham- 
bers. The priming-pan is fitted with a sliding cover, and a ver- 
tical wheel with a serrated edge projects into it, nearly in contact 
with the powder in the pan. To this wheel a rapid motion is 
given by means of a trigger-spring, acting upon a lever attached 
to the axis of the wheel, and the teeth of the wheel strike against 
the barytes, which is brought down, previously to firing, into 
contact with it, and the sparks tlius emitted set fire to the 
powler in the priming-pan, and discharge the piece. In this 
instance, also, the breech is rotated by hand. 

In Smith and Wesson's revolver (Fig. 4293), the 
Fig. 4293. 

Smith and Wesson''s Revoiver, 

cylinder is rotated in the usual ■way by a click oper- 
ated by the hammer in cocking and firing. 

The cylinder is connected with the barrel, which is pivoted 
to the lower metallic part of the stock, so that by setting the 
hammer at half cock, raising a spring-catch a, and depressing 
the muzzle, the bottom of the cylinder is turned up to receive 
the metallic cartridges. When the muzzle end of the barrel is 
thrown upward, the spring-catch reengages in the back plate, 
and the pistol may be fired. 

Fig, 4294 shows six revolvers which are interest- 
ing in the history of that tire-arm. 

a is a matchlock of the fifteenth century, in the Museum of 
the Tower of London. It has a revolving breech with four cham- 
bers, which rotates on an arbor parallel to the barrel. The 
chamber is turned by hand. 

6 is an arquebuse, with six chambers, each of which carries ita 
own pan for priming powder. A movable plate covers the pow- 
der-pans and exposes them serially to the match as a given 
chamber comes in line with the barrel. This is an Oriental 
piece, and was given to Mr. Forsyth by Lord William Bentwicb, 
the governor-general of India. 

e is an arquebuse, in the Tower of London, with six chambers 
in a revolving breech, and a flint lock. This has a sliding plate 
over the powder-pan. The turning of the breech is automatic. 

d is the arm of John Dafts, of London, and has six chambers. 

e is Etisha Collier's arm. patented in the United States in 
1818. The charge-cylinder has five chambers, and is turned by 
hand. The cylinder is held between two plates, of which the 
lower presses the cylinder toward the barrel, and the upper 
plate closes the chambers. The rod serving to charge the 
chambers is placed in the stock. The hammer carries a maga- 
zine of priming placed in the stock. This gun is No. 12f50 of the 
collection in the Museum of " St Thomas d'Aquin,'' in France, 
where also are several other ancient arms with revolving-cham- 
bered breeches. 

/ is s revolving-chamber flint-lock pistoI^ at Woolwich. 

Thev are thus described in Turgan'e " Etudes sur lArtillerie 
Moder'ne,'- Paris, 1867. The cylinders are all revolved by hand, 
and not by special mechanism. Three are with matches, and 
were made In the beginning of the seventeenth century. One 
(No. 1251) is a small flint-lock hunting arquebuse: the cylinder 
has eight chambers The vent is closed by a sliding cover ; a 
spring with a hook stops the cyUnder at the time It is in line 
with the barrel. 

1252 (of the same collection) Is an arquebuse with a match ; 
the cylinder has five chambers, and turns upon an axis parallel 
with the barrel. It has a pan for each barrel. 

1253 is a five-charge match arquebuse , having but one pan , of 
which vou renew the primins at each shot. 

1264 is a German musket of the middle of the seventeenth cen- 



Revolvers (Jrom the Fl/leenth Century to 1818). 

tury. It has a wheel-Iork. It has three chambers, and turns 
OD an axis panillel witli the barrel. 

12oj is a five-chauibcreU French flint-lock gun of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

1256 is a gun of the same date, with six chambers. 

2. {Htisbaiidnj.) A hay or .stubble rake whose liead 
has two sets of teeth projecting from opposite sides 
ill the same plane. The set in advance having col- 
lected a loi^d, the rake is tipped, making half a revo- 
lution, ilischarging the load and bringing the other 
set of teeth into action. See Fig. 245-4, page 1082. 

Re-volv'ing. Having a motion in an orbit, as 
that of a planet around the .sun ; the cylinder of a 
revolving -cylinder steam-engine around the shaft ; 
the jo^/t?tc^^/;/tcc/of thesun-and-planet motion around 
the sun-wheel. 

The terms rotary and revolvincf should not be con- 
founded, as they are needed in their specihc senses. 

Rotation on an axis, as a carriage- wheel, a sun- 

Revolution, as cited above. 

Re-volv'ing-boil'er. {Paper -tnaking.) A boiler 

Vig. 4295, 

Revolv ing- Brush. 

for paper-stock or pulp, rotating on trunnions, so aa 
to agitate the contents and expose the stock fully to 
the hot-water, steam, chemicals, etc. See PuLP- 


Re-volv'ing-brush. A mechanically rotated 
brush for the hair or for sweeping. The example is 
intended for barbers' use ; the frame has a curved 
portion resting against the person of the operator, 
and an elastic 

loop passing Fig. 4296. 

around his 
neck, and is 
turned by a 
hand-crank and 

ing-car. One 
which rolls as it 
travels. In the 
example, a cy- 
lindrical recep- 
tacle is attached 
to an axle sup- Revolving- Car. 

ported in a 

frame by two wheels, which run loosely on the axle 
to allow them to turn more easily. Each frame 
has a tongue, and two or more cars can be attached 
to each other. 

Re-volv'ing-cyl'in-der Steam-en'gine. One 
whose cylinder is mounted on trunnions and is 
caused to rotate by the reciprocation of the piston, 
in contradistinction to the rotary engine, in which 
the pistons rotate on an axis within a steam drum. 

The sectional view (Fig. 4297) exhibits an engine of this class, 
having a fly-wheel 

A with two cylin- Fig. 4297. 

ders D D rigidly 
attached to it and 
placed oppoBi to 
each other in a 
radial line. These 
cylinders have a 
common piston- 
rod, which is at- 
tached at its cen- 
ter to a crank-pin 
in such a manner 
that every fctoIu- 
tion of the fly- 
wheel A caused by 
the action of the 
steam in the cylin- 
ders produces two 
revolutions of the 

The stationary 
disk-valve /, with 
porta li d' and 
grooves / y, and 
pipes or channels 
r c' , control the 
admission and ex- 
haust of steam. 

In Scott and Mor- 
ton's steam-engino 
(Fig. 429S), the cyl- 
inder a is mounted 
on trunnions c d, 
and the piston-rod 
b is connected to a 
wrist-pin on the fly- 
wheel/". The trunnion c is journaled eccentrically in the 
hub of the fly-wheel, so that each revolves independently 
on its own axis. Previous to starting thceuginc, the piston 
is placed at half-stroke on one ^ide of the fly-wheel center. 
Steam is admitted to and exhausted from the cj linder 
through ports In the trunnion d. e is the steam-chest. 

The valve motion is controlled by the lever g, by 
which the engine is started or reversed, and by moving 
it back or forth on the arc h the lap of the valve is 

In Kipp's revolving-engines the exterior cylinder, to 
which a belt may be directly applied, it being surrounded by a 
laeglng for that purpose, is caused to rotate by the reciprocation 
of two pistons with duplicate heads in cylinders whose axes are 
at right angles to each other. The piston-head^ a a' are coa- 

Revolving- Cylinder Steatri- Engine. 


Fig. 4298. 

Revolving Steam-Engiru, 

nected, as are also 6 h', by the pieces r e e' c'. Yokes ff ft' con- I admitted through thcTalve /"to the central space g*, which serves 

nect these wi th a crank e on the main shaft of the trunk. Steam is 


Kipp^s Revolving-Enghu {Fersptctive View). 

asastwun-chest. Thearrangement of theporU^is phownat ». The 
drum is mounted on trunnions, through oneof whirh the steam 
enters, the other eerring to exhaust through one of the hollofi 

Fig. 4300. 

Sipp's Kevoiving-Ensin€ iiecliuiis). 

pillars <■ into the f«»d-wnter heater / ; an eccentric on the main 
shnft nl=o operates the fif^i-water pump 

In Fie- 4;^"^!, the drum T rotates in hearintr*, the s^e^m pasn- 
ine in and out at the respective trunnions The cyJiTider» n^cW- 
late Id bearings in the heads of the drum, and revolTc irith it. 




Fig. 4301. 

Revolving-Cylinder Steam-Engine. 

The reoiprocating pistons are connected by cranks to planetary 
gears H H which mutually and severally engage a fixed sun- 
wheel / on the central axis. Power is transmitted by a belt 
on the drum. 

Re-volv'ing-fur'nace. The 

Briii'kTuT it'Vdlviiig-rmiiace, lor clilo- 
riilizing, iU'.siilijliuriziii,<:, and roasting 
ores is sliown in Kigs. 4302, 4303, and 
4304. It is designed lor roa.sting ores 
with salt, and is a liorizontal cylinder, 
i-.onstrncted of boiler-plate iron and 
lined with fiie-brick. It is 12 feet long 
and 6 feet in diameter, supported on 
rollers, on which it is rotated by gear- 
ing. One enil of tlie cylinder com- 
nmnicates with a Iniek fireplace, while 
the opposite end is let into the .stack 
so that the Hanie from the fireplace 
passes through the interior of the cyl- 
inder. Within the cylinder there is an iron dia- 
phragmorpartitiou protected by fire-proof material and 

Fig. 4302. 

running longitu- fig 4303. 

dinally through 
the greater part 
of its length. It 
is made in sec- 
tions, which are 
held in grooves 
that are ioimed 
in the tubular 
ribs, which have 
open ends extend- 
ing outward be- 
yond the side of 
the cylinder, per- 
mitting the pas- 
sage of air. When 
tlie several sec- 
tions are in place, 
the entire parti- 
tion or diaphragm has the form of a rhomb, whose 
ends aie obtuse angles. It is placed at an angle of 
10' or 15° with the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, 
so that as the cylinder containing the charge is re- 
volved, the diaphragm causes a continuous pa.ssing 
and repassing of the material Ironi one end to the 
other, thereby mixing the wliole mass. A door for 
charging and discharging the ore is placed on the 
surface of the cylinder opposite the partition. The 
outsi<ie of the cylinder has flanges which rest on the 
rollers, and a toothed rib, with which 
the jiinion is placed in gear, causing the 

Bri chner Roa^lins-Funiac. 
( Transverse Section). 

'////■■■ I'll" '- I'll 

Bnickner^$ Revolving- Furnace [ Persjiectwe Vutr). 

Bruchner^s Revolving-Furnace (Longitudinal Section). 

whole to revolve. The fireplace and fire-fine are of 
brick or stone, with funnels large enough for the 
ends of the cylinder, which may fit into their places 
easily and revolve. Between the end of the cylin- 
der and the stack there is a dnst-chaniber, in which 
the fine material that is carried through with the 
draft may have an opportunity of settling. The 
charge of ore for the cylinder consists of 3,000 to 
4,000 pounds, with from 6 to 10 per cent of salt. 
The cylinder revolves slowly, mak- 
ing only one or two revidutions ]ier 
minute; it consumes about three 
quarters of a cord of wood per day ; 
the chloridation is said to be very 
thoroughly effected. See also IJo.xsT- 

VEit-MH.i, : Shaft-fitrnace. 

Re- volv'ing -grate. 1. One 
which exposes dillerent portions in 
turn to the feed-opening and to the 
greater fire heat, so as to coke the coals 
and then gradually bring them to the 
point where the fire is more urgent. 




2. An ore-roasting furnace with a horizontal re- 
volving-hearth. See ROASTIXG-FURNACE. 

Re-volv'ing-ham'mer. A hammer revolving 
with a shaft. 

In Fig. 4305, the apparatus consista of an armature revolved 

by a crank which 
Fig. 4305. carries two hammers, 

woose haudleSjhiugeii 
respectively upon 
axes at the ends of 
the armature, may 
fold back upon the 
armature and upon 
opposite sides there- 
of in such manner 
that the hammers 
will rest upon sup- 
ports attached to said 
armature lyiug with- 
in or nearly within 
the orbit of the axis 
to which the handles 
are secured, and the 
circle described by 
the armature. A 
rim or guard of un- 
evjual but proper curvature, which lies in the orbit of revolu- 
tion of the armature, prevents the hammer from being thrown 
from its support by centrifugal force until it shall have passed 
beyond a plane projected vertically through the axis of the 

Re-volv'ing-har^row. One wliich rotates in a 
plane parallel to the earth's surface, to assist the 
(iiagging action of the teeth. In Fig. 4^306, the 
beams that hold the teeth are attaoheil at their inner 
ends to a hexagonal central hub of iron, provided 
vith mortises in each of the six sides. iSee also 

Re-volv'ing-light. One character of light as 
displayed from a lighthouse. It is one of the forms 

Fig. 4306. 

Revolving' Hammer. 

utes, as may be required, a Fig. 4307. 

light gradually increafing to 
fuU strength, and then de- 
creasing to total darkness. 

The ijttermittent has 
steady light for a short time, 
and a sudden echpse, forming 
a dark interval. 

The fiashing is a revolving 
light in which the light is 
always visible, but alternates 
in power, the light rising 
and sinking at intervals of 
five seconds. See Ligeit. 

The reflectors are attached 
to a square retiec tor- frame, 
having an upright central 
shaft on which the apparatus 
turns. This is supported by a 
socket below and a bridge- 
piece above. It is rotated by clock-work and gearing. When 
the light is alternate red and ivhiie, the lamp chimneys of the 
lights on the respective sides are of red and white glass When 
two white lights alternate with one red, or vice versa, the frame 
is triangular or hexagonal, and the lights on the respective 
sides are suitably arranged for the sequence of colors. 

Re-volv'ing-ov'en. One having pans which re- 
Tolve on a horizontal axis, or a horizontal hearth on 

Revolving- Light. 



of interrupted lights ; the others are termed inter- 
mittcnt and flashing. Each of the three is dis- 
tinguished from theflxed, whose beams are constant. 
The fixed, revolving, intermittent, and flashing are 
each capable of variation as to color and number; in 
the latter respect as single and double. 

The characteristics nbove cited are variously combined, as, 
Tfvolvins whitf. r^volvinz red and it'hile, revn'vins red and two 
w/iius, dotifj'e fixfJ, double revolving white, etc., etc. 

The revolTinj; light is produced by the resolution of a frame 
with three or four sides. harinR reflectors of a larger size than 
those used for a fixed light, ^ouped on each side with their 
axes parallel. The revolution exhibits once in one or two min- 

The object is to pass the bread once 
around within the time required 
for baking, taking ott' a batch 
of loaves and putting on a batch 
of dough at each portion of a 
revolution. See Oven. 

Re-volv'ing-pan Mill. A mill for grinding 
mortar, etc. The pan a is caused to rotate hy a 
pinion on the shaft of the pulley b, which engages 
a circular gear on the bottom of the pan. Its rota- 
tion causes the rollers c c', jounialed in bearings in 
the uprights of the frame, to revolve and comminute 

^j-,_^ the material beneath, which is 

-^^yy-^^^^^^^^i^l directed toward them hy eun-ed 
—^^^^"^^ scrapers. 

Re-volv'ing-press. One 
form of baling-press, in which, 
as the box revolves, screws act- 
ing in stationary nuts actuate 
the followers in the box, ap- 

proaching or withdrawing them according to the 
direction of rotation of the box. 

The press has usually but a single screw, one 
example of which is shown under Baling-I'KEss 
(which see). 

In the present example, the box rotates on a vertical axis, and two follower* attached to the ends of screws, one right and 
the other left, which screws pass through fixed nuts, one at the 
top and the other at the bottom of the frame, so that, as the 
box is rotated the followers turn the screws and are thereby 
made to advance toward or recede from each other. 

Re-volv'ing-Bun. A pyrotechnic device, con- 




Fig. 4309. sisting of a wheel 

upon whose peripliery 
rockets of different 
styles are fi.\ed, and 
which coninnmicate 
by conduits, so that 
T, one is lighted in suc- 
cession alter another. 
tow'er. The revolv- 
ing tower or turret, 
for offensive or de- 
fensive operations, 
was the work of Tlieo- 
dore R. Timby, of 
Saratoga, N. Y. The 
idea was conceived 
and a model made in 
1841, caveated in 
1843, and it was pat- 
ented to him in 1862. 
The original model 
had a base, revolving- 
tower, and central 
lookout, and the 
specification of 1843 
involved the use of 
steam-powerfor revo- 
lution and for pro- 
pulsion of the Heat- 
ing structuie. Tlie 
revolving-turret is a 
feature in the nioni- 
Revoivin^-R'Ms. tors, both as con- 

structed by Captain 
Ericsson and his successors, and also by Captain 
Coles of the British navy, who devised a modified 
form of turret. Some notice has been taken of the 
subject under AuMoit-FLAriNG ; Gun-bdat ; Iron- 
clad (which see). See also Tower ; Turret. 

The atl vantages claimed for the turret over the broadside are, 

1. Steidiness of carriage ainid.ship3. 

2. Hight above water. 

3. Greater facility of training and increased field of fire. 

4. Protection to gunners, as the port can be turned out of 

5 Rapidity of fire, as the gun may be kept trained while the 
embrasure is turned out of tire. 

6. That it admits of greater weight of metal being thrown 
on one side. 

7. Advantage of position, as the gun can be pointed in any 
direction without regard to the lay of the vessel. 

8 Allows a minimum port-hole without interference with 

Rhe'o-cord. An instrument for measuring elec- 
tro-magnetic resistances. Poggendortt"s (Fig. 4310) 
is well adapted for small resistances. 

Two platinum wires a b are stretched on a board 
and held between clamps cc' dd' at either end. To 
the ends d d' are attached silken strings passing over 

Fig. 4310. 

pulleys and carrying weights, which keep the wires 
tense. The wires are insulated from the elam]is and 
pass through a box « filled with mercury, wliich 
slides on the wires and carries a vernier. When the 
damps c c' are connected with the poles of a battery, 
the current from c passes through the wire to the 
box e, where it is transferred bj' the mercury to the 
other wire and conducted to the other pole of the 

battery. The distance which the current has to 
traverse along the wires is greater or less, according 
as the box c is caused to approach or recede from c d, 
and is measured on the scale / by an index attached 
to the box. 

The resistance of the whole length of the wires a h having 
been determined, that of each division of the scale is deduced, 
and one of these divisions may t>e employed as a unit for calcu- 
lating resistances either by the differential or substitution 

A simple arrangement for measuring greater resistances con- 
sists of a u umber of short metjiUic bars placed at equal distances 
apart on a board, in such a way that their ends may be con- 
nected by the insertion of brass plugs between them. Each bar 
is attached to one terminal of a German silver coil of definite 
re.*istance. When the plugs are all inserted, a current will pa.s8 
directly through the series of plat4?s ; but when any one or more 
is left out, the circuit is compelled to pass through the resistance 
coil or coils connected to the bar or bars thus left out of the 
short circuit. The sum of their resistances gives the total re- 
sis t.auce. 

A modified arrangement on the same principle is employed 
for measuring very great resistances. Half of each coil is in all 
instances wound iu a direction opposite to the other, to neutral- 
ize the iuduction of the coil upon itself. 

Rhe-om'e-ter. {Electricity.) A term first pro- 
posed by Peclet to designate an instrument to meas- 
ure the force of an electric current. See Electrom- 
eter ; Galvanometer. 

Rhe-o-mo'tor. {Electricity.) Any apparatus 
wliich originates an electric current, whether it lie 
a magneto-electric current or a voltaic battery, a 
thermo-electric battery, or any other source what- 
ever of an electric current. 

Rhe'o-phore. {Electricity.) A term employed 
by Ampere to designate the connecting wire of a 
galvanic apparatus as being the carrier or transmit- 
ter of the current. 

Rhe'o-scope. (Electricity.) An instrument for 
detecting an electric current. See Electroscope. 

Rhe'o-stat. (Elcctro-maynctism.) An instru- 
ment for regulating or adjusting a circuit so that 
any recjuired degi-ee of force may be maintained. 

Wheatstone's rheostat (Fig. 4311) consists of two 
cylinders, one of brass and the other of non-conduct- 
ing material so arranged that a copper wire can be 

Fig. 4311. 


wound from one to the other by turning a shiftable 
handle. The surface of the non-conducting cylinder 
has a screw-thread by which the successive convolu- 
tions of wire are isolated. Being introduced into a 
circuit, the wire is wound on or off the threaded 
cylinder by which the resistance is determined, the 
brass cylinder being so large that its resistance is 
not considered. In the upper figure, the current is 




shown as traversing a galvanometer a, the rheostat | 
6, and the conductor c, the resistance of which is to 
be measured. The whole wire being wound on the 
brass cylinder, the deflection of the galvanometer is 
noted, the conductor c is withdrawn from the cir- 
cuit, and the ends de directly connected ; the amount 
of wire on the non-conducting cylinder when the 
galvanometer indicates an equal deflection, shows 
the strength of the resistance c. 

Rhe'o-tome. {E ectricity.) An instrument which 
periodically interruiits a current. — Fakaday. 

Rhe'o-trope. {Eleciricitij.) An instrument which 
periodically inverts a current. — Fakaday. 

Rhi'no-plas'tic Knife. One for performing the 
Ta<;liacotian operation for artificial nose. See ue.\t 

Rhi'no-plas'tic Pin. A pin used in securing an 
artificial to the natural base or remains of the nose. 

The operation for the restor.xtion of the nose was 
introduced by Caspar Tagliacozzi at Bononia, about 
15o3. He cites successes of former operations in in- 
grafting noses, ears, lips, etc. Tagliacozzi obtained 
the piece for the replacement by dis.section from the 
shouliler or arm of the patient, or a piece from some 
obhging person who was willing to be tied to the 
patient for a few weeks till the graft united, and 
might be severed from the original proprietor. 

Liston introduced the plan of cutting the piece 
from the forehea<l of the noseless. This plan had 
been previously practiced among the Koumas of In- 
dia, among whom the loss of the nose was inflicted 
as a penalty for various crimes. The brutal punish- 
ments or revenges of Europe, a few centuries since, 
included various mutilations, pruning off the salient 
members, especially those of the Iread, and sometimes, 
as in the case of Abelard, organs whose loss no skill 
could remedy, and whose imitation would be but an 

The " Notary's Nose," by E. About, is an amusing account 
of the operation for grafting an artificial nose upon the face of 
a man, M. L'Ambert, who is related to have had his fine Ro- 
man nose cut off in a duel with a Turk. A vagabond cat hav- 
ing eaten the amputated orgin, the patient is reduced to a 
choice between the East Indian and Italian methods. The 
former consists in cutting a triangular piece out of the skin of 
the forehead, the apex at the bottom, at which point the portion 
retains its attachment to the brow. The flap is then turned 
down and twisted half round, so as to bring the epidermis out- 
side, and its edges are sewed to the corresponding outline of the 
wound. The Italian method is to cut the flap from the arm, to 
which it is left attached at one point to keep up a vital circula- 
tion ; the piece is sewed to the outline of the vvound, and the 
arm is bound to the head till the junction is perfected. 

M. L'Ambert selected an .\uvergnat water-carrier, who con- 
sentel to allow the flap to be cut from his arm, which was 
bound to the head of the patient, and so they were united for 
a month. The interest turns upon the quarrels of the ligatured 
parties and a supposed connection of the new nose with the 
bodily conditions of the discharged water-carrier, even after the 
separation of the parties. The lout becomes dissipated, and the 
nose is red and swollen ; sick, and the nose becomes thin , pale, 
and attenuated ; he enters a looking-glass factory and absorbs 
so much mercury that the notary's gold spectacles become rotten 
at the bridge by amalgamation ; he catches a terrible cold, and 
" talking through his nose," as the phrase is, has a horrible 
Auvergnat brogue ; finally, the man loses his arm by entangle- 
ment in some machinery, and the notary's nose drops off. 

Rbi'uo-scope. An instrument for examining 
the posterior nares, — the rear portion of the nostrils. 
A mirror, 4 to J inch diameter, on a stem about 5 
inches long, is introduced into the mouth. On the 
top of this miiTor is a retractor, to hold back the 
palate, in order to obtain an uninterrupted view. 
Light is thrown in by means of a reflector, as used 
in laryngoscopy. See Laryngoscope. 

Rho'dings. (Nautical.) The brass boxes for 
the journals of the pump-break. 

Rho'di-um. Eipuvalent, 52.2; symbol, Eo.; 
specific gravity, 12.1 ; nearly infusible. It is a white, 

lustrous, hard, brittle metal, not acted on by acids 
when i)ure, and is used for the tips of gold pens. 

Rhumb. One of the points on a compass-card. 
The circle of 3tJ0' is divided into 32 points or rhumbs, 
each interval comprehending an angle of 11° 15'. 
These are divided into half and quarter points. See 
Maiiinrp.'s Compass. 

Rhus'ma. (Leather-manufacture.) A mixture 
of caustic lime and orpiment or tersulphide of arse- 
nic, used in depilatiou or unhairing of hides. 

Warington, finding that the arsenic was ineffec- 
tive, and that tlie sulphide of calcium was the active 
agent, substituted the latter, per se, and found it 
effective in from 24 to 36 hours in softening the 
epidermis and loo.sening the hair. 

Rhy-sim'e-ter. An instrument invented by Mr. 
A. E. Fletcher for measuring the velocity of fluids 
or the speed of ships. It is on the princi]ile of the 
Lind Anemometer (Fig. 205, page 99), and of Pilot's 
Tube (Fig. 661). It presents the open end of a tube 
to the impact of the current, which raises a column 
of mercury in a graduated tube. 

Rib. A bent timber or metallic bar forming a 
principal piece in a frame or structure, as — 

1. (Sliipu;righting.) One of the curved side tim- 
bers of a ship or boat, to which the wooden plank- 
ing and the interior sheathing is trenailed or pinned. 
So called from their resemblance in form and oh.ject 
to the ribs of the human body, which are articulated 
in the spine and inclose the thoracic cavity. 

In wooden vessels of considerable size, timber of 
the required dimensions and form cannot be pro- 
cured to make a rib of one piece, so it is made in 
sections scarfed together. Tliese are known as the 
first, second, and third futtocks, and terminate in the 
top-timber. In iron vessels, a bar of the proper size 
is bent into the required form. 

2. (Carpentry.) a. A timber arch to support a 
plastered ceiling. 

b. A projecting or tracery molding on a vaulted 

c. A curved member of an arch center. 

The rib of a bridge or roof may be of iron or wood, 
having an arched form and springing from abut- 
ments. The rib of a 
centering is of wood, 
and forms a ]iart of 
a frame whose con- 
struction depends 
upon the span and 
expected weight. 

Bui/t ribs, con- 
structed on the meth- 
od devised by Phili- 
bert de I'Orme, are 
made of several lay- 
ers of planks set on 
edge, breaking joint, 
and connected by bolts. The figures exhibit a side 
elevation and plan, and an elevation of a rib con- 
structed of straight-edged planks. 

Laminated ribs are made of layers of plank laid 
flatwise and bolted together. See Arched Bea.m, 
Plate III. See also Roof, Plate LI I. 

Various other names have been given, as — 

Built Ribs. 

Decorating rib. 
Diagonal rib. 
Intermediate rib. 


Round rib. 

Transverse rib (cross-springer). 


3. (Bookbinding.) One of the ridges on the back 
of a book which serve for covering the tapes and for 

4. (Machinery.) An angle-plate cast betw»en two 
other plates, to brace and strengthen them ; as be- 




tween tlie sole and wall-plate of a bracket. See 


5. (Mining.) A jiillar of coal left as a support for 
the roof of a mine. 

6. Out' of the extension rods on which the cover 
of an umbrella or |mmsol is stretched. They are 
made of whulelione, steel, or cane. 

Ri-ba-do'qmn. {Weapon,) A cross-bow for 
throwiii'^ l;n';^e darts. 

Rib'band. {Shiphitilding.) a. A longitudinal 
strip of tiiiibtT following; the curvatures of the ves- 
sel and bolted to its ribs to hold them in position 
and impart stability to tbc skeleton. A number of 
these are fastened at ditferent distances from the 

h. Square timbers of the slip fastened lengthways 
in the hilgeways, to prevent the timbers of the cra- 
dle slipping outward during launching. 

Rib'liand-Unes. {Shipbuilding.) Oblique lon- 
gitudinal sections of tlie hull. 

Rib' band-shore. {Shipbuilding.) A stmt to 
support tbe Irame of a ship while building. Their 
heads rest against the ribbands and their bases on 
the slip or dork. 

Ribbed Arch. {Engineering.) An arch con- 
sisting of iron or timber parallel ribs springing 
from stone abutments. 

Rib'bing-nail. {Shi phuV. ding.) A nail with a 
large round head with rings. 

Rib'bon. 1. {Fabric.) A narrow fabric used for 

Ribbons are of various materials, textures, and 
qualities. Among these are the following : chin6, 
ferrety galloon^ love^ lustring (lutestring), ribbon vet- 
vet, sarsnetj satin, taffcty, etc. 

The ribbon manufacture is lara:ely carried on at Coventry, in 
Engljind, anil at Saiut-Ktienne, in France. A great number of 
the improvements in the dirforent branches of the manufacture 
are due to the Swiss and Germans, among others the bar-loom, 
brought from Switzerland, in 1756, by M Flachat, of Saint- 
Chamond, and the economical processes for fining velvet, intro- 
duced in 1775, by Roland de la Fiatiere. 

The application to the bar-loom of the Jacquard machine, 
and of the various improvements derived from it, have re-^ulted 
in the production of an admirable working instrument, ^Yith 
■which a skilled workman is able to make everything, from sim- 
ple taffetas to elaborate portraits. The ornaments vary con- 
fiiderably in style and arrangement. Sometimes these are 
purely fanciful compositions, — Byzantine, Indian, Oriental, 
Chinese ; at otliers, of birds and animals, more or !e-s ap- 
proaching nature. The commone:it ornaments, and generally 
the most successful, are borrowed from flowers. Buds, corn- 
ear.s, — fruits even', — are all suitable for composition. Birds, 
and some species especially, lend themselves very readily to 
the fancy of the designer, but quadrupeds which are able to 
find suitable place in an ornament are rare. 

Whatever may he the nature of t!ie design, a practical appli- 
cation ia given to it by the card-setter, who transfers it, while 
enlarging the size, to a checkered sheet. This sheet assists the 
stamping-out machine to prepare tile cardboard sheets for the 
Jacquard machine. The warps are made under careful super- 
vision, and the threads composing them consist of organzines 
thick enough to support the strong tension necessary to the 
■weaving. The warping requires an extreme attention, espe- 
cially in the case of ribbons which are to include different kinds 
of web and different colors of warp. Each warping-mill is com- 
posed of a '' bank," a frame slightly inclined and arched, fixed, 
at its two extremities, into a wooden frame. It bearsa vari ible 
number of bobbins, among which are divided the organzines 
destined to form the web. Parallel to the bank is placed a ver- 
tical divider, on which each warp revolves when it is made The 
•workwom m, with her left hand, moves a crank, which trans- 
mits the motion to the divider, and with her right hand she 
guides the pussage of the threads between the glass teeth of a 
kind of large toothed comb. The warp^ prepired in the divider 
are then rolled by large bobbins, called blocks, belonging tq the 
master weaver, who is intrusted with themakingof the ribbon. 
The thrnads of weft are not twisted and doubled like the org'vn- 
zines of the w.arp, hut arc more or lesi^ twisted, according to the 
nature of the tissue desired To proiluce plushes in various de- 
signs, imitating either fur or the feathers nf bird^, especially of 
the peacock, they imprint on n wurp the ornament they wish to 
reproduce, only on a wider scale, and weave it in satin: and 
bv means of the shortening of the threads, caused by weav- 
ing, the figure is formed more or less exactly as the imprint was 

well or badly calculated. This satin, worked with thick silk 
threads, after being woven, is placed in the hands of women, 
who cut every length of the threads with little special tools 
worked with the hand. The plush then is niised or left flat ac- 
cording to the nature of the thread employed, and the close 
or loose texture of the satin. The most satisfactory resulLt are 
thus obtained. Among charming combinations may be men- 
tioned one rt-'prest-ntiug, on tafft-tas, a peacock embroidered in 
relief, accompanied, on each side of the ribbon, ■»ith a plush 
border, happily imitating the beautiful iris eyes which glitter 
at the end of the peacock's feathers. A large quantity of rib- 
bons are bordered with bands of imitation fur. 

The finishing workshops, common to all the manufacturers 
of .Saint-Etienne, give the last figuring to the different kinds of 
ribbons which are to receive them. Most of these figures are 
impressed by rolling; thus moire is obtained by passing the 
stuff between cylinders ranged with various cuttings, ^iitin, 
on the contrary, between smooth cylinders, the action of whi<'h 
compresses the threads of the warp, and gives them the polish 
peculiar to this beautiful material. In some special cju=es, the 
ribbons, before being rolled, are passed through a bath of 
starch or gum. A rigid inspection of the completed products, 
both on their return from the houses of the workmen and be- 
fore their sale to the purchaser, weeds out all defective pii-ces. 

Rilibons for hand-stamps are tapes saturated with 
an oily jiigment, which becomes impressed upon an 
olijeet when the stamp is brought down upon the 
tw(i, which are placed in contact beneath it. It is 
an inky ribbon, and is used as a substitute for ink- 
ing the face of a stamp. 

2. {Fiber.) A continuous strand of cotton or other 
fiber in a, untwisted condition. A sliver. 

3. {Caiycntry.) A long, tliin strip of wood or a 
series of such strips connecting a number of parts. 

4. {Metal -vm-fcing.) A long, thin strip of metal, 
such as a watch-spring ; a thin steel band for a belt 
or an endless saw ; a thin band of magnesium j'or 
burning ; a thin steel strip for measuring, resembling 
a tape-line in its size and functions. 

5. {Nautical.) The painted moldings on a ship's 

Rib'bon-brake. A brake having a band which 
nearly surrounds the wheel whose motion is to be 

Fig. 4312. 

Kibbon- Brake. 

checked. One end is made fast and the other is 
iittaehed to the short arm of a bent lever, by means 
of which it m:iy be at once applied to the greater 
part of the periphery of tlie wheel, exerting a frio- 
I tional pressure proportionate to the force applied to 
I the lever. 

Rib'bon-loom. Tbe ribhon-loom first appeared 
fit Dantzii; in 1586, nnd the inventor is saiil to hnve 
been strani,ded to prevent tlie spread of what woidd 
j throw so many mP(;hnnics out of employment. It 
I was prohibited in Holland for that reason in 1623. 
1 It is first noticed in England in 1674. In 1780, the 
I mode of ornamentation (watering) by pres.sing be- 
I tween figured steel plates was adopted. Steel cylin- 




Fig. 4314. ders were after- 

ward substituted. 
See Xaiikow- 
WARE Loom. 

A niiip |iriiitfd on 
a lon;^ strip which 
winds on an axis 
within the case. 

A thin and nar- 
row endless ban<l 
of steel, one edge 
of whieh is serrat- 
ed. Itis stretched 
over two drums, 
such a distance 
apart that there 
is a certain length 
of straight saw- 
Ribboii'Map. h and bet w e e n 

them. Motion is 
communicated to one of these drums, which causes 
the band-saw to travel with it by friction. Owing 
to the small width and thickness of the hand, it is 
capable of cutting the wood to almost any curve re- 
quired. See Band-saw. 

Rib-vault 'ing. {Architecture.) Vaulting hav- 
ing ribs projecting below the general surfnce of the 
ceiling to strengthen and ornament it. When the 
ribs I'adiate from a central boss or pendant, it is 
Xernxi^iX fan-raidtbi'j ov fon-traccry vauHinfj. 

Rice-hull'er. Rice is a native of Asia, in whose 
warm climates it has been grown from time imme- 
morial. Its introduction into Africa and America 
is comparatively recent. 

The watered rice-fields of "the East" (India) are 
noticed by Aristobulus. 

Rice was introduced into Europe by the Spanish 
Saracens. The samt* is true of cotton and .sugar. 

Roujh rke, as it is termed in Amcrii-a, or padihf^ 
its name in the East Indies, has an outer husk, and 
a thin cuticle which adheres to the pearly grain 
with great tenacity. 

Fig. 4315. 


The old method of remov- 
ing the hulls of rice was bv 
pounding in niortir.-. Thfse 
were made of pitch-pine and 
held about a bushel. The 
work was performed by the 
slaves of South Carolina and 
Georgia in addition to the 
day's work, a certain amount 
of huUing being performed by 
each before regular work and 
after it. 

Machinery was constructed 
by Lucas, about 1780 - 90, 
which was driven by tide- 
power.and operated irou-shod 
pestles in cist-iron mortars of 
the capacity of five bui^hels 
each. Steam-power was sub- 
seqviently introduced. 

Fig. 4.31y is an example of 
the application of machinery 
to the pestle and mortar hnll- 
er. The grain, after a rough 
preliminary grinding between 
stoae.i, U pa^^ed to the mor- 
tar, and is beaten by the 
ribbed pestle From the mor- 
tar it passes to a horizontal 
cylindrical chamber having 
wire gauze at the sides, and 
containing a rotating cylin- 
der with corrugated curved 
arm-!. From the latter the 
rif-e parses to the polishing- 
c} Under. 

In another form of machine 
the cuticle is removed iu a 

I whitening-machine, which consists of a stone of coarse grit 
' mountoil likf a grhnlstuue and rotating in a sheet-irou casing, 
which i.* punched full of huies,thcrougliD(.-!?yes projecting in ward. 
The ciusiug is lai-ge enough to allow a space of about oue inch 
I all round the stone, and a door in the rasing allows the rice to 
' be placed therein. The stone is rotated about 25l> revolutions 
per minute, and a slow motion is allowed to the ca.siog. The 
roughness of the stone and the casitig and the mutual attrition 
of the grains on each other, together with the heat evolved, 
looseu and remove the cu- 
ticle, which passes out as a 
red powJer through the 
holes in the casing. 

Ewbauk's rice-hulIer(Eng- 
lish patent, 1819) recites the 
following series of processes: 

1. The paddy is cleaned 
by sifting to remove dust 
and dirt. 

2. The husks are rubbed 
off between millstones set at 

,' a suitable distance apart. 

I 3 The grain is cleaned oi 

I its husks by a fanning-mill. 

I 4. The grain is tliea 

' pounded in mortars to re- 
move the red skin. 

! 5. It is placed on a .=creen 

' of three distinct grades of 
fineness. -. 

I a. The upper screen at- CA' 
lows all to pass through but ^ 
the unhuskcd grains. 

b The second screen de- 
tains the whole rice. 

c. The third screen de- 
tains the broken grains, 
but allows the dust to fall liicc-HulUr. 


The grains unhusked in the process are conducted back to the 

6. The whole hulled grains are taken to the polishing or 
whitening machine, which consists of two cylinders placed con- 
centrically. The exterior cylinder is stationary, and tlie re- 
volving inner cylinder is covered with sheepskin having the 
wool on and placed on the outside. The 
action of tlie wool, the inner surface of 
the outer casing, and the attrition of the 
grains on each otlier, remove the remain- 
ing portions of the cuticle and polish the 

\V'ilPon"s rice-huller (English patent, 
June, 1827) specifies an inclined cylinder 
with inwardly projecting spokes and a 
slow rotation and an axial shaft with ra- ' 
dialing spoke? and a rapid rotation The 
anus of the shaft occupy the spaces inter- 
Fig. 4317. 







Tcnins between those of the cylinder and conversely The rice i 
enters ;it top, and is driven around in inclined 
space, folluwiug a spiral course to its eventual dlsciarj^e at the 

The same plan has been adopted of late years in the United 
Stiitcs in lIoMiNY-M\c:n.Nes (wiiich see). 

In yet another macaiue wire cards ^tithin a wire cylinder are 

In one sorting-machine the revolving cylindrical inclined 
wire screen has sections with meshes of gmdually increasing 
size. This, in connection witii a blast, sort-s the matter from 
the huiler into five kiuds, — chn(f; flour; smalt fragments of 
less than half a grain; mijt/tim^s ; gniin less than prime, bat 
larger than small ; primi^ unbroken grains 

Fig. 431) is a machine which has a cone with pins, beneath 
which is a frustum with elastic scourers within a roughened 
case of conformable shapa. The rough rice is ted in at top, and i 
pas,scs tile grinding and abrading surfaces. t 

In Fig. 4317, tiie rice from the hopper p:iSSOS between several 
pairs of rollers, in which a Hute.l metallic and a rubber-covered 
roller are placed opposite to peel the rice, which passes be- 
tween tliem. Below eacli pair is a suction spout H, wliieh 
draws the hull and chalT into thechainber /, allo.ving the gi-uin 
to descend by its superior gnivity. J is the fan wnich drartS 
the chair from the grain t>, the spout do. vn which the grain 
descends. JV is a valve for regulating the draft. 

Rice-mill. A mill I'ur rciuoving the husk of 

Rice-pa'per. A kiml of paper intioiluceil into 
Eiighiiul about 1S03 by Dr. Liviiig.stone, ami naini'il 
from its supposeJ It was uiuk'istood to 
be a sort of ilrit'd ptill> ol riue. 

It is, however, iiiuile of tlie pith of a leguininons 
plant, the Araliu, jtajii/ri/cm, which grows wilil in 
abundance in the island of Formosa. The stem is 
cut into lengths of 8 or 10 inches, and the ])ith 
pushed out, much as elders are cleared of pith. 
Tins is cut into a continuous spiral ribbon, about 4 
feet long, which is spread out and flattened into 

Rice-plant'er. {Hushandnj.) An implement 
for sowing rice. The character of the land lenders 

Fig. 4318. 

thereby producing an 
agitation and mutual 
frirtiou of the parti- 

{HuaJMiiulrii.) A drill 
for planting rice. Fig. 
43*JU shows a side ele- 
vation and a top view. 
The seed-slides in the 
bottom of the hopper 
are worked by gearing 
from the main axle, 
and the seed drops 
down the conductor 
in the rear of the 
share, which opens 
tlie furrow. 

Rick. (Husband- 
ry.) A structure of 
hay or grain slieaves, 
having an oblong plan 
and a top with sloping 
sides to shed rain. A 
stuck is round in plan, at least in the United States. 

Rico-chef. (Military.) A mode of tiring with 
small cliarges and small elevation, resulting in a 
bouuding or skipping of the projectile. In tiling at 

Fig. 4320. 

Rice Pounder. 


necessary a ditrerpntarrangemonl from the 
grain-drill. The .seed falls through the tnbular 
standard of the plow and is scattered by a deflect- 
ing board. The plow is followed by the eoverer, 
which consi.'its of a plate cast with seriations or 
ribs upon its lower surface. The plow is concave 
on its lower side, and is adjustable in horizontal 

Rice-pound'ing Ma-chine'. A jiestle and 
mortar for rcniovnig the cuticle from rough rice. 
The pointed elevations witliin the mortars prevent 
the (lestles from crushing the particles of rice, and 
also cause them to sinead from under the pestles. 

a fortification, sufficient elevation is given 
to just clear the parapet, so that the ball 
mav bound along the terre-plein or ban- 
quette without rising far above its level. 
It is used with effect on hard, smooth 
ground against bodies of troops or such obstacles as 
abattis ; and also upon water, either with ronml shot 
or rille lialls. It was introduced by Vauban at the 
siecc of riiilipsburg, in 1688. 

Ri'co-chet'-shot (Gunnery.) A bounding or 
leopiuH shot, lired at low elevation with small charge, 
Rid'dle. A sieve with coarse meshes, used is 
pre[>ai'atory separation, as : — 

1. The riddle of a grain-separator which removeii 
the coarser material, such as broken heads, straw, 
etc., from the grain ; the latter is afterward separated 
from tlie chalf liy the siccrs, ahled by the blast ; and 
subsw^uently from the cheat and cockle by the 




!>„/cen. Increasing fineness of meshes, — riddle, sierc- 

2. The coarse iron sieve which separates cindere 
from ashes, the larger jiieces of ore from tlie smaller, 
gravel from sand, etc. See Sieve ; Siftek. 

3. {Wire-working.) A board with sloping pins 
which lean op|)Osite ways, and between which wire 
is drawn in a somewhat zigzag course, to straighten 

it (See WlRE-STR.ilGHTENINU.) 

4. (Founding.) A coarse sieve (half-inch mesh), 
used to clean and mix the old iloor-sand of the 

5. (Hijdraulic Engitieering.) A kind of weir L 
in rivi-rs. 

Rid'dlings. (.Vctallurgy.) The middle grade 
of broken oie which is obtained by sifting. The 
sizes are, hiockimjs, riddliirgs, and fell. The hiock- 
ings are the large pieces of spar and ore which are 
pickeil out. The riddlings remain in the sieve ; the 
fell is the smallest, and falls through. 

Ri'der. 1. (Mining.) Adepositof ore overlying 
the principal lode. 

2. (Shipbuilding.) a. A rib within the inner 
sheathing, bolted through the latter into the main 
ribs and planking, for the purpose of .stiffening the 
frame. The riders extend from the keelson to the 
orlop- beams. 

6. A second tier of casks in a hold. 

c. A rope which crosses another and joins it. 

Ridge. 1. (Carpentry.) The upper horizontal 
edge or comb of a roof. 

2. (For/if efUion.) The highest part of the glacis 
procei-ding from the interiorangle of the covered way. 

Ridge-beam. (Gtrpcntry.) A beam at the 
upper ends of the rafters beneath the ridge. A 
eroini -plate. 

Ridge-drill. (Agrieulture.) One adapted to 
sow seed alojig a ridge which has been listed up, by 
baekin!» up one furrow against another. 

Ridge-fillet. 1. (Arehitccture.) The fillet be- 
tween two channels of a pillar. 

2. {fuiiiftiiig.) The runner or principal channel. 

Ridge-hoe. (Agrieulture.) A form of culti- 
vati):- lor tending crops in drills. 

Ridge-plow. (Agriculture.) A double mold- 
board plow, used in throwing land into ridges for 
certain kinds of crops. 

Ridge-rope. (Xautieal.) a. A rope leading from 
the k^iighllu:rid to the upper part of the boirsprit-cap, 
for the safetv of the men walking out upon the bow- 
sprit in rough weather. 

b. The center rope of an awning. 

e. A safety line extended from gun to gun in bad 

Ridge-tile. A semicylindrical tile for covering 
the comb of a roof. It is 12 inches long, 10 wide, 
§ thick, and weighs about 4i pounds. Sometimes 
called a rrest-tilc. 

Ridg'ing. The covering of the ridge of a build- 
ing by ridge-tiles of a .saddle shape. 

Ridg'ing-plo'wr. A double mold-board plow, 
throwing the earth 
Fij 4321. away and serving to 

ridge up land for beet- 
root, potatoes, or oth- 
er plants sown on the 
ridge, and for ojiening 
operations are sometimes performed by a single- 
breasted plow, which has to go up and down the 
field to accomplish the same work which tins j)low 
effects in one journey. AVlien used for setting out 
land, a marker is attached for indicating the line of 
the ue.xt furrow. By removing the breasts and 

marker, it may be used for subsoiling ; and again, 
by attaching the hoe-frame and cutters, a horse-hoe 
is formed, suitable for cleaning land between rows 
of plants sown either on the ridge or flat. By attach- 
ing to the frame of the subsoil body a set of prongs 
and a share, these plows are adapted for digging 

Fig. 4322 

Molding or Ridging Plow. 

Fig. 4323. 


Doub.e-mded Riffler. 


Fig. 4322 shows a ridging-plow, the wings of 
which are expanded or contracted by segmental 
racks and a pinion. 

Rid'ing-bitts. (Shipbuilding.) Two strong up- 
right timbers near the bows of a sliip, to which the 
cable is secured ; they extend through two decks, 
are connected by a cross piece and braced against 
the strain of the cable by horizontal standards bolted 
to the deck beams. 

Rid'ing-part. A protuberance on the inner sur- 
face of the joint part of a scissors-blade « liicli forms 
the touching portion back of the rivet, while the 
cutting portion is at the jioint of contact of the edges 
as they move past each other in closing. 

Riffle. (Mctnllurgtj.) An in('lined trough or 
chute down which auiiferous .slimes or sand is con- 
ducted in a gentle stream, which is broken by occa- 
sional slats or by depi-essions containing mercury, 
which an-ests the gold. See Gold-w.\siiek ; also 
list under Met.\llukgv. 

Rif'fler. A file with a side so convex as to oper- 
ate in shallow depressions ; 
used by sculptors, carvers, and 
gun-stockers. They are made 
of various convexities and cur- 
vatures to adapt them to vary- 
ing surfaces. 

Rifflcrs are usually made of 
steel, but sometimes of wrougbt-iron and case-hard- 
ened, so that their shape may be modifieil to a certain 
extent by bending on a block of lead with a mallet. 

Ri'fle. 1. (Fire-arms.) A fire-ann having the 
bore spirally grooved, so as to impart a rotary mo- 
tion to the bullet and cause it to keep one point 
constantly in front during it.s flight. 

Grooved-bored small-arms are said to have been 
in use as fiir back as 149S ; these, however, do not 
seem to have been rifled in the proper acceptation 
of the term, the grooves being straight and intended 
merely to jirevent fouling of the bore and facilitate 
cleaning. The grooves were made spiral by Koster 
of Birmingham. England, about 1620. In Berlin is 
a rifled cannon of 1664, with 13 grooves, and one iu 
JIunich of perhaps equal anti<iuity has 8 grooves. 
The French Carabineers had rifled arms in 1692. 

Pere Daniel, who wrote in 1693, mentions rifling 
the barrels of .small-arms, and the practice was appar- 
ently well known at that time. 

Kifles were early used by the American settlers in 
their conflicts with the Indians ; and their first suc- 
cessful employment in civilized warfaie is .said to have 
been by the colonists in the war of the Revolution. 

In the .\rtil!ery Museum at Paris is a l.irge assortment of old 
rifles, comprehending a diversity of grooves and twists. 
These exhibit straifrht grooves and prooves of uniform twist. 
In some the twist conmienees near the breech : in others, at 
the middle of the barrel or tow.irtl the muzzle. In .«ome speci- 
mens, the grooves make from \\ to 2 turns in the length of the 
barrel ; nearly two thirdi tiave an even number of grooves, and 




about throe fourths upward of (5 groovop, varyiuK from 7 to 12. 
Nearly scvt'ii I'ii^hth^ havo i^rooVL's with roiuiiU'J I'dgcs. Much 
the greiitcT part of the remaiuilcr have triaiij;iihii-, hut a few 
have ro<'tant;ular {grooves. Xorit; havi? jiroovus di-creat;ini^ in 
depth from the hreccli toward the iiinzxle. This species of 
groove was introdueed by Taniisier, in lS4li, but is now (general 
anionjj: the shallow-i^rooved arms iiitendetl for disellarging ex- 
panUiiij.' liullots. Tamisier also introduced the plan of iricreas- 
iug the twist of the grooves as they approached the muzzle. 

With the earlier vilU^s uiul until a very I'eoeiit pe- 
riod, a patch was generally used over the lial), caus- 
ing it to lit tightly in the bore and tnke hold of the 
grooves. This was a somewhat precarious method ; 
and, accordingly, the I)runswick rifle, one. ol' the 
latest specially adiipteil for tlie round l>al], was made 
with but two grooves, into which an annular rib on 
the ball htted, compelling it to follow these. Lan- 
caster eti'ected the rotation of the ball by making it 
and the. bore of the gun slightly elliptical in section. 

.To this succeeded the system invented by Delvigne, 
and improved by Thouvenet, Tamisier, and Minio, 
in whieii an elongated bullet, htting loosely in the 
bore, is expanded, so as to till tlu^ grooves. This 
]iennitted greater rapidity in loading, and insured 
tlie rotation of the projectile. See BuLLirr, page 401. 

Killing is now generally adopted in small-arms. The 
number of grooves is usually three. They are made 
very shallow, and gradually diminish in de]pth from 
the breech to the nuizzle. The Swiss Federal rille, 
introduced in 184S by Colonel Wurstemburger, lias 
eight grooves with a twist of one turn in three feet. 
In this the bullet is not e.\]ianded, and it has en- 
joyed a liigli reputation for accuracy. The caliber 
is small, .41 inch, the bullet weighing 2.')7 grains, 
and the powder charge 62 grains. Tlie plan of hav- 
ing' stuils or ridges on tin; bullet to engage the 
grooves has not been e.\teiisively adopted for small- 

arms. The rille of General .laeobs, East India ser- 
vice, employs a bullet of this clas.s, liaving four ridges 
corresponding to the four grooves of the rille, and 
useil witli a patidi. 

In Murphy's mode, the rilling only extends four 
inches from the muzzle, and has its ]iitch lelt-hand- 
ed to correct tlie slight tendency to pull the gun over 
to the right in pulling the trigger. 

The Whitworth rille has a hexagonal bore ; the 
AVestley Richards carbine, an octagonal bore ; the 
Lancaster carbine, an elliiitical bore, or it may be 
described as a sjiiral of oval section. 

The rilling of gun-barrels in the Itcmington \Vorh.s 
at llion, N. Y., is done by a very small cold steel 
chisel inserted in a long rod firmly attaclied to a 
rapidly revolving wheel, which also moves up and 
ilown a platform. The barrel is run over this rod 
and ]ilaced finiily in jio.sition. As the wheel revolves, 
the chisel in the rod cuts the rilling in the barrel ; 
and as the wheel advances and ii'liics very rapidly, 
tlie t«ist of the rilling is very elongated. 

In breech-loading arms the bullet is of slightly 
laiger diameter than the bore measured from land 
to land, and shiijs so as to fill them when driven 
forward by the ignition of the charge. 

See list of breech-loading fire-arms on pages S.'iS - 
S02, and illustrations. Plates XVI., XVIL, XVIIL 
See also Bullet. 

Sharps' is one of the very oldest successful guns 
of the breech-loading, and the first in which a 
vertically sliding bieeeh-block was employed. Orig- 
inally, a paper cartridge was used, the rear end of 
which was cut olf by the sharp forward end of the 
breech-block in its upward movement ; a cartridge 
having its end dosed by a thin combustible paper 


Fig. 4324. 

b/iarjis^ S/yorfiiii^'lii/ies. 

■was .subsequently substituted for this. At present 
the metallic cartriilge is employed. 

In Fig. 4324, A is a vertical section of the gun, 
the parts in loading position ; B, the parts in filing 
jiosition ; 0, a to]! view ; /), a trans\'erse section, 
"with the breech-block down ; U, front view of the 
breech-block, showing in the center the end of the 

fiiing-pin, and at the right-hand shie the groove 
occupied by the cartridge-retractor shown by two 
views at OH. Fis a metallic cartridge in section. 

a is the metallic brecch-piece, secured to the 
wooden stock h, and into which the barrel <■ screws ; 
d is the breech-block, ronnecti'd by a toggle c to the 
guard-lever /, and having a verticai ' movement 




within a slot in the breech-piece a. The upper sur- 
face of the breech-block lias a f;rouve a' iu line witli 
the barrel, serving as a guide lor the iusf rtion of the 
cartritlge into the chamber j/ when the breecli-block 
is ilepressL'd out of tiie w:iy. This is ettVcted by 
throwing down the guard-lever /, as shown at A. 
The cartridge is then inserted, and the guard-lever 
brought back to the position shown in B, the ham- 
mer A having been previously set at half-cock. On 
depressing the lever the tiring-bolt i is automatically 
moved learward hy a spur on its forward end, so as 
to clear the point of the bolt from tlie cartriilge shell 
aiul rear end of the barrel. The shell is retracted by 
tlie same movement. 

In order to fire, the hammer is set at full cock, 
and on pulling the trigger, its face comes in contact 
with the end of tlie liring-bolt, which is thrown for- 
ward, its euil impinging against the base of the 
cartridge where the capsule containing the fulminate 
is placed, 

the butt and tip. It is adapted to receive a bayonet. 
Tlie tip in some cases is dispensed with. 

The rod by which the cylinder is secured to the 
barrel has a ratcheted disk c' near its rear end, which 
is engaged in the act of cocking, by a hook connected 
with the tumbler, rotating the cylinder and bringin(»- 
each chamber successively in line with the barrel. 

Fig 4325 shows MaynanVs rifle. It maT,«t the option of 
the user, be provided witli two ritie-barrels ot diflVreiit calibers 
aud a shot-barrel, cue of which may besub.^tituted for the other 
by simply releai-iug the pin n which, with the fixed pin 6, con- 
nects the barrel with the stock and firing mechanism, removing 
the first barrel aud securing the second by placing the pin b 
hi the hook and reinserting the pin a after bringing the holes 
iu the flanges, one of which is seen at c, and the arm (/ (shown 
in dotted lines) into hue. These opei-ations take but very few 
moments to perform. 

The rear end of the barrel is thrown up for this purpose, and 
also for hiading, by turning forward the lever f, which also 
servesus the trigger-guard. When this is restored to it-s normal 
position, it is held by the piu/uear the small of the i;tock,and 
the movement, by nioans^of tlie arm d, draws the breech down 
into a groove in the metallic part of the stock, where it is in 

F-pi ^ • I ii • J- i 7 4i i. ii 1 I position for firing. Kitlier the forward or backward nic»vcmeut 

Ihe hnng-bolt is so adjusted that the hammer ' of tiie trigger-guard c places t 

cannot come in contact with it until the breech is 
perfectly closed, thus alfording a security against 
premature discharge. The e;\rtridge sludls may be 
used a number of tims's. The exploib'd cap is re- 
moved, the shell cleansed, a new cap inserted, a 
cliarge of powder poured in, over which is placed a 
])aper wad, aud a lubricating wad composed of ^ 
beeswax and § sperm oil, and the bullet pressed home 
with a ball-seater. 

Among the best known and most efficient arms of 
its class is the revolving-rille of the late Colonel 
SamuLd Colt, who. by the simplicity and ingenuity 
of his devices ainl his unce;vsing care to insure ])er- 
fection of workmanship aud material, first rendered 
tlie revolving .system a success, and succeeded in 
IH-oducing a weapon which is known and us.'d 
thronghoLit the world. 

In 1S30, Colt invented a device "for combining 
a number of long barrels so as to rotnte u[K)n a 
spindle by the act of cocking the hammer." His 
imjirovement on this plan, which <-onsisted in using 
a rotating cylinder containing several eliambers, all 
of which discharge through one barrel, was patented 
in England in 183.">, and in this country in 183U. 

The rille {A B C, Fig. 4-202. page li)^9) has a. steel 

barrel with seven Hat angular grooves. The lock- 

"irame is provided with a bridge a above the barrel, 

the lock at half-cock, obviating 
the danger of premature discharge 

The Maynard ritle w;is perhaps the first in which a metallic 
cartridge wjis employed. The report of Major Hell to Colonel 
Craig, Chief of Ordnance, United States Army, May Ifj, 18u6, 
describes the firing of Dr E. Maynard's ritio", charged with a 
metallic cylindrical water-proof cartridge, and dwells upon tlie 
hnpnrtant factof the coincidence of the a.xesof the ball and the 
barrel, obtained by the symmetrical setting of the ball in the 
metallic shell. The bullet was held in the shell by its exact tit, 
and without choking the shell upon it. The Maynard eoit- 
primer was then u-*cii with it ; the nipple and percussion-cap 
were substituted in 18G-1 ; the plunger e.Kploder, iu 1873; the 
Berdau primer, iu 1874. 

The cartri.ige cases ° are of sheet-metal, sufficiently thick to 
t>eruiit their being used an indefinite number of times', and have 
a thick base, perforated to allow the pas.sige of fire from the 
primer, whicli is a cap placed on a nipple shghtly recessed 
within the cavity g' of the base. The eharjie of "powder is 
placed within the case, and with the wad, if one be used, is 
nimmed by the short rod h, which also serves for ramming the 
wad over shot when these are employed. 

If ball be used, it is pushed into the case by means of the 
loadi-r f, which has a cylindrical cavity teruunating in a hollow 
conoid fitting the point ol the ball and keeping it in truly axial The tlange at the ba.«e of the cartridge 
enables it to he readily withdrawn from the loader and from the 
barrel after firing. The device k is used for pressing the primer, 
a shallow, Hanged cap, upon the ni|>ple. The cartridge, having 
been loaded as dt-scribed, is pushed into the rear of the barrel, 
which is then depressed by throwing backward the trigficr- 
gu.ird e until its loop rests against the stock, the pin /'entering 
a hole in the guard. The hammer / is drawn back to full cock, 
and on pulling the trigger the main-spring throws the tumbler 
forward, causing the hammer to strike the firing-pin mi, which 

projected forward within an aperture in the breech-block v. 

Fig. 4325. 

and the stock is iu two parts b b', called respectively I •»"*! explodes the primer. The breed*. -block, backed by the 

' stock iu i-ear of it, sustains the force of the re<'oil. 

The rear sight o, pivoted on 
the small of the stock, is a 
slide-sight, adapted for long 
nuiges, and is turned down 
when not in use. The block- 
sight p is used for short dis- 
tances. The front sight q is 
coinpoundj consisting of an 
ordinary sight and a globe- 
sight y' turning on acomnion 
pivot in a slotted base fixed 
near the muzzle of the barrel. 

The hanvl being readily de- 
taehable, enables the whole 
arm to be packed within a 
space not exceeding the length 
of the barrel, usually 2ii inches. 

Fig. 432(3 shows a plan 
of the rifle -grounds at 
Crcedinoor, Long l.sland, 
and Fig. 4327 is a sketch 
of the grou]> of marks- 
men. The tigures on the 
jdan give the distances of 
the dili'erent ranges, and 
the lower view shows the 
mode of shooting, which 
was singular enough with 

Maynnnl's Combined Rifle and Sfiol-Gun. 




Fig. 4326. 

liiil (KttiBtd) lluu*. Stable (Sunken/ Butta. Hill (ILuL^kI) Hulls. Sculik iSuiikiu) Uutts. 

Upper Figure : Plan. Lower Figure : Front Elevation of Embanliment, showing Targets as seen from Firing-Points. 

Sijle-Range, Creeilmoor, Long Islaiiil. 

some of tlie party. One man has the toe of his boot 
for a, another his cros.seil legs. 

The shooting at the contest between the American and tlie 
Irish teams was tlic best on record. 

The jiu^siM.. iiHli\i(Uial score was 18Q 

Tlu- |in--ii.l.. -IS trim .score was (6 X ISO) l.OSO 

The lti..-t score (Fulton, American) waji I'iS 

The .\iiierican team score was 931 

The Irish team score was 931 

The best previous shooting at Winrbledon was 1,204 out of a 
possible 1,440. 

RiHed cannon were first successfully eniployci.1 

(Uirinf; the Franco- Austrian war in Italy, 1859. The 
Laiiinster gun hail, however, been tried to some e.x- 
tciit lUiriiig the Crimean war. 

Tliny may be divided into four classes : — 

1. Guns in which the projectile is made entirely 
of hard metal, and of section corresponding to ami 
fitting the bore, but having a small windage ; such 
as the Lancaster and Whitworth, described. 

2. Wuzzle-loading guns with balls having studs or 
ribs fitting the grooves; asthe Armstrong and others. 

3. Muzzle-loading guns haxing jirojectiles with 

Fig. 4327 

American anil Irish Teams Shooting at Creertmom 

expansible cups or envelopes of soft metal, which 
are forced into the grooves in the act of firing, so as 
to prevent windage ; as I'ari'ott's, Blakeley's, etc. 

4. Breech-loading guns. In these the pnijectile 
has a soft metal coating, wliieh is forced into the 
grooves in, the same way ns the leaden bullets of 
small-arms ; e. g. the Prussian and .Vrmstrong's. 

The grooves of the Arnntrong muzzle-loader are 
made deeper ou one side than on the other, as 
shown in Fig. 4;!-2S, a ; the deeper part is of 
nnil'orni deptli and connected with the shallower 

part by an incline. The studs on the shot are only 
half tiie width of the grooves, and of hight sufti- 
cicnt to allow the shot to enter the bore and pass 
clown freely to its seat, as shown at h. AVhen driven 
forward by the force of the discharge, the studs 
come in contact with the incline, and are shmitcd 
over into the shallower jiart of the groove, against 
wdiich Ihey bear firmly, causing the shot to leave 
the bore in a line concentric with its axis, as shown 
at c. 

In the Scott gun this is effected by making the 




Fig. 43:S. 

and R'ft Projectiles. 

fjrooves of giMdually dt'cieasing 1 
duptli from oue side to the otU- 
ei- (d). 

Tlie French system, of which 
the Woolwich is a luudiHcatioii, 
is shown at c. 

The Anstrian (J) in iirinciple 
resemlik^s this, tlic grooves being 
a series of sjiiral triangles ; the 
projectile {(j) lias coiresponding 
soft-metal ribs, which readily 
pass down the bore along the 
deeper sides of the grooves and 
are shunted over to the shal- 
lower sides when discharged. 
See also SHELL ; BuLLKT ; and 
specific indexes under Oi:d.n.^ncf. and I'uojixtiles. 
2. (Hnshandnj.) A strop with a surface of emery 
for whettins scythes, etc. 

Ri'fle-pit.- (Furtificalion.) A pit or trench which, 
together with the excavated earth, forms a defense 
for a riHeman in an advanced jinsition, where he may 
pii-k oil' the enemy's gunners or defend his own line. 
The rille-pits in the Crimea were holes 4 feet long 
and 3 feet deep, the parapet of earth crowned by 3 
.s;ind-bngs h.^ving a loopliole through which to fire. 

The rille-pits in the United .States service were 
trenches ami parapets for systematic advanced de- 
fense or attack, and holes scra])ed in the giound, 
occupied by sharpshooters who fought each on his 
on'n hook. 

Rig. (XaiUical.) a. The style of masting and 
sails of a vessel, as square, fore-and-aft, schooner, 
laygcr rig, etc. 

b. To pre|iare a ^jurchase for use. 

c. To furnish the masts and yards with rigging, 
rf. To tlirust out a boom or spar. 

Rig'ger. (.][achincrtj ) A band-wheel having a 
slightly curved rim. Fast and loose pulleys are so 
calh'il in English works on machinery. 

Rig'giug. {XaiUkal.) The system of cordage 
on board a vessel. See M.A.ST ; Uoi'E. 

1. The standins; ri^^iii^ includes : — 

a. The pfttdanls ; struii;? ropes over the lower-mast beads, 
and having thimbles for attaching tackle. 

ft. TiiH .•<UT!iuds ; supporting the masts laterally, and having 
ratlints by which they are a.-ceoded 

r. The slatfs ; supporting the mast,* forward. 

d The back stm/s ; passing from the mast-heads to the chan- , 
nels ahafc the masts. 

e. lifdlines: the steps of the shrouds. 

/. Sliiiss ,' by which the centers of the yards are secured to 
the masts. 

^. Trusses and parrals ; for connecting the yards to the 

h. Gammoning; the lashing chain which secures the heel 
of the bowsprit. 

i. MartiiigaUs; the stays of the jibboom and flying jibboom. 

J. Gitijs ; lateral jibboom stays. 

k. Stings ; by which the yards are suspended. Also, — 
H'd-chains. Ridge-ropes. 

Cnipper.diains. Horses 

]\I'in-ropes. Slirnips. 

Foot-ropes. Fteinisk-liorses, etc., etc. 

See under the respective heads. 

2. The ntnnifig rigging comprises : — 

a T[u; haiyards; by which uyard or ijrt^is raised. 

6. The ti/ts : for r.iising and lowering the ends of the yards. 

c. 'ihe l/rnres ; for trimming the yards fore and aft 

d Tile sheets ; by which the lower corners of a sail are ex- 

e. The dew-gnrnets for the courses, and rterr-liiies for the up- 
per sails ; by which the f/c ics of the sail are drawn up to the 
yard in the process of furling. 

/. The tark-f; ropes to confine the foremost lower corners of 
courS'-^ and .-Jfay-sails. 

g. BoifHrtes ; attached to the edges of a square sail, and 
hauled forward on the weather side^ when the ship is on a 

/i. Uunttines : ropes attached to the foot of a square sail to when titking it in. 

t. Downhauls ; by which fore-and-aft sails are drawn down. 

k. Brails; ropes used to gather a fore-aud-aft sail up to its 

galT, for furling 

I. Reef'tarkles; by which the raring^ at the ends of the 
reef-bands are drawn up to the yard iu reefing. 

m. aignai-lialijards; by which ti.igs are raited to the mast- 
head or peak. 

n. Oattiauts; ropes used for extenJiug the c'ews of a boom 

0. hihauls ; for rigging in the jibboom, studding-sail booms, 

p. Leerhtines; lines attached to the leech-ropes of sails and 
passing up to blocks on tlie yards to haul the ttec/ns by. 

f/. SlalAintS ; lines by which the fett of the mainsails or fore- 
sails are hauled up. 

r, Spnns ; ropes connected by both ends to the object, the 
purchase being hooked to the bight. 

5. Tripping lines ; used to unring the lower topgallant yard- 
arm when striking it or lowering it on deck. 

t. Ttjes ; ropes made fast to yards and passing through the 
masts. By tackle attached to the other ends of the tyes the 
yards are lioisted. 

K. Vangs ; to steady laterally the peak oiRgaff. 

Right-hancl Rope. One laiil up and twisted 
icilh Ihr .■./'«. Lelt-haud lojie is called water-laid. 

Right-line Pen. A drawing-iien. 

Ri-U-e'vo; Re-lief. The prominenceof asculp- 
tuivd figure bcyuiid the plane surface to which it is 

AHo-riliero. or high relief, is the most prominent, the figure 
being sometimes only attached at a few poiuts to the plane sur- 

Mezzo-riiievo, drmi or half relief, has a prominence of about 
one half the thickness of the figure. 

Ba.^.to riliei-o, bass-relief or low relief, has tint slight projec- 
tion, as in the ornaments of friezes, medals, coins, etc. See the 

The rilievo work of the ancient Egyptian sculptors did not 
project be\ond the general line of the tjii-e, but was executed ia 
a sunken panel, so that the highest relief was only fiush. 

Rim. A marginal portion of an object, generally 

1. (Vehicle.) a. The circular wooden portion 
forming the peri]ihery of a vheel. It consists of 
bent portions or of sa«ed jneces called ./c/^/es. It is 
encii(.-led by the tire, and is connected by sjiolxs to 
the hill) or nnve. 

b. Tlie peripheral portion of a car-wheel attached 
by spokes or web to the boss or uave. 

2. (Nautical.) a. The extreme edge of the top. 
6. The circular, notched jilate of a capstan or 

windlass into which the pawls drop. 

3. The elliptical bows of spectacles iu which the 
glasses are set. 

4. The projecting margin of a kettle by which it 
is snspcmlecl in a furnace. 

Rim'base. 1. (Ordnnncc.) A short cylinder at 
the junction of a ^;-K/i/i/(nt with the gun. It is an 
enlargement or shoulder to tlie trunnion which forms 
the journal to the piece in elevating or depressing. 
See Cannon. 

2. (Small -Arms.) The shoulder on the stock of 
a mu.sket against which the breech of the barrel 

Rime. The runr) or round forming the step of a 
ladder. A specific tool for making it is known as a 
rimer. The best tools are the drawing-knife and 
spokesliave to round up the rived timber. 

Rim'er. 1. A boring implement for enlarging 
holes. See Re.\mei;. 

2. (Fiirtificition.) A palisade. 

Rim-lock. A lock having an exterior metallic 
ease which y\o- 

jeets from the Fig. 4329. 

face of the door, 
difiering thus 
from a mortise- 

I Rim'mer. 
(Doiiicstir.) A 
device for cut- Rimmer. 




ting and ornamenting the edges of pies, etc. The 
example lias a )iandle provided at one end with a 
rotary cutter secured to an irreguhtr or ornamental 
rollerand corrugated wheel, and at the other end with 
a butter-inilter or- juint. 

Rim-plan'ing Ma-chine', (it'ood-workinrj.) A 
machine lnr plaiiing sumdtaneously one curved and 
one tlat surface of a wheel-felly. The felly is carried 
circularly round by vertical feed-rolls operated liy a 
screw and worm-wheel assisted by a horizontal feed- 
roll, which also holds the work down to the talile. 
Vertical and horizontal knives, adjustable as to 

Fig. 4330. 

Fig. 4331. 

Him- Planing Mackine. 

depth of cut, take off a shaving of the desired thick- 
ness froui the periphery and side as the work passes 
tetween them. 

Ring. 1. A hoop of metal used as a means of 
attachment, of the nature of a liidc, as in the riint- 
Imll, !iiji-)-iiiij, the ring on a neck- 
yoke, etc. In other cases, as a 
means of assembling, as the kci/- 
ring, s;;/i7-riug. Otlier ajiplicatious 
are conmion and obvious. 

2. A kind of handle for drawers, 
etc. It is hinged above, and falls 
into a groove when not in nse, so as 
to be flush with the surface, a, Fig. 

3. {XauticiiK) The appendage by 
' wliich the cable is attached to the 

anchor by means of the shackle on 
the end of the cliain-calile, called the 
anchor-shackle. See Axrnor,. 

Ring and Trav'el-er Spin'- 
ning-frame. .Ji-nks's /-/yirz-siiinner 
is a modern machine. It is employed, 
like the throstle, for spinning warp- 
yarns ; it makes a cop resembling 
Kings. that made by the mule, and, like 

the latter, its bobbin is adapted for 
the .shuttle. The spindles are arranged vertically in 
the frame, and project through aiierturi's in a hori- 
zontal bar. A flanged ridge around each aperture 
fcmns a ring, and affords a track for a little steel 
hoop called a Iravchr, which is sprung over the rinri. 
The traveler guides tlie thread on to the spool. As 
the spindles revolve, the thread passing through the 
traveler revolves it rajtidly, antl the horizontal bar 
asceniliug and descending alternately winds the yarn 
regularly upon the spools. 

Potter's riiiK niHl traveler (Figs. 4332. 4333) is designed for 
epiuuiug all staples, its use not being confined exelusively to 

Ring and Traveler. 

cotton. A is a spindle Fig. 4332. Fig. 4333. 

witb one head bobbin ; 

B, a cop-spindlc ; a 

represents tiie revolv- 
ing-spindle ; f) the ring, 

wliicli is hollowed out 

so as to form an annu- 
lar groove. The trav- 
eler c IS a straight or 

curved bar extending 

across tlie central 

opening of the ring, 

and while revolving 

aronnd the spindle is 

balanced upon the 

yarn, which is kept at 

a uniform angle with 

the spindle, whether 

winding upon the bare 

.spindle or upon a fall 

bobbin, consequently 

maintaining a nniform 

tension and lessening 
the liability to break- 

Ring -bit. 

(.ycniiije.) A bit 
liaving a ring- 
chi'ek, whether 
loose or otherwise. 

Ring-bolt. (Nautica!.) A ring passing 
through an eye in the end of a bolt which is 
secured to the deck or side of a vessel or on a 
wharf. It is used for attachment of a rojie or 
tackle. On each side of a port it is used for 
hooking the train-tackles by which the gun is 

Ring-chuck. A hollow chuck ('',Fig. 4331) grasi'iug end is capable of lieing con- 
tracted by a ring, so as to hold tirnily the object 
to be turned. The screw end fits the mandrel of the 

Ring-dogs. Two dogs attached to a ring for 
hauling timber. See Doa. 
*Ring'er. 1. (.Vinimj.) A crow-bar. 
2. A chiming or bell-ringing apparatus. See Fig. 
64S, jiage -271. 

Ring-gage. 1. {Iload-makvig.) A ring (c, Fig. 
4331) 2', iuclies wide in the aperture, used for deter- 
mining the size of broken stone under the JIacadam 
system of road-making. Telford and Macadam, the 
English engineers who reduced the making of roads 
to a system, adopteil the size of 2i inches extreme 
limit as the best i'or the purpose. 

2. (Jrire/ry. ) A conical piece of wood or a tapering 
metallic slip, having marked upon it a series of sizes 
of rings, according to an established gage, or actiuil 
parts of an inch in diameter. 

3. (Ordnfnice.) A circular steel gage used in in- 
specting shot and shells. Thej' are made of two sizes 
for each caliber, the Larger being a trille more and 
the smaller a tritle less in diameter than tlie true 
caliber of the projectile. All shot n-ceived must 
pass througli the larger gage, but are rejected if they througli the smaller. 

Ring'ing-en'gine. A simple form of pile-driver 
in whiih a ram weighing about SOO pounds and 
moving between timber guides is attached to one 
end of a rope jiassing over a pulley. The other 
end of the rope branches out into a number of ropes, 
each held by one man, in the pi-ojiortion of one man 
to each 40- pounds of weight in the ram. They lift 
the ram aliout three or four feet, and let go on a given 
signal. The number of blows is fiom 4,000 to 5,000 
per day. See also PlLF.-Iil!lVF.ll, Figs. 2717, 2718, 
pages 1702, 1 703 ; and specific index under Hydkau- 
l.ic Ent,;ing. 

Ring-lock. A kind of puzzle or letter-lock in 
i which the bolt is surrounded by a number of mova- 




We rings, having grooves which ninst be ranged in I Rins'ing-ma-chine'. {Cotton-manufacture.) An 
a straiglit line with cue another before tlie bolts can apiiaratus lor removing iniimrities or suiplus color 

be tlniwn. 

Ring-mi-crom'e-ter. A metallic ring fixeil in 
the field of a leleseoiie, and nsed to deterniiue ditl'er- 
ences of declination between stars from the dill'erences 
of time occupied by tlieni in travei-sing diti'ereiit 
chords, either of the inner or outer periphery' of the 
ring. A circular micrometer. 

Ring-rope. (Xaulical.) A rope secured to a 
ring-bolt in the deck to secure the cable or a pur- 
cli;i.sp, or to check the cable in veering. 

Bing-saiL (Xautical.) A small, light sail set 
on a nia^t on the tnffraiL 

Ring-saw. Oue having an annular web. The 

Fig. 4334. , A-4-" 

from cotton cloth or prints. 

The stuff is drawn alternately over and under a series of roll- 
ers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. , through tanks abed, and finally passes be- 

Fig. 4336. 



example shows one driven by friction-rollers and 
direi-teil by guide-rollers. 
Riug-spin'uer. (Spinning.) See PiiXG axd 


Ring-tail. (Xaiiticn!.) An additional sail set 
ab.ilt tlic spanker or driver, to extend its area in 
light winds. 

Ring-tail Boom. (Xatilica!.) A spar to rig out 
on tlie siKuikei-lioom to set the ring-tail. 

Ring-tum'bler. (Locksmithiuy.) An annular- 
sha]"-.l tumbler in a lock. 

Ring-Tvall (Metallurgy.) The inner lining of 
a furnace. 

Rink. A skating-pond. That shown is under 
cover, and doors in the foundation, which allow 
access of external air when reijuired. 

Fig. 4335. 

Rinsing- ^lachine. 

tween the rollers a 6, by which it is partiall.v dried. The 
tanks successively increase in hight from the left to the 
right hand side of the apparatus, the water overtlowing 
from one into the other, so that a current is caused to 
tlow in an op|)0>ite direction to that in which the cloth 
is moving, the impurities being giBdually removed dur- 
ing it-s progress. 

Rip'per. 1. A tool for edging slates for roofing. 

2. A tool for ripping seants of garments. 

Rip'ping-bed. (Marbh-v;orl-iiig.) AF"g4337. 
machine lu; ripping a slab of marble into nar- 
row pieces by passing it on a traversing bed 
beneath a gang of circular saws ari-anged on 
a mandrel. \ $fonc-saiL\ 

Rip'ping-chis'el. ( Wood-rrorling.) A 
croiike.l ihisel for cleaning out mortises. 

Rip'ping-i'ron. (Xautical.) A hook 
for teariug old oakum out of the seams. A 
ra rr-linok. 

Rip'ping-sa^w. A saw for cutting wood 
lengthwise of the grain. Fig. 433S illus- 
trates a band-saw adapted for this purpose. 
The upper pulley is journaled in yielding 
bearings, adjustable in hight by the screw 
<r, to impart the required tension. In front 
of the saw is a hinged gate, to prevent injury Ripper. 
to the workman in case of slipping or break- 
age. The guide b is adjustable to suit difl'ereiit 
thicknesses of timber. The ripping-gage c U is 

Fig. 433S. 






screwed to the table, and, by means of a thuiiib-nut, 
13 adjusted to cut sijuai-e or beveling, and tlie work 
is lield linnly against tlie fence e by springs adjust- 
able by tlunnb-screws. 

Circular riji-saws differ jirineipally in regard to the 
mod.'S of hanging and the provisions for leeding and 
guiding the timber. In a. Fig. 4^311, the guiding 
is elfected by. the fence i, which is moved parallel to 
the saw ami held by a parallel-motion device at the 
end of the table. 

The lower ligure has a corresponding fence c, to be 

Fig. 43.39. 


rig. 4340. 

used for ripping, and a guide «, which can be moved 
transversely of the tab'.e, and is pivoted, so that the 
timber may be presented at any angle to the .saw, 
which can thus be used for cross cutting. 

d is a fenci", the face of which is adjustable to any 
angle with tlie bed. 

One for following a seam and 
cutting stitches without 
slitting the falu'ic. 
In the examples : — 
rt is a tool, liki' a bod- 
kin, with a longitudinal 
radial blade. The cone 
spreads the seam open, 
anil the stitches are diawn 
across the blade. 

6 is a thrusting tool, 
whose pointed portion ex- 
pands the seam, the 
threads being cut by the 
sharp eilge or angle, 
c is somewhat similar 
Ripping-Tools. to the last. 

Rip'ple. An in.stru- 
meut (a) with teeth like a comb, through which liax 

is drawn to remove the capsules and seed therefrom, 
when the lint of the plant is to be u.sed. 

It is a very ancient instrument, having been used 
in Kgypt in the time of the I'ha- 
raolis for removing the seed from ^'^ ''^*^- 

the dUuriff a variety of imjdiee or 
sorghum which was then cultivat- 
ed for bread grain. The tombs 
have paintings c representing the 
rippling of dhara. 

It «'as also used in the time of 
Pliny, for shelling the grain out 
of thi^ I'ars of wheat ; one mode of ^iir.; 
thrashing. L»_' J 

The in'i|ilement (i) is placed on ^"HCii^imil*''''^ 
a stool, aiul the .seed caught by a 
cloth siiread beneath. The teeth 
are IS inches long, h inch stinai'e at 
bottom, and tapering at the point. 

\ handful of tlax is grasped by 
the butts, is spread like a fan, and, 
being thrown upon the comb, is Jrr^ 
drawn between the teeth, remov- ^^ 

ino- the seed Ripple and liippling- 

ing uie .seeu. ^^^^^j 

Ihe stalks are then carried to 

the steepiiig-pool or watercourse, where it is retted 

or rotted. 

The ripple is yet used in .Tjipan for thrasliing out grain, as it 
w:i.s in K^,*lit in the time of tilt- Pharaolis. 

The ftltuia was cultivatt-d in the Nile country for a time 
tllat history tcllctli not to the contrary , foru.iug the food of tlie 
poorest class. It yields a produce of about 240 lor one. llain- 
iiton states, in his JE'^nptiaca. that tlie tlirashed grain is only 
worth 3-* 9'/. the ardelj, which is scarcely 6 cents jier busliel. 
The illiiira constitutes the chief subsistence of tile peasantry 
in Upper Kgypt. It inulti|dics it^elfeven more quickly than rice. 

To tile great abundance of food is owing tlie great increase iu 
population Diodo- 

Siculus, who 
traveled in Kgypt 
nineteen centuries 
since, states that to 
bring up n eliild to 
maturity did not 
cost more than 20 
dracliuia.s, about 3 
dollars. It must be 
recollected that the 
value of money has 

The ripple is used 
in the United States 
for stripping the 
seed from broom- 
corn. In Fig. 4342, 
the treadle actuates 
the spiked wheel, 
which clcHns the 
seed from the broom- 
corn when it is placed 
in the chute. 

Fig. 4342. 


Rip-rap. (Mnsonry.) A foundation of loose 
stones. The artilicial island in ('hi-sa]ieake Bay, 
wdiich is thus formed, is named the l!i]i-raps, and 
forms one of the of Hampton lioails. Fort 
.Sumter, Charleston Harbor, and Plymouth Break- 
water, Kugland, are founded on iiii-ra]is. 

Rip-saw. A saw whose teeth and mode of filing 
ailapt it specially for rippbuj boards, that is, sawing 
thein irilh the grain. In contradistinction to cross- 
cut. It has usually eight teeth to tliree inches. A 
half-rijiper has teeth of moditied form, and lias three 
teeth to the inch. See Kn>Pi.\r,-.s.\w. 

Rise. 1. (^Architecture.) The fcrs«Z-Si»Je, or ele- 
vation of an arch above the sprinijinq-lme. 

2. (Ciirpcnlrn.) The hight of a step in a flight of 
stairs ; the width of a steii is the trend. 

3. (Miniiuj.) A perpendicular s/iff/i! or winze e-x.- 
c ivated from lielow upward. 

Ris'er. 1. (C'lrpcittnj.) The upright hoard of a 
step. The flat board is the tread. 




2. {Milling.) A shaft excavated upwanl. I 

3. {Foiindimj.) An opening; through a mold, into 
whirh metal rises as the mold fills. A head. \ 

Ris'ing. 1. {Nautical.) A narrow strake in a 
boat, beneath the thwarts. I 

2. {Miiiiii'i.) -A shaft worked from below, up- i 
ward. The ojiposite of smA-('»«/- 

Ris'ing-au'vil. {Sluxt-mctal Working.) A 
double bi'ak-iron. 

Ris'ing-arch. A rampart arch. 

Ris'ing-floors. {Shipbuilding.) The floor-tim- 
bers whiL'li rise lore and aft from the plane of the 
niidship floor. 

Ris'ing-hinge. One so constructed as to ele- 
Tate tlie tout ol an opening door, to avoid the carpet. 

Ris'ing-line. {Shipbuilding.) A curved line 
on the drafts of a ship, niarkinc; the hight of the 
floor-timbers throughout the length, and thereby ti.x- 
ing the sharpness and flatness of a vessel's bottom. 

"Ris'ing-main. The vertical pipe from a pump 
in a well to the surface of the ground. 

Ris'ing-rod. {Sleam-cnginc.) A rod in the 
Cornish steam-engine which rises as the cataract pis- 
ton descends, by means of levers ; it then lifts catches 
by which the sectors are released, ami the weights 
are enabled to open or shut the equilibrium or ex- 
haust valves. 

Ris'ings. {Shipbuilding.) Thirk planks sup- 
porting the timbers of the decks. 

Ris'iug-square. {Shi/ibuildiny.) A square upon 
■whicli is marked the hight of the rising line above 
the keel. 

Ris'ing-Tvood. {ShipbHilding.) A timber 
worked into the seat of the .loor and into the keel to 
steady the floor-timber. 

Riv'er-V7all. {Hydraulic Engineering.) A wall 
made to contine a river within definite bounds, 
either (1) to prevent denudation or erosion of the 
banks ; (2) to prevent overflow of the lauil adjacent ; 
or (3) to concentrate the force of the stream within a 
smaller sectional area for the purpose of deepening a 
navigable channel. 

The coa-^iderations adduced in reference to certain maritime 
structures (see Sea-wall: Jetty: Quay: Groin; Breakwater) 
do not all apply to river-walls, as the latter arc not exposed to 
tlie dashing action of the waves from the open sea, nor usually 
to so heavy a pressure of earth, which is alternately wet and dry 
twice a day, as in structures on tide-water 

The construction of the dikes of Holland furnishes many val- 
uable suggestions for fluviatile erections, for, in these works, 
every material has been brought into use which seems to have 
anv importance or usefulness. 

Masonry, rubble, concrete, puddle, piles, boarding, fiscines, 
stakes, earth, osiers, and reeds in bundles and growing, each is 

On the b.anks of the Rhine, panniers and gabions filled with 
gravel are employed. 

Riv'et. {Machiucnj.) A short bolt with a flat 
or rose head, employed for uniting two plates or thin 
pieces of material together. The stub end is sw aged 
to prevent its withdrawal. When used for joining 
jiieces of leather, as in making belting, an annular 
disk, termed a burr, is placed ovi;r this end previous 
to swaging, in order to give a greater bearing. 

Rivets are cut from round metal rods, and 
formed by special machinery. i'ie- iSib- 

The rivet was the main dependence of the 
armorer for fastening 
plates of armor. In 
Homer's time welding 
and noldering were ap- 
parently unknown, and 
plates were attaelied 
by mechanical means; 
rivets, pins, nails, 
cramps, and dovetails. 

In riveting iron 
plates together, as in' 
boilers, tanks, etc., the 
rivet is made red-hot, 
and while a sledge is 

held^ainstthe head, the end is swaged down by strik- 
ing iWiectly with a riveting-hammer, or a species of 
die called a snap-head is interposed. In riveting 
together wooden surfaces, they may be lined with 
metallic plate, or washers be placed under the head 
and the swaged burr, to pi-event the indentation of 
the wood. JIaebines are also employed for rivet- 
ing. (See RiVETIXO-M.VCIlINE.) 

In riveting the plates composing the skin of iron ships, it is 
necessary that the outer end of the rivet should be flush with 
the plate. A countersink is, accordingly, formed in this side. 
The operation of riveting is performed by three men and a boy. 
The latter brings it from the furnace with a pair of tongs and 
pa.sses it to the holder up, who receives it in a short pair of tongs 
and inserts it into the rivet-hole from the inside. He then presses 
against it with a hammer or with a tool called a ilaUy. having its 
end indented to receive the head of the rivet, while the two men 
on the outside hammer the other end down so as to fill the 

The plates may be put on with either Inp orjfusfi joint.s, their 
ends in the latter c.T-sc butting. The first may be effucted by a 
single row of rivets, the latter requires two. Double riveting 
I requires two rows of rivets when the plates lap, or four for Husii 
jointing. It has more than two thirds of the strength of the 
original plates, while single riveting affords somewhat over half 
of said strength. 

Riv'et-cut'ter. A jaw tool for cutting olf 
the stub ends of riv- 

Miver- Walls. 

introduced to perform its part in the work of forming a barrier 
against the adj-icent sea and the interior network of rivers and 

.\s in the cases cited, the artificial bank may consist of a rub- 
ble facing with a foot piling to support it, and having a slofH- of 
not than 3 base to '2 vertical bight, the latter depending 
upon the ex(X)sure. and the rate of t'le current. 

The Pii'duiontese engineers use prisms of concrete, forming a 
slope of 4.j^. • 

The banks of the Med way, England, are locally protected by 
a bed of concrete, 

Fxscines in crosswise la vers alternating with gravel, clay, sand, 
Q&d shingle are used in Holland, t^ee Fascins. 

ets or bolts. In the 
example, the handle 
A H is jiivoted to the 
handle £ and piece C, 
so that the jaws D E 
are brought together 
as the handles are 

A shallow, round 
fuel-tray, mounted on 
three legs, and hav- 
ing a circular bellows 
beneath it for blow- 
ing the fire. 

It is set up near the 
place where the ri^'ets 
are to be driven. One 
of tliem isivciuired for 
every two or three 
gangsof nveters. The 
boys who carry the ' 
rivets operate the 

Fig. 4S46, 

Bolt and Ttivet Cultcr. 




The heartli is formed of a slight iron frame and 
iron plates ; on a .separate frame is a small, lonnd 
bellows, so arranged as to be operated by eueh mo- 

Fig. 43i7 

" Ktystone " Riveting-Forge. 

tion nf the hand, np or down. See Rivf.ting- 

Ri(7'et-ing-forge. The portable riveting-forge 
(Fig. 4347) has a pot 
Fig. 4.348. rotiitable by gearing 

and having three 
doors, so as to enj- 
ploythrec operatives ; 
it contains a grate- 
like basket, wliieli 
allows the blast from 
the tuyere to pass 
through. At the 
bottom of the basket 
is a grate and a comb- 
raker, operated from 
the. outside. Beneath 
the grate is the tuyere 
to.K. A fan is pro- 

A hammer for swaging 
It has usually a Ion, 

Riveting- Pot. 

videil for ereiifiug a blast. 

a livet when in pnsitinii. 
flat-liici'd head, and a narrow peen. h, Fig. 4344. 

Riv'et-ing-ma-chine'. (/Inilcr-maling.) A 
machine in whiih the nperatinn of riveting boiler or 
other metallic plates is pcrlbrnied by steam-power. 
Its general primiplc is that of the punching-nia- 
chine. The first ap|ilieation of .steam to this ]nir- 
pose is due to Sir William Fairbairn, of Manchester, 
England. He ein]iloyed a movable horizontal die, 
in conjunction with a li.ved die at the heail of an iron 
pillar ; the work to be riveted being inserted be- 
tween the two. The same general eonstnietion has 
been adopted in subsequent machines. Sir William 
Fairbairn states that tlie machine was contrived 
when he had a large number of orders on hand for 
his double-llued boiler and the men struck. "In 
this dilemma 1 was driven to the necessity of sup- 
plying the place of the riveters by a passive and 
unerring workman, wliiidi, from that day to. this, 
has never complained, and did as much work in one 
day as was formerly accomplished by twelve of our 
best riveters and assistants in the same time. I de- 
sired the foreman to reverse the action of the punch- 
ing-maidiine, and with )Hoper dies to rivet the plates 
instead of piunching them. In six weeks from that 
date we had the riveting-machines at work, making 

tighter joints and executing the work wdth greater 
lierfection than could possibly be done by the ham- 
mer. " 

Fairbairn introduced many improvements in ma- 
chinery employed for various purjioses, which have 
been universally adopted. His attention having 
been diawn to the advantage of iron as a material for 
building ships, in 1836 he built and successfully 
laum:lied a small iron vessel. This was one of the 
very hist of its class built in England. In after life 
he constructed many large vessels of the same ma- 
terial at his shops in Millwall. He was one of the 
very first to plan and construct buildings nf iron. 
He was chosen to assist Steijhensoii in the construc- 
tion of the great tubular iron bridge over the Jleuai 
Strait, for the Chester and Holyhead Railway. He 
was chiefly instrumental in the introduction into 
general use of wrought-iron plate girders in building 
operations, as well as in railway engineering. His 
principal works are on "The History and Jlaiud'ac- 
tnre of Iron," " Mills and llill-Work," and "Iron 
Shipbuilding." He died August 18, 1874. 

The niactiine illustrated in Fig. 4349 i.^ set in nioMon by a 
band on the pulley n ; on the axis of the latter is a pinion irear- 
ing into a larj^e spur-wheel b. on whose axis is a eiini f ojierating 
the rivetiug-lever </, the face of the cam being steeled and the 

Fig. 4349. 

R i veting- Ma c/t ine. 

end of the lever having; a roller to diminish tho friction. The 
rivctiiifi-lL'Vi'V lias a fulerum in tlie fi-aine, anil acts Ijv its face 
upuu the rivetiug-tool e when punching and by u link couuec- 

Fig. 4350. 

Riveting Machine. 




tion with tlie tool when retracting, the tool sliding in a socket 
fixed la thp j-idu t'runcs. 

The fifc of tile rive ting- tool has a depression which reccirey 
the end of the rivet uiid swages it to slmpe. 

Tlie anvil-post 7" rises from tiic found-t tion, and has a riveting- 
block of the shiipe of a frustum of u cone. The sections of 
boiler arc lowered from above, by na-ans of tackles', the point 
at which the rivet is to be pl:ieed being adjusted between the 
punch and the auvil-bloeU. The rivet is placed in the punched 
holes, the band slipped on to the fast pulley, and the upward 
moiion of the cam raises the lever and swages the rivet. 

fig 4350 is a portable machine on the same plan. Not being 
intended for such heavy work, its frame is less massive than 
that of the foregoing, and the construction and arrangement of 
its details are slightly different. 

In TwcdJel's machine (Fig. 43ol), the distance between the 
punch a and anvil b is regulated, according to the thickness of 
the plate, etc., by screws c c' 

and links U. The whole appa- 
ratus is mounted on a truck, 
and the pressure applied by a 
hydraulic accumulator oper- 
ated bv a portable engine. 

In Adt's machine (Fig. 4352), 
the work is supported on the 
table a ; the puuch is recipro- 

Fig. 4352. 

Rivet ins- Mack ine. 

Adl's Rivet in::- Mnrhine. 

cated by a pitman 6, having a universal joint ronncctinn with 
the spindle c, and actuated by an eccentric on the pulley-shaft 
d \ the punch spindle is at the same time revolved by a belt on 
the shaft of the Hy-wlieel e, imparting motion to the pulley /" 
through two small change pulleys, one of which is seen at ^. 

In another machine intended for heading caster and hinge 
pintles, etc., the spring-hammers strike the opposite end:^ of the 
pintles simult;tneously. The working parts are ailjustable to 
suit rivets of varying lengths. 

Fig. 4353 is a machine for riveting hinges. Peculiarly shaped 

Machine for Riveting Hinses. 

revoIvin<r milling-tools spread the pintle when forced against 
it, and form the head. 

McKay and Macgeorge's hydraulic riveter is operated by wa- 
ter from ati acciiinul;itur under a pre.^suie of TUD pounds to the 
inch ; water is admitted to a small cylinder, cau>ing the dies to 
close upon the rivet, when self-acting vaives the water 

Fig. 4354. 

Hi/rfrautic Jlicfting-Machine. 

to the large cylinder, which compresses the plates together and 
finishes the riveting. After allowing the rivtta moment to cool, 
the hamlle operating the valves is i-eversed, when the jaws un- 

Riv'et-ing-set. A punch (r, Fifj. 4344) with a 
liollow iiice. Used lor swaginj,' llu- hen Js of rin^ts. It 
i.s more expeditious than tin- peeii ot" a riveting -hnin- 
nier, and by making the concavity of any (Ic-^ired 
sliape, t}ie t;ouDterpart form is imparted to the end 
of the iiv(.'t. 

Riv'et-joint The results of Mr. Fairbairu's 
experiments on riveted jnint.*^ ^vere as follows : — 
Taking the coefficient of tenacity of the boiler-plate it?elf= 100 

Then that of an equal length "of joint would be — 

For double row of rivets = 70 

For single row of rivets = 56 

Mr, Fairbairn gives the following tab'e a." exhibiting the 
strongest forms and best proportions of riveted joints, deduced 
from practice : — 

Dimensions in inches. 

Fig. 4:355. 







*u j: 

c - 




"c 2 

a '/ c 




b . 



















1 fi3 






2 00 






2 75 




3 00 



For double-riveted joint.«,add 
two thirds to ttie depth of lap 
given for single joints. 

Riv'et-ing-tools. Tlic 
inipliMiii'iit.s'il in rivct- 
iiii;nietallic platcstogetlii-i'. ' 
Those used foi' sliip and 
boilur plates are ; — 




a, rivet-tongs. 

b, rivctiiiy-liumnuT (outsijc). 

c, tongs. 

d, olu.sing-liainmcr (outside). 
c, cliisiiig-liainmer (inside). 

/, 9, dolly- 

A, lioItlii)g-up hammer (inside). 

Coppersiuitiis and other workmen in tliin sheet- 
metal or leiithfr work united by rivets, I'liiploy a 
rivft-puiich or rivd and burr scf, tlie worlc beinj^ -sup- 
porti-'il on a staki' or iilatf. 

Riv'et-iuak'ing Ma-chine'. A machine for 
making rivets I'roni rod-iron. In Fi*:;. 4350, the rod 

Fig 4356 

Rivet-Makiiis; Machine. 

d is fed tlirongli a giiide-]ilate into movahle dies h ft, 
the k'ngth of the blank being regulated liy a stop. 
The moval)le dies have reciprocating motion, and cut 
olf the rod fed into the machine, carry the bhink in 
front of tin* heading die, and finally serve as tlie die 
in wliieh the head of tlie holt is formed. As they 
descend they cut off the length of rod against the 
face of the guide-plate, and carry it in front of a hol- 
low die m that has a horizontal motion, the interior 
of the die corresponding to thi^ intended form of the 
shank of the rivet. The stub end of the rivet is 
fornnnl against the plunger ;j, which also serves to 
ejeitt it when finished. 

Fig. 4;Jj7 has a feeil-jilate A into which the rod 
is fed through an aperture / ; a blank is cut otf by 
the downward motion of the plunger 7", which holds 
and guides it while being forced into one of theaper- 

Fig. 4357 

tures c e in the die-wlieel iV, by the reeiproiating 
rod c, where it is subjected to the aetiun of ihe 
header K, ojierateil by the same compound cam D 
which actuates the lever carrying the idunger T. 

Riv'iug-knife. {Cooper iiu/.) A tool u.-^ed in 
splitting balks for staves, clapboards, shingles, etc. 
A /raw. 

Riv'ing-ma-chine'. A machine for splitting 
wood in thediivctiun of the grain ; hu' hoops, slaves, 
splints, as the case may be. 

Roach. {.\i(i(fica/.) The upward curve of the 
foot of a sail, made in order to clear the stays, spars, 
etc. A piece laced on to fill up the concavity is 
called a save-all. 

Road. "The Carthagenians," says an ancient 
writer, "invented paved roails." The Koman roads 
were pavements resting on a fouudalion of naigh 
stones consolidated into one mass by liijuid niorlar 
or grout. They extended from IJome to her distant 
provinces, and facilitated the march of her legions, 
tlie transportation of supplies, and the intercourse 
by couriers and post-rariiages. 

" The Romans,'' gajs Isidore, " make ronds almost aU over 
the world, to htive thiMr umrcbfs in a strai>j;ht line and lo i-ni- 
ploy the people " Isidore was a Greek architect of the ?i.\th 
rentury,aud was employed by .lustinian to conplete tlieelmrth 
of St. Sophia at Constjuitinople, now a Mohnniuiedan nio?qiie 

Twenty -nine j^reat HiilitJiry roads eeiiteied at Uoti e, ton e uf 
them being curried to the extrene limits of the Knipii'c, which 
was divided into 11 regions, 113 prtivinies, trtiver>ed by 372 
great roads, which, a* cording to the Itineiai'y of Antoninus, 
had a length of 52,9114 Roman miles. 

The tirst of these great roads wjts the Apj'ian IfWy, construct- 
ed by the censor Appius Claudius CaM us. 442 a. u. c (311 D c), 
who is not to be confoumleil « ith the detenivir Appius Clau- 
dius, 44U B c.,<oueerned iu the tnigedy of Viiginia, tlie Ro- 
man maiden The stones were hewn and carefully titted. 
It was never excelled by the Romans. Ajipius con^truf ted 
it to Capua. 142llliies,andhis^u^ces^"0l•s to Krundusium (now 
Brindisi), another 218 n.iles. Strabo (d. a. d. 24) pives it the 
preeminence. It is still entire in n;any places, though more 
than twenty centuries have elapsed since its construction It 
was properly culled '• JUgina Vinrum." 

The \'ia' Nuniicia led to Rrundusium ; the Via Flaminia to 
Rimini and Aquileia; the Via Aurelia wn? along the coast of 
Ktruria ; the Via Cassia ran ro Moilena, letween the Flaminian 
and Aureliau ways ; the Via ^Emilia extended from Rimini to 

The smaller ways were the Via Prrenestina to Palestrina (the 
ancient Praeneste); Tiburtina to Tivoti; Ostiensis to Ostia; 
Liuirentina to Laurentiini, south of Ostia ; Salai'ia, etc. 

Under Julius Caesar Ihecsipital ol the Empire was in complete 
communication with all the principal cities by paved roads. 
During the last Afiican war a paved road was constructed 
through Spain and (iaul to the Alps. 

These roads connected the capital with Savoy, Dnuphiue. and 
Provence, Germany, all parts of Spain, Gaul, Constantinople, 
Hungary, Macedonia, and the mouths of the Danube. 

On the other sides of the intervening waters these roads were 
continued iu Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Eugland, Asia, and Af- 

The Roman roads were distinguished by the names 
Via, Achis, Itcr^ Scmita, TrameSy Diverticulum y 
DirerH/tm^ CnlUfis, etc. 

Tlie Via was the best, and had a width of R Roman feet. 
The Vifp Militnri and other imiinvtant roads in the nciglibor- 
hood of Rome had a double widtli, IG Ronnti feet, equal to 15 
feet C inches English, and nmrgines. or sidewalks, 8 feet wide. 
The middle, convex portion was paved with blocks and dividt il 
from the sidewalk by a curb or low wall, 2 feet uide and IS 
inches high. The middle was for the infantry \ the marginea 
for carriages and equestrians. 

The Actus was 4 feet wide, for single car- 

The Iter, for horsemen, pack animals, and 
pedestrians, was 3 feet wide. 

The Semita was 18 inclies wide, and was 
called Trairifs, Divfrtirulum, or Divrinim 
when it branched across tields. The Smnta 
on steep grades was frequently in the form 
of stops. 

The CaHfiis was a mountain path. 
In Rome were 31 principal streets and 
about 422 less important ones. 

The Roman military roads were made with four strata with a 
composite thii'kness of about three feet. 
1 . The statumen consisted of two courses of flat stones laid in 




2. The riitius^A rubble of broken stones mixed with one third 
the quantity of quickiime ami well nimnied. 

3. Tlie nitrleus, a mixtuit of brick, potsherds, broken tiles, 
and one third the quimtity of lime : or gravt-l aud the stuted 
proportion of lime laid on while hut from slukiujr. 

4. Th9 summa crttsia, puvcuient of not le^ than six inches 

These roid* bore uninjured the weight of columns, obelisks, 
and other immense block-s, weighing hundreds of tons. 

The royal roads of Persia ran by the side of the common roads, 
and wore reserved for the uses of the king alone. They were 
kept in better condition than the common roads, and g;ive rise 
to that remark of EucliJ, the mathematician, to Ptolemy Pliila- 
delphu.-!, at a dinner ia the Museum of Alexandria, " There is 
no royal road to geometry.'* * 

The Moguls constructed good roads in India, with a di.<ttanee- 
stone at the end of every hoss. Agr.i, Lahore, and Ctisiimere 
were t!ms connected- With tae death of Aurungzebe these im- 
provements cea-ted, and the works cominemed tu ilecay. 

At a comparatively late date the work of improvement of the 
Indian roads his been pursued with vigor- The Grand Truuk 
Road connects Calcutta with Peshawur on the borders of Aff- 

The military roads of Peru were built, one on the plateau, 
the other on the shoije. The former, for nearly 2,000 miles, 
crossed sierras, gorges, and rivers, by tunnels, bridges, and fer- 
ries. The road was 20 feet wide, faced with tt.igs covered with 
bitumen, and had milestones. Tae shore roid wa^ built on an 
embankment, ftith a cl.iy parapet on each side, and shade-trees. 
It was supported by piles, in places. Every five miles there 
was a post-house. Humboldt declares the road magnificent. 

We learn from the venerable Bede (\ d. 700) that the Roman 
road^ of England were built at various periods in the second, 
third, and fourth centuries ; the people, crimiaaLi,aad the Ro- 
man soldiery being employed thereon. 

The four principal ones were, — 

1. Watling Street; from Kent, by way of London, to Cardi- 
gan Bay, in tV'aies. 

2. Ikenild Street: from St David's, Walc^, by way of Bir- 
mingham, Derby, and York, to Tynemouth, Englaad. 

3. Fosse Way; from Cornwall to Lincoln. 

4. Eruiin Street; frooi St. David's to Southampton. 

In many places the remains are yet visible ; iu many others 
the old pavement is below the surface, having been buried by 
the vegetable growth of centuries, or covered by earth from other 
natunl cause, such as laud-slips aal watercourses. 

Higlivays were first nude public iu many parts of England 
by ti»e Romans. In the time of Elvard I. they were orderei 
to be widened and cleirel of trees within 2)0 feet of the ro;i J, 
f »r the prevention of robberies. Toll granted on one in 
Liu ion in 1343. The parishes were made answerable for their 
conlitioo in 1553. Toll gvtes were erected in ISoS. 

Iu the sixteenth year of the reign of the frivolous Charle-i II. 
a turnpike road was established through lie rtford.s hire, Cam- 
bridge.shire, and Hunting lonshire. 

The Simplon road from Geneva to Mihn, built by Napoleon, 
cost the French government IT.O^IJ.O 10 iivres i S 3,"i5:),'JUU). 

Mac.\dam says: "The measure of substituting paveaients for 
convenient and useful roids is a kind of desperate remedy, to 
which ignorance has had recourse."' 

The mode of road-making with broken stone, before Mac Adam, 
was to make a foundation of lar.^ stoue, on them place stones 
of a medium size, and finish oif with the smallest MacAdim 
employs broken stone of as hard a variety as possible, no stone 
to exceed six ounces in weight A ring is used to test the sizes. 
It has an interior diameter of 2V inches. 

The convexity of a road of 50 feet vndth may be 1 foot when 
settled; tJ inches more .'^hould be allowe I in making. 

Mac.Vdim. by the authority of the ParliamenUiry Commis- 
sion, substituted in one street fnr the rounded stones or bowl- 
ders a bed of broken stone laid as a convex rounded roadway. 
His ideas were laughed at by professional road-makers, J»nt after 
a trial of th>i new scheme, the paving of London was torn up, 
broken, and spread d la lilira'tam. The country districts soon 
followed the example. Macadam was maile Surveyor-General 
of the Bristol Roads; he was reimbursed for his expenses, and 
received the additional sum of £ 2,000 as a recognition of his 

The section (Fig. 4358) illustrates a plan success- 
Kg. 4358. 

fully adopted by Telford on the Glasgow and Carlisle, 
the Holyhead, and other roads. It consists of a 
foundation a of paviiig-i-toiu'?; laid broad end down- 
ward on tlu' leveled surface uf the natural earth and 
covered with broken stoiie.s h to tlie dejitli of about 
six inches. These wedge in between tlie interstit-es 
of the foundation, fornnng a smooth and compact 
surface, c c are ditches, and d d pipe-drains. 

The National Road from Baltimore, across the Alleghanies 
and extending to Illinois, is t>5'i| miles in length and bU feet in 
width. It is macadamized for a width of 30 feet. 

Road-bed- 1. {Hail way Enfjhu-cring.) The bed 
or bnuidalion on whieh the superstructure of a ndl- 
way rests. The substructure of the way consists 
of the embankment, bridges, piling, ballast, etc., 
and supports the superstructure, which consists of 
the rails, ties, chairs, frogs, crossings, etc. 

2. {Vivll Kvyiiicin'biij.) In common roads, the 
whole material laid in ]»Iace and ready for travel. 

Road-lev'el. A level (</, Fig. 43o8) for correct- 
ly laying oil' the surfaces of common or nuuadnniized 
roads. Its lower edge is .set horizontally by the aid 
of a ]>lumb-bob susjiemU^d from its ujiper hraiuli, and 
the lower limb is provided with olivets, adjustable 
by means of screws, which are rai.-ed or loweretl rel- 
atively to each other to guide the workmen in fonu- 
ing the desired slope. 

Road-lo'co-mo'tive. A locomotive adapted to 
run on comniuu roads. The idea, conceived by Watt 
and Dr. Itoliinson, was lirst realized by Murdoch, a 
Cornish engineer, who, about 178ti, constriu-ted a 
small locomotive which ran on the high-ro;ul near 
Kedruth. William Symington, in Scotland, and 
Oliver Evans, in America, also constructed models, 
though on diHerent plans, of engines de.'^igued for 
this purj ose. In l&U'J, Trevethick and Vivian had 
one experimentally in operation. After this tlu* bad- 
ness of the roads and opjmsition of the turnpike 
managers, or the diversion of inventive talent to the 
improvement of railways and their appliances, seem 
to have frustrated farther attemjits in tliis direction 
for many year-s, when the subject was taken up by 
Griffiths, Brunei, Gurney, and others at various 
times. See Locomotivk. 

Steam-can-iages constructed by some of these in- 
ventors plied for a time between various cities and 
towns in England and Scotland, but failed to become 

One of Gurney's engines, weighing two ton.% drew 

Fig. 4359. 

Tdford^s Road' Section 

Early Road- Locomotives. 




11 tons upon a gnoil linril coiinti-y roiid. The 
of this locoiiiotivi! luul tiri'S o.V inches wide. 

; drivers I clo'e to;;otber ; and the gearing for communtrating the motion 
to till" driviiig-whfols is f-u constructed that Ijotli wtne.s arc ai- 
. -,. - 1- 1 • • 1 I ways ill geareveu wlien turtiing a sliari) loruer. 

Haueoek s elli^llie {it, J> Ig. i3M) niu lur line Wltll i ijy ai, adjustment of the driving-pmiou.- the speed of the en- 
16 passengers in 1S.31. The iiiaeliinery was situated giue may be altered from the slow spied ofii miles per hour to 

beliiud the carriage. The lire was blown by ;i re- 
volving fan turned liy the engine. The two liiiid 
wheels were drivers, though one was generally dis- 
connected from the engine, excejit in cliiuliing liills, 
etc. The weight of the locomotive, witli water and 
fuel, but without passengers, was 3^ tons. 

The success of railways, and the difficulties attend- 
ing the use of ' 
locomotives on 
ordinary roads, 
caused a cessa- 
tion of eli'orts 
toward their 
until about the 
yearlSo6, wlieu 
the subject was 
again revived 
with a view to 
the adaptation 
of such engines 
to agricultural 
purposes. Of 
late years, sev- 
eral varieties 

have been con- '""/ "^^^^ 

structed, which ~l;5? -' ~ 

fuliill their in- ..:^ 
tended purpose 
with consider- 
able success. 
The more prom- 
inent of these 

are constructed on the general ]>lans of Ransome and 
Sims, or of K. W. Thoinsun of Edinburgh, who intro- 
duced the llexible rublier tire. 

James's (ft, I'ig. 4:jjlf), patented in 1867, is one of 
the earlier of the more recent American eli'orts in 
this line. It has coupled drive-wheels, the treail 
of which consists of segments of a circle supported 
on separate spokes. 

Ransome and .Sims's ".self-moving engine" (Fig. 
■1300) is adapted for hauling light loads on common 

The.'e engines have a single cylinder. The driver and steers- 
man are placed behind the engine, thus enabling them to eom- 
niunieate with .and assist each otiier. All the apparatus for 
starling the engine, reversing and applying the brake, are placed 

Fig. 4330. 

4 miles per hour, and f/cc versa. Tlie diiviiig-wlieels ii « are 
M'rought-iron, with east-iron rims, 10 inches Ijinail. '1 hey are 
fiirni.-lied witn wrought-iron spuds to attach to the rims in casn 
tile roads are very saudy and soft. The fire box of the engine 
is adapted to burn wood or coal. Coal and water for a j-mrney 
of from ti to 8 u.iles may be stored in the tanks f /"under and 

I at the back part of the engine ; 6, fly-wheel : e , ; e/, 
steering-wheel. This loeomotive is also adapted lor u;e as a 

I motor for thrasUiug-maebines, saw-mills, etc. 

Fig. 4361 


Tlwmson^s Ruafl-S'enme. 

Ransome and Sims''s Road- Locomotive. 

Thomson's (Fie;. 4361) has an upnirht tnhular 
l)oil(M"and two small cylinders. Tlu' crank-sluUt and 
drivers are eonneeted by gearing;. 

The rnvat novelty of this enjrine is in the clastic tires of the 
whct.*l>i,ud;ii)ting them to pass over loose stone?, slippery surfaces, 
etc These tires are of rubber, 12 inches wide jind 4.V inchea 
thick. The rim of the driver i.-j perforated with a large number 
of holes, an inch or more in dian.ctcr. into which the inner fur- 
fjce of the rubber tire forces itself, to prevent slipping. The 
outside of the tire is protected from injury, to sfure extent, by 
an end!e>:s band of steel cross-bars, which jield with the tire to 
inequalities of ground. 

The loeomotive is .steered by a single pivoted wheel in front, 
and is able tntiirn in very small Fpace liy a little change in 
the nr>chincry, it may also be used as a portable engine. See 


Roaddocomotives are employed to some extent in 
England and in British In- 
dia, hnt have not met with 
much favor in continental 
Europe or Anierira. A few 
are in nse in Pjiazil, ami in 
the United .States .several 
kinds are niannlactured to 
order ; hnt the di-mand for 
them is, at present, not great. 
Sep TiiArriox-EXGiNK. 

Road-met'al. {Engineer- 
■ing.) Ilrokrii stnne for mak- 
inj^' or mending macadam 

Road-roU'er. A heavy 
cylinder used for compacting 
the surfaces of roads. 

One of the road-rollers used in the 
Central I'ark, New A'ork, weighs 6J 
tons, and is adapted to receive addi- 
tional injuling to hrintr it tr\ it nr 12 
tons. It is riin'pnped of two hollow 
cylinders of cast-iron, set abreast on 





a strong wrought-iroD axle, makiag together a length of 5 feet^ 
with a diameter of 7 feet ; the cylioders are set in a timber 
framework, so arranged aa to admit of being suitably balanced 

Fig. 4362. 

Cmtral Park Road-Roller. 

on the journals, and the whole is drawn by eight horses. Aper- 
tures are made in the ends of the cylinders, through which 
the interior cavities, consisting of four separate cells in each 
cylinder, can be filled with broken stone and gravel, and the 
weight thereby in- 
creased up to 12 tons, as 
above stated. Two of 
these large rollers were 
constructed at the com- 
mencement of the work, 
and have served, until 
lately with but few re- 
pairs, for the entire road- 
system of the Park. 

Steam road -roll- 
ers have now been 
generally intro- 
duced with great 

Aveling and Por- 
ter's (Fig. 4363) has 
two driving-rollers 
in front, one of which 
turns loose on the 
axle to enable the 
machine to turn 
short curves. The 
driving-axle is ro- 
tated by chain gear- 
ing from the crank- 
shaft, and similar 
gearing is nsed for 
connecting the steer- 
ing-wheel with the 
two large rollers at 
the rear of the ma- 

These are journaled in a turn-table, which may be 
rotated horizontally by the steering-wheel to guide 

the machine in any direction. It is built of four 
sizes, weighing respectively 15, 20, 25, and 30 tons. 
The steering-wheels of a ditlerently arranged roll- 
er, made by Aveling and Porter (Fig. 4364), are 
somewhat conical, and are mounted on an axle, 
whose ends are bent downward, so that the wheels 
are close togetlier at their lower edges, while be- 
tween their upper edges a strong upwardly project- 
ing center-pin from the axle passing tlirough Hanges 
at the end of the fire-box serves to support that part 
of the boiler, and as an 
axis on which the fore- 
wheels turn to steer 
the machine. The 
steerage is effected by 
chains connected to 
the bow in which the 
axle isjoumaled, which 


il "fling and Porter''! Road-Roller. 

are operated by a foot-plate worked by 
tlie driver. 

Road-scrap'er. A large hoe, or a 
m.ichine for leveling or cleaning roads. 
The machine (Fig. 4365) is an oblique 
board which is drawn over the roail-bed 
to level the earth or gravel which has 
been dumped in position. It is also nsed 
^^ in rounding - up country 

roads after plowing a num- 
ber of furrows on each side. 
Fig. 4366 is a common 
form of scraper for lemov- 
ing earth in road-making, 
or even in ditching when 
the sides of the excavation 
are sloping. A grading- 
shovel or carlh-scrapcr. 

Fig. 4367 is a machine 
having shares, scrapers, 
and roller attached to the 
frame. It is intended for 
levpling roads. 
Road-steam'er. A lo- 




Fig. 1365. 

Fig 4366 

Road- Scraper. 

comotive traction engine for use on common roads. 
See Ro.\[)-LocoMOTiVE ; Tractiun-engime. 

Roan. (Leather.) Sheep- 
skin tanned with sumach ; 
>the process is similar in its 
details to that employed for 
morocco leather, but lacks the 
graining given to the morocco 
by the grooved rollers in the 
finishing. It is used largely 
for bookbinding and somewhat 
foi' shoes. 
Roast'ing. {Metallurgy.) 
A protracted heating of metallic ores to a point be- 
low fusion, to expel sulphur, arsenic, carbonic acid, 
water, etc., and frequently to effect oxidation. 

Fig. 4367. 

Earth- Scraper. 

other volatile 

A is Parke's 
roasti n g - o v e n 
Utv copper ore, 
in which the 
ore is stirred 
by machinery. 
The hearth is 
in two stories, 
each of which 
has its own ro- 
tary stirrer at- 
tacheil to the 
central shaft 
and operated by 
gearing in the 
vault below. The hot gases 
from the furnace jiass 
over the two chambers in 
turn, and thence to tlie 
chimney. The hearths are 
about 12 feet in diameter. 
On the othei' side of the 
hearth appear the openings 
at which the working tools 
are introduced. These are 
closed by iron doors. Tlie 
charge is introduced at an 
opeiung in the roof of the 
upper chamber. Each 

Fig. 4368. 

Road- Scraper. 

The roasting of ores is conducted in heaps or fur- 

The operation is (n) for the purpose of removing 
impurities, or (i) for lonverting certain constituents 
into a more tractable condition, either for succeeding 
operations or for removal. 

1. Sulphur and arsenic are expelled by fire, 
passing off in fumes. This is termed roasting with 
iron and some other ores, which are built up into 
lieaps with fuel and then fired. 

2. The roasting of tin ores to get rid of iron and 
zinc is conducted in a reverberatory furnace. Cop- 
per ore is roasted in a similar fui-nace or smelted to 
convert the sulphnret of iron into an oxide, when it 
passes into the seoriffi and is removable as a slag. 

See Copi'Eii ; Copper-smelting ; Calcinino-ftjr- 
nace; Roasting-furnacf, ; Desulphurizing-fur- 
NACE, etc. See lists under Metallurgy ; Furnace. 

Roast'ing-bed. (Mctalhirgy.) A floor or bed 
of refractory suTtstance on which ores are roasted. 

Roast'ing-fur'nace. (Metallurgt/.) A furnace 
in which ore is heated to drive ofl' the sulphur and 

hearth has a charge of 4 tons. The material is raked 
from one floor to tlie other, and eventually falls into 
a vault beneath. 

J? is a shaft-furnace for roasting iron by means of 
gases from hydrocarbons. The stack is hooped with 
iron, and has a central ca^'ity of a truncated cone 
shape. The cast-iron hearth has three slopes which 
incline to the discharge-holes, which have dooi's in 
which are air-holes. Above the ojienings leading to 
the doors is a carrying piece jirojecting into the shaft. 
The gases are led in at a tube shown on the left, 
from which they reach the interior by a number of 
tuyeres at various higlits in the shaft, whence they 
issue, and, coming in contact with atmospheric air, 
are burned. The entrance is regulatable by dampers 
at the various tuyeres of the respective series. 

C is a reverberatory furnace lor loastiiig arsenical 
ores, in which the fumes are conducted fjom the fur- 
nace through a long flue, in which they are con- 
densed in cooling. By such means either valuable 
materials are saved, or the fumes are suppressed, so 
as to avoid contaminating the surrounding atnios- 
jihere. See Arsenic-furnace. Along the con- 
denser are doors for extraction of the deposited 
material. See Plattner's " Metallurgischen Rost- 
prozesse," Freiburg, 1S36. 




Fig. 4369 is a furnace with a rotating hearth, the 
contents of which are moved by stationary stirrers. 

Fig. 4369. 

class known as a shuft-fnrnace, in which the pow- 
dered ore is calcined while falling through the Hanie 
rising from a fire. 

, having been crushed by the rock-breaker, is then 
' . salt and pulverized by the stamp battery. From 
this the pulp is carried by a conveyor to tiie 
feeder a, which consists of a hopper, whose Vot- 
tom is provided with a coarse wire screen, shaken 
by means of eccentrics, and a hollow cnst-iron 
base, on which the lioppcr stands, and through 
which a current of cool water is caused to cir- 
culate The base has a grate covered by a pcT- 
for.ited sheet-iron screen. A nunibiT of tliin 
iron blades are arranged across the Itopiei', 
nearly touching the wire sieve, and keepii g tlic 
pulp in place- The reciprocations of 
the wire screen cause its meshes to cut 

Another form of roasting-furnace has inclined cyl- 
inders, through which the ores pass, being heated 
by the furnace. 

In Rivot's furnace (Fig. 4370), the 
gold or silver ores are mixed with ox- 
ide of iron, and then submitted during 
the roasting process to the action of 

superheated steam. 

Fig 4370. 



^ n_ 


~<^^-^^^^^ V^^--^^~.^V'-V--';,^ 





Reverberatory Furnace. 

In Wlielpley and Stover's furnace, patented Janu- 
ary 12, 1864, tlie ore, in a finely comminuted state, 
is forced by a fan-Vilower a through the tube b into 
the descendiTig shaft c of the apparatus; this has 
furnaces d d! on each side, provided with chimneys 
c c, to the action of wliich tlie ore falling from the 
tube h is exposed. The bottom of the horizontal 

Fig. 4371. 

WhtlpUyand Storer^s Shaft- Furnace. 

shaft /is covered with water, into which the heavier 
particles of ore fall ; the lighter portions are arrested 
in the chamber g by means of a spray of water in- 
jected thereinto. A ra]»idly revolving fan h in this 
chamber withdraws the products of combustion 
through the up-cast shaft t. 

Stetefeldt's furnace for roasting silver ores is of the 

through the pulp, which falls into the sh:ift 6 in a continuous 
shower, c is one of two tlues of a gas- gen era tor, which enter 
the phaft on each side. The shaft d is provided with a light 
cover and a slide e, on which charcoal is burned. The carbonic 
oxide produced by this is mingled with air introduced throunh 
the flue/, and passes in a state of ignition through the shaft ^ 
into h, where it heats the shower of falling pulp, which is thus 
desulphurized and dechloridized, and falls upon the inclined 
bottom of the shaft, whence it is withdrawn through the door i. 
The tine particles, freed from sulphur and chloridized. whidi 
pass through the shaft A, are deposited in the Hue A- and dust- 
chambers //, and withdrawn at intervals See page 1571 

In Aiken's furnace (Fig 4373), the stamped ore fed thrrugh 
the aperture a is conveyed by the screw b into the conUiu tor r, 
and drops into the roasting-chamber (/: this has an indined 
arched top e, and is heated by two furnaces//, which open di- 

Fig. 437a 

Aiken's Roaxtins;- Furnace. 

rectly into the chamber: the doors g- ^.pivoted, and having 
cranks h h by which they may be placed in horizontal or verti- 
cal position, serve to disctiarge the roasted pulp ; the waste 
gases after passing through the ascending and depcending 
shafts i k and flue /, serve to dry the ore previous to stamp- 

Roast'ing-jack. {Domestic) An old-fashioned 
device for turning the spit on which meat was roasted 
before an open fire. 

It was driven by a dog inclosed within a tread-wheel from 
which a belt passed around a pulley on the end of the spit. Th« 
dogs employed for this purpo.=e usually belonged to a peculiarly 
Bhort-legged, long-bodied breed, termed turnspits. It is said 
that there was not unfrequentiy considerable competition a.** to 
which should take his place in the wheel when a joint was to be 
roasted, the animals well knowing that industry would receive 
its reward 

In the onward march of improvement, this device disappeared 
before its younger rival, the smoke-jack which ate nothing; 
though within a comp^ratively recent period it might still be 
occasionally met with in England. 

Its faithful minister, the turnspit dog, is now but rarely seen. 
The illustration is taken from the castle of St. Briard, on the 
borders of the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, and forcibly 
sugcests the davs when the " roast beef of Old England " still 
maintained its time-honored supremacy over mutton and such 
small deer. 





Fig. 4374. 

,„ii 'fflliilffiteNslfV'«!!fe!i!ltM.i,,, 

The Turnspit at Work. 

In default of a tiimsjiit dog, — which is not an 
uncommon animal, but the art of being thus useful 
has been lost iu the family for seveial generations 
jiast, — the s|)it may be turned by means of a weight 
and cord acting over a pulley and wound upon a 
drum, on whose axis is a band-wheel which turns 
the spit by means of a cord. See Bottle-jack ; 

Ro'band. (Nautical.) A ])iece of plaited rope 
called sennit, used for fastening the head-rope of a 
sail to the jackstay. A rope band. 

Rob'i-net. (SImm-cngine.) A British term 
(borrowed from the French) for some of the cocks of 
the steam-en- 
gine, as the 
gnfjCy brine, and 
triat eorks. 

cask. A wooll- 
en cistern, lined 
witli lead, in 
which alum is 
crystallized af- 
ter having hern 
previously dis- 
solved in water 
or by the action 
of steam. 

Ro ck'a- 
Tvay. (I'c- 
hice.) A kind 
two-seated car- 
i-iage, with full 
Standing top. 

i n g M a - 
chine'. (Min- 
inq.) A ma- 
chiue for drill- 
ing holes in 
rock. Low's 
machine is op- 
erated by air 
compressed in a 
reservoir at the 
mouth of the 

tunnel and conveyed to 
the drill-cylinder by a 
jjipe wound on a reel at 
the back of the appara- 
tus, and so geared as to 
allow the [lipe to un- 
wind when the machine 
is advancing and recoil 
it when moving in the 
reverse direction. By 
suitably arranged gear- 
ing, the boring cylinder 
may be raised or lowered 
and adjusted to any re- 
quired angle. The com- 
pressed air is cooled by 
being forced through wa- 
ter, enabling a liigher 
pressure to be used, and 
may be diverted from 
the boring-cylinder to an 
upright cylinder, from 
wliich motion is trans- 
mitted to the wheels 
when it is desired to 
move the machine. See 


Rock-crush'er. A machine for breaking rock. 

SeeOuK-MiLL ; Stamping-mill ; Quautz-mill, etc. 
See lists under Mill ; Metalluuoy. 

Rock-drill. A tool for boring rock by a chisel 
movement or rotary motion. Fig. 437(i shows sev- 
eral forms of rock-drills, embracing some of the pe- 
culiar features of this tool. Many varieties may be 
found not here shown, but these are representative. 
See also under Artesian-well ; Well-boring, etc. 

a has four cutting edges, arranged radially. 

b. The drill-stock has a central cutter and removable, revers- 
ible, radial cutter-s with extended edges. The shanks of the 
cutters are retained by a sleeve and key in the longitudinal re- 
cesses of the drill-stock. 

Fig 4375 

l/nv^s Rock-Boring Mac/tine. 




c has a central drill and four circumferential reamers to en- 
large and trim the hole. 

a isa drill of fast and movable flat chisel-formed cutters com- 
bined iti one stock, in such a way that the movable cutter will 
be the leading cutter, and, aftt^r'it ha.-^ made its stroke, will re- 
ceive a blow ou its top end from the descent of the fast cutt«rs, 
thereby driving it past them iuto the rock. 

e hasa ceutml cutter operating in a tube which formsasand- 

/"has serrated sections, a collar and oblique grooves on the 
Ptock, so that as the shaft is lifted for a stroke, it i.* turned, 
cau:-ing the cuttin;; face to descend in a new pbice, and turning 
the drill without the revolution of the stock. 

g^ is a rotk-driil of tubular form, and has oa its face seta of 
cutting edges so arranged that the edges of one set may strike 
tue rock across the incision made by the edge:^ of the luljacent 

h is designed to remove broken and pulverized rock from the 
bore of a well, and collect it in the drill-rod, at the same time 
dis<;hargiiig the water from the rod, so a? to allow the heavier 
matt*rrs to be reUiued in the rod, until the receptacle there pro- 
vided for them L< filled 

t is an expanding drill ; when it is drawn upward the cutters 


fall to:;et^er and become contracted to a compass less than the 
di imefer of the pipe within which the drill works ; but when it 
i-ifo-.'ced downward the cutters are forced outward in radial di- 
rections to a diami;ter greater than the pipe, and therefore cut 
a prith for the pipe. 

In J the drill-stock ia hollow, and is designed to be provided 
with ho?e attachments for the pu^pf^se of introducing water un- 
der pressure into the hollow part of the drill-stock, in order to 
have the water issue therefrom through suitable apertures, to 
f»*ee the driil of the boring meal and remove the same by the 
overflow of the water. 

ifc i-j a conical-pointed borer, having three curved catting feces 
at equ il di'^t.inces around its point, and is connected with the 
base of a hollow cvlinder by a socket-joint; its curved cutting 
faces take a spiral form and are continued up to the top of the 
cylinder, thereby forming parallel spiral proove'* on the outside 
of the cylinder ; the edges of the spiral grooves act as reamers, 
tne grooves form elevators in which the =ilt is raised nearly to 
the top of the cylinder, where the grooves are intersected by 
openings which a^Imitthe silt to the inside of the cylinder, from 
which it is discharged, when full, by raising the instrument from 
the well and removing the borer. 

Ms :n annular reamer whose face is armed with black dia- 
mond or ftipphires. See DiAJ«o:fD-DRiLL. 

in i* a ton! for making an enlarged chamber at the bottom of 
a («h'tft It has a pair of chisel bars coupled by pivots and 
ppreuding laterally by the weight imposed. 

Rock-drill'ing Ma-chine'. The two most im- 

portant improvements in moilurn vock-iirillin*; npi'a- 
ratus consist in the use ot" compressed air as a niutiir 
and the employment of diamond points. (See Fig. 
1631.) Tiu^ former is now universally used in oiiera- 
tions on a large scale, as at the Mont CVnis and Hoosac 
tunnels, and is extensively employed in coal-mining, 
serving to ventilate the shaft be.side.s pei forming ti.e 
functions of a motor. Tiic diilliug-machines to 
which it is applied are various, very great improvi- 
meiits liaving been made witliin the past 20 ur 25 
years, previous to which time the old systems of 
"turning the drill, and boring or pounding by hand, 
held undisputed sway. 

In 1849, Clark and Motley, in England, invented a machine- 
drill, and in 1S51, Fowie devised a similar machine, having the 
drill directly attached to the piston cross-head and }irovided 
with an automatic feed-apparatus. To this succeeded the Ilntch- 
kiss and Gardner machine. It has an automatic feed, and 
drill is air-cushioned to deaden its shock, enabling it to be 
worked very rapidly without injury to the stationary parts 

The Mont Cenis and Hoosac tunnels gave a great impetus to 
this cla.'is of inventions, among which «ere a nuniber intended 
for excavating the whole face of the boring at once. Such were 
those of Beaumont and Perrens. These were to cut an annular 
groove of the required circumference by means of drills rotated 
on a large cylinder-head, the core to be afterward removed by 

Captain Penricp proposed to do away with blasting by stud- 
ding the cylinder-head, to which a rotary and percus.'ive motion 
was imparted, with a number of drills, so as to nmove the 
whole face of the rock at the same operation. The .■^nialk-r 
class of ma< bines, which sin ply drill holes for containing a 
blasting charge, are those now universally employed. Among 
these are BergstraemV, employed in Sweden, in which the drill 
is automatirally rotated by a thread on the fly-wheel shaft, 
turning a gear-wheel on top of the cylind*-r and connected to 
the piston-rod ; feed i^ effected by hand. 

In Low's, the piston-rod is hollow and has an interior screw- 
thread by which the drill-holder, fitting therein, is advanced. 
The piston-rod is guided straight during the forward stroke by 
a ratchet-wheel, working in parallel grooves, which is partially 
rotated at each back stroke. See fig. 4375 

The Burleigh machine, u^"ed at the Hoosac Tunnel atd 
Hallett's Point, has n piston-rod extendirg both wajs fnm the 
piston ; the front end contains the drill, and the upper is hol- 
low to receive the fted-screw ; this part has a spiral slot, whir h 
receives a feather on the inner riot of a which 
a rotary motion is imparted on the up ^t^oke; a ring on the 
end of the piston-bar also operates the valves, and through aa 
intermediate lever feeds the drill. 

In Ingersoll's, the piston-rod projects only in one direction 
(forwardj, and is hollow to receive a spiral guide for iupartirg 
rotation. The feed-screw works in a socket parallel with the 
cylinder, and is operated by a rod which pa^f^es through the 
spiral guide, and has a head which, by means of a crank move- 
ment, actuates the feeding-ratchet. The n otor-valve is oper- 
ated by plug-tappets at either end of the cylinder, tig 4377. 

The Haupt drillis suppoited on four adjustable legs, and ia 
sufficiently light to be moved by two n en, and i-^ operated by a 
single man with 2-horfe power of steam; at 20 to 40 poundu 
pressure it drills a If-inch hole in hard limestone, at the ru'e 
of 5 inches per minute. Compressed air ma\ be used, and the 
machine has the usual horizontal, angular, and vertical adju^l- 

Shelbiirne's submarine rock-drill, en plo\ed for removing the 
obstructions at Hellgate. is supported on a scn.i-spheroidal hol- 
low cast-iron base, having three steel ftet, which iusure its sln- 
bilitv on the rock The drill frame is (oniial in shape, and is 
made of wrought-iron, the drill-shaft pn^sing through an open 
ing in its top The drill is operated by two engines within a 
water-tight chamber, and supp.ied with (-team from the Loilcr 
! of a Fteani-tug : its bead is provided with diamond point*, jwr- 
( forming its work altogether by rotation. Live steam is supplied 
' by a rubber pipe passing through an exterior exhaust-pipe. 
, Electro- magnetic devices are caused to ring a bell when the h«jle 
is bored to the required depth, and also when the drill is re- 
moved from the hole When the proper nun.ber are drilled, a 
■ diver descends and charges them with nitro-gl} cerine cj^rtridges. 
Colonel Von Schmidt, of San Francisco, has propo.-td to em- 
ploy for tunneling the Sierra Nevada, in order to si pply water 
to the auriferous gravel-beds of Placer County, an annular dia- 
mond-drill, eight feet in diameter, consisting of a liirge wheel, 
on whose edge the diamonds are set, cutting a circular groove 
two inche* in diameter, and h;iving a central borer, wbit h drills 
a blast-hole. The apparatus is to be worked by ron p1l■^^ell air; 
and when a sufficient depth is attained, 3 or 4 feet, it is to be 
run backward, and the cyiindricaj mass of rock removed by 

Ingersoll's rock-drill (Fig. 4377) may be worked 
either by steam or compressed aii'. 




Pig. 4377 

Fig. 4378 

Fig 4379. 

Rock- Drill. 

McKean''s Rock-Dritt (English). 

Roch-Drilling Machine. 

The cylinder a is placed in a semi-cylindrical trough h having 
trunnions journaled in a tripod stand, is advanced by a screw 
as the liole i.s deepened, and inav be rotated in a vertical plane 
to drill at any desired angle. The points of the liard steel drill 
e are so shaped astoexerta cutting instead of a crushing action, 
an the cylinder U rotated during its downward motion by ratchet 
and pawl devices operated Irom the rod d. e is the steam -chest, 
/ the induction, and ^ the eduction pipe ; h /i, valve-rod tap- 
pets. The legs i i i are a^ljustable in length to suit inequalities 
of tae ground, and are provided with hooks k^ from which 

weights are suspended to hold the apparatus down to its work. 
/ is a hand lever for turning the feed-screw «?, iu order to rni?e 
the cylinder. ' See also Diamond-drill, Figs 16o2, 1G33, pagr€07. 

McKean's rock-drill is operated bytompressed air; the feed 
is effected by a hand crank and screw, and the drill is partially 
rotated at each stroke by a bevel-gear engaged by an incHrrd 
fin at each reciprocation. The stand is mounted on adjiiFtiillM 
steady pins, by which it is leveled. See Tunnel; Scbmarins 

Fig. 4379 is a view of a machine in which the boring is made 

Fig 4380. 

Compre&std-Air Engine for Rock-DriU. 

by vertical strokes. The mechanism may be driven by hand or 
otherwise. The drill haa its downward impulsion by a monkey 
which is automatically tripped. The drill has partial rotation 
between the strokes. 

Fig. 4-380 is an air-<lriven reciprocating drill. The main cyl- 
inder, in addition to its ordinary ports, has two ports communi- 
cating respectively with the back of the valve of the cylinder 
and with the back of the advance cylinder. The main cylinder 
has also a central supply-port in constant communication with 
the tluid supply. The piston-rod carries three pistons forming 
two chambers. The forward chamber communicates with the 
outer air. The hinder chamber contains compressed air. The 
valve-rod carr'es four pistons ; the two outer forming its oper- 
ating pistons, and the inner ones the cylinder-valves. 

Rock'er. 1. {Furniture.) a. A curved piece 
into wliich the two legs on one side of a chair are 

b. A curved piece beneath the end of a chiUi's 

2. {Engraving.) The comb-like steel tool used 

in making the ground-work of the mezzotint pro- 

3. {Mdalhirgy.) A trough mounted on rockers, 
and in which jiarticles 

of ore are separated from 
earth by agitation in 

4. A low-down skate 
with a rounding sole. 

5. {Chemical.) The 
congelation of a liquid 
is assisted by a slight 
agitation of its parti- 
cles, which is effected 
in the ordinary process 
of free7,ing ice-cream by 
imparting analternating 

Fig. 4381. 

Rocking- Chair. 




Fig. 4382. 

semi-rotation to the vessel containing it. In Fig. 
4384, the substance to be frozen is contained in a 

Fig. 4a'i3. 



Straight- Soled Skate. 

mold, placed within a cylinder mounted on rockers, 
and is surrounded by a mixture of hydrochloric acid 
and sulphate of soda. 

Fig. 4384. 


Rock'er-cam. (Afachi)ie-i-t/.) A vibrating cam. 

Rock'er-shaft. (Afachiyierif.) A shaft which 
oscillates about its axis, as that of a bell or one 
supporting a pendulum. More frequently called a 
Rock-shaft (which see). 

Rock'et. 1. A cylindrical tube of paper or metal 
filled with a compressed mixture of niter, sulphur, 
and cliarcoal, which, on being ignited, propels it 
forward by the action of the liberated gases against 
the atmosphere. 

Rockets have been known in China and India from time im- 
memorial, and have long been emplovej for war purposes. It 
Seems probable, from the accounts, that they were employed 
agii nst the force.'* of Alexander of Macedon at the farthest point 
of hi-i E'lstern advance. 

The first European author by whom they are mentioned is 
Mjrcus Graecus, who, writing in the eighth ceutury, says that 
if a compound of niter, sulphur, and charcoal be tightly rammed 
into a long narrow tube and set fire to, the tube will fly through 
the air. 

They appear to hare been employed against the Crusaders by 
the Saracens, and were probably first introduced by the former 
into Western Europe. War-rockets were used by the Venetians 
In 13S0, and by the French in 1449. See Gunpowder. 

Rockets are u*ed for various purposes : — 

War; in which the charge may amount to 32 pounds. 

Life-savins : to convey a line to a stranded vessel 

Whn'e killing: in which the charge may be 2 or3 pounds. 

Signal; fired straight upward, and not differing essentially 
from the ordinary. 

Skt/'Toehet : a pyrotechnic device common in public displays. 

Sky-rockets differ in their terminal display, which is depend- 
ent upon the garniture contained in a pot at the head of the 
case, and which may consist of stars, solden shower-i, serpents, 
iardoits, velUles^ petards, saxons, crackers. See Ure, I. 729, 

These and signal rockets are made by rolling a rectangle of 
thick paper on a former, whose diameter is equal to the interior 
of the rocket. The paper is pasted at each turn, and additional 
sheets are added until the required thickness is attained The 
ea^e, as it is termed, is then choked near one end by wrapping 
it with strong twine, which is drawn tinhtly so as to compress it 
at that point, but leaving an opening sufficiently large to admit 

the spindle, on which it is placed for driving. The composition 
employed in the United States military service consists of about 
26 parts niter, 5J sulphur, and 19 charcoal from hard wood, 
preferably maple. 

The niter and sulphur are pulverized, mixed by band, and 
passed through a sieve having about 25 wires to the inch ; the 
charcoal, moderately pulverized, is then incorporated by hand. 

The case is placed, choke end downward, in a mold; the 
spindle, which projects upward about 'i the length ot the case, 
having been inserted through the choke-hole; a ladleful of 
composition is poured into the case, and driven by means of a 
hollow copper-shod drift, which is struck 25 or 30 blows witji a 
wooden mallet, packing the composition into a solid mass; an- 
other ladleful is then poured in and similarly driven ; Feveral 
hollow drifts are used, each shorter than the other, until the rase 
has been charged to the top of the spindle, when a solid drift is 
employed. When the case has been charged to within about ine 
diameter of its top, the charge is covered with a piece of paper, 
over which is placed a wad of clay or plaster of Paris. 

Into this end a paper cylinder, termed a pm, is usually in- 
serted for containing the garniture or decorations; it projects 
about 1^ diameters beyond the end of the case, and is sur- 
mounted by a paper cone. 

The whole is attached to the larger end of a stick of ?qunie or 
rectangular section, and of such taper that the rocket will \m\- 
ance at a point on the stick one or two inches from the case 

The choked end is primed with a piece of quickmatch, and 
the rocket is fired from a stand which may be adjusted to any 
desired angle of elevation. 

Desaguliers had proposed the use of rockets in modem war- 
fare, but the first actually employed was introduced by Colonel, 
afterward Sir William, Congreve, in 1803. 

The Congreve rocket consists of a sheet-iron ca^e filled with a 
composition of niter, sulphur, and charcoal pulverized, and hav- 
ing a head which may be either solid or hollow, to contain 
a bursting charge, and is closed at bottom with a (ircular 
piece of gun-metal, having a central aperture, into which the 
stick is screwed, and smaller surrounding apertures for the es- 
cape of gases. If the shell-head be employed, it is provided 
with a fuse, so as to burst at or before the time of striking. 
These rockets were first employed in the attack on Boulogne, in 
18U6, and again at CopenhHgen, in 1807. They were al?o u^ed 
at the battle of Leipsic, 1813, by the British rocket troop, an 
organization which is still maintyined in that service. 

In Hale's rocket, the stick is dispensed with. As originally 
made, this rocket, which in external appearance re,'=embles Con- 
greve's, had a central aperture at the rear, through which the 
propelling gas escaped, surrounded by smaller tangential aper- 
tures for imparting rotation. These were employed by the 
United States army in the Mexican campaign of 1847, having 
been found to give generaUy as good results as those to which 
sticks were attached. 

It sometimes, however, happened that immediately after 
starting one would diverge from a straight course and perhaps 
turn completely over, returning toward the place whence it 
was fired. 

To obviate this, Mr. Hale placed the tangential directing aper- 
tures near the head, instead of at the base of the rocket. 

The compo.'^ition with which they are filled consists of niter, 
10 parts ; sulphur, 2 ; charcoal, 3 This is inserted in charges 
of about 3^ ounces each, which are successively compressed by 
a screw or hydraulic press, under a force of 20 tons or more 
to the square inch. A hole is bored axiaily through the com- 
position, and afterward reamed out conicaHy tapering toward 
the bead 

A few rocket-batteries were organized in the early part of the 
late war, but most, if not all, of the material was subsequently 
turned into store. Rockets are, in fact, not adapted for use in 
a wooded country, not being susceptible of great accuracy of 
aim; and being diverted from their course by the slightest 
obstacle, they produce but little effect on disciplined troops, 
and are only available for firing buildings or frightening 
cavalry horses. 

They were, however, used by the English forces in the war 
against Theodore, king of Abyssinia, — a lineal uusiendmit. 
according to the tradition of his country, of the Queen of Sheba. 

War-rockets are fired from a trough or tube, which has 
usually a stop near the muzzle end to detain the rocket until 
sufficient propulsive power is developed to insure its starting 
in the proper direction. 

The tube is sometimes mounted on a tripod-stand and pivoted, 
so that the required direction and elevation may be given ; or it 
is mounted on a carriage after the manner of a field-piece, in 
which case it is sometimes called a rocket-gun. 

The tube has been made of rods of iron twisted spirally, so as 
to form a kind of lattice, imparting a rotary motion to the pro- 
jectile ; it has also been proposed to accomplish this object by 
flanges on the rocket itself. 


































When the winil is directly against the direetion of flight, half the top under the seat and back of the rockers. Stops 
. degree .s to be added to, aud when directly favorable, the [ ^.-^^^ spiiugs attached preveut the chair rocking Over. 

same luuount is to be duducU^d from, the above elevations. 
Fig. 4385. 


Tn Hunt's rocket, a stick is dispensed with, rotary motion is 
imparttd by spiral wings on tlie case or tail-piece A, over which 
is a bursting charge to tJeparate the head D 
Fig. 4386* therefrom at the termination of the upward 
fliglit. The rocket is fii-ed by puUinga lanyard 
tn, which draws a slide igniting a friction com- 

\Valbach's rocket has wings and a percussion 
point, and an elbow to secure discha-ge if the 
point does not collide. A balancing piece on 
the thi"eaded tail has spiral projections, which 
cause it to traverse toward the rear under the 
impulse of the blaang composition, and pre- 
serve the equilibrium us the 
Fig. 4387. composition is expended. 

Detwiller's rocket has a series 
of interchangeable cups A^ A- A'^ 
containing differently colored 
fires ; these are interchangeable, 
so as to appear in any required 
Buccession when the head is ex- 
ploded, their various combina- 
tions forming signals. 

Fig. 43S8. 


2. The lever whereby the 
bliioksniith's bellows are 

Rock'et-drift. (Pijro- 
tcchny.) A cylinder of wood 
tipped with copjier, em- 
ployed for driving rockets. 
Its diameter is ecjual to the 
interior diameter of the 
case. Several of different 
lengths are used in charg- 
ing each rocket, the shorter 
being employed as the case 
is gradually filled with com- 
position ; the longer have 
conical perforations to re- 
ceive the spindle ; the 
shortest is solid. Each la- 
dleful of composition is 
compacted by striking the 
drift a certain number of 
blows with a mallet. 

(Weapon.) A device for 
killing whales. It consists 
of a rocket having a point- 
ed shell at its front end containing a buisting charge 
exjiloded by a time-fuse. The body of the rocket 
contains the propelling charge, and to its rear end 
is attached a barbed harpoon to which the line is 
fastened. It is fired from a gun or directing tube 
poised on the shoulder. See Gun-harpoon. 

Rock-fije. (Pijrotcchny.) An incendiarj' com- 
po.sition which burns slowly and is difficult to extin- 
guish. Used for setting fire to ships, buildings, etc. 
It is composed of 3 parts rosin, 4 sulphur, 10 niter, 
1 regulus of antimony, 1 turpentine. 

Rock'ing. The motion of a steel mill on a cop- 
jier cylinder intended for calico-printing, when the 
jiatterii of the mill is to be repeated on the copper 
a number of times at intervals. See Engraving- 

Rock'ing-chair. One on curved pieces which al- 
low a backwardanil forward oscillation. In Fig. 4388, 
the side pieces are connected by i-einovable rods at 


Rocking- Chair. 

When the chair (Fig. 4389) is used as a rocker, 
the leaf, foot-rest, and arms are folded under the 
seat. To ]ilace the chair in a condition to accommo- 
date the body in a recumbent position, it is tlirown 

Fig. 4389. 

Rocking and Reclining Chair. 

back until the studs meet the hooks, after which the 
foot-rest is unfolded. The chair rocks to and fro on 
the base-i'iece instead of upon the carpet. 

Rock'ing-ham-'TO-are. {Pottery.) See Faience. 

Rock'ing-tree. (ll'cavimj.) The axle fronx 
which the lay is suspended. 

Rock-pul'ver-iz'er. A machine or mill for 
breaking stone for road-bed or ore for metalhirgic 
treatment. SeeORF.-MiLi, ; Stone-breaker ; Quautz- 
MILL, etc. See lists under Mill ; Mining ; Metal- 

Rock-shaft. (Stemn-enijine.) a. A shaft with 
tappets which raise the levers of the pujipet-valves 
in a certain class of steam-engines. 

b. The shaft, with levers, used for working tlie 
.slide-valves, the notch of the eccentric rod dropping 
into a stud fi.xed in one of the levers ; the links 
of tlie slide-valve spindle being attached to the op- 
posite lever on the same shaft. 




Rock-sta£ The lever of a forge-bellows or 
othi-r vibrating bar in a machine. 

Sod. A straight, slender j>iece of wood or metal, 
as the ramrod, wiping-rod, riding-rod, used by gun- 
smiths and armories. 

The coupling bar or lengthening bar of a drill- 

A boring-bar ; miser ; shell ; sludger. 

A connecting piece, as that between the cross- 
head of an engine and a crank. A connecting-rod. 
And so on. 

Rod-chis'eL A chisel on the end of a withe or 
rod, used by the smith in cutting liot metal. 

Rod-coup'ling. ( irdl-sinking. ) A de\-ice for 
uniting the rods, which carry the tools used in boring 
Artesian or oil wells, etc., so as to form a continuous 

Id Fig. 4390, the parts are halved together, screwed into a 
threaded sleeve, and secured by a jam nut. 

Fig. 4390. Fig 4391. 

Fig. 4392. 

Fig. 4393. 


Pump- Rod Boring-Tool *^_.— — ~i 

Coupting. Rod-Coupling. Coupling. Drill-Rod Coupling. 

In Fig 439T, the ends of the pipes have enlargements, and 
are secured by clamping, wedge-pieces, and an outer sleeve. 

Fig. 4394. 

Pin, and Dowel 

In Fig. 4392, the ends of the rods have annular channels, are 
clamped by half-cyliuders similarly grooved, and secured by & 
tapering tbinible. 

In Fig. 43^3, a recess in one section receives the end of a 
spring secured to the other section ; the spring is depressed 
while the screw joint is being tiglitened, and when released by 
engagement with the recess prevents revolution. 

Rod-il'on. Rolled round iron for nails, fencing, 

Rod, Pin, and Dow'el Ma-chine'. ( If'ood- 
working.) A device for 
turning cylindrical dowels, 
The flame a is secured to a 
st^ind, and c;irries the hol- 
low rotating arbor b, to 
which the cutter-head c i- 
clamped by a screw. Tli' 
stuff is prevented from 
turning by a collar d hav- 
ing an angular aperture, through which, and the 
central opening of the arbor, it is pushed while be- 
ing operated on bj- the revolving-cutter. 

The coUai's and cutters are of different caliber, 
adapted to the various sizes of material used and to 
the recjuired diameter of the finished rod or pin. 

Rod-plan'er. A special machine-tool for plan- 
iug locomotive connecting-rods, guide-bars, and 
similar work. It lias two sets of uprights and cross- 
heads, with double saddle on each cross-head. The 
table is driven by spiral driving-gear, so arranged as 
to move the table at the same speed each way, and 
taking cut in both directions. The movable cross- 
head is adjustable to or from the stationary cross- 
head, so as to adapt the machine to vaiying lengths 
of work ; say from 3i to 10 feet. Self-operating feed 
to the saddle will plane both ends of two connecting, 
rods at the same time. Also applicable to all kinds 
of stub-ends for stationary-engine work. 

Rogue's yam. A worsted thread laid up in the 
middle of each strand of British dockyard rope, to 
prevent theft. Differently colored worsteds are used 
in each dockyard, in order to trace the maker of rope 
which proves defective. 

Fig 4395. 

Roll. 1. (if etal -working.) One of the pair of cyl- 
inders between which metal is passed to draw it into 
bar, or to flatten it out into a sheet See Rolling- 
mi i.i~ 

The largest known to the writer is a pair of iron 
rolls for Sir John Brown's works at Sheffield, Eng- 
land. These rolls are 15 feet 6 inches in extreme 
length, and 3 feet in diameter, and each weighs 18 
tons. They are used for rolling armor-plates. 

2. (Engraving.) The cylindrical die in a trans- 

' ferring-press. See Bank-note Engraving. See 

3. (iVool-ieorkinq.) A carding of wool, delivered 
broadside from the cards, and somewhat compacted 
in the process. Rolls are prepared for hand-spin- 

The dotUnri-cijlindcr of a wool-carding machine has 
longitudinal bands of cards with intervening s)>nies. 
The doffing-knifc removes the fibers from these bands 
in slivers which are of the length of the doflSng-cyl- 





inder. They fall into the roller-bowl, which rolls 
and compacts them, bringing them into the condi- 
tion of rolls or cardinys, wliich are taken to the 

i. (Boukbiudiag.) A tool (a) for hand emboss- 
ing or gilding 
Fig. 4396. ^^f:^^^iij^ where a contin- 
uous line 01- jiat- 
teru is to be im- 
pressed upon a book- 
cover. It is a brass 
wheel, whcse edge is 
of the pattern desired, 
either in single, double, 
or triple line, or hav- 
ing fillets, interlacing, 
or scroll pattern en- 
graved thereon. It is 
mounted in a holder 
and heated over gas or 
charcoal. The handle rests against the shoulder of 
the operator, and the wheel is passed along the place 

to be e m - 
Fig. 4397. _^^^*^ bossed. For 
gilding, the 
surface is pre- 
viously spread 
with glaire, 
and gold-leaf 
is laid thereon. 
5. (Metal- 
lurgy.) One 
of a pair or 
series of roll- 
ers arranged in pairs, between which ores are crushed. 
That shown at b (Fig. 4396) has an interior longitu- 
dinal slot to receive the key by which it is held on 
the shaft. 

6. (Building.) A .strip with a rounded top laid 
over a roof at the ridge or at lateral joints, to raise 
the sheet-lead at those points. 

7. (Paper-makiiui.) A cylinder mounted with 
blades for working jiaper-pulp in the tub. 

Roll and Fil'let. A rounded molding with a 
S(|uare fillet on its face. 

Roll-blot'ter. One having a roller around which 
sheets of blotting-paper are fastened, and a handle in 
whose forks the ends of the roller axis are journaled. 

Roll-boil'ing. (fVoolcn-mnniifacturc.) A pro- 
cess for giving a luster to cloth by scalding the cloth, 
while tightly wound upon a roller, in a vessel of hot 
water or steam. (Hirst's English patent, 1830.) 

Roll-box. (Spinning.) In the jack-frame, the 
rotary can or cyliniler in which the bobbin and car- 
rier cylinder for the rovings revolve. 

Roll'er. 1. (Husbandry.) A clod-crusher or 
ground-levelei-. An implement of a cylindrical form 
to roll over arable ground to break clods, cover seed, 
and press in plants which are thrown out of the 
ground by frost. 

The roller is mentioned as an implement for break- 
ing the clods of arable ground by Googe, in his 
" Heresbachius," publi-shed in 1578. 

The ordinary land-roller has a single cylinder 

Fig. 4398 

Bookbindefs Roll. 


made of a trunk of a tree or of logs of wood upon a 
skeleton frame, or is a shell of iron with spokes and 
having sockets for an a.xle or gudgeons. 

Fig. 4398 shows a double roller, in which the de- 
tachable tongue is confined with bands to the frame 
to which it is bolted. The rear rollers are adjusted 
and loosely attached to the elongated rear bar of the 
forward frame. 

Fig. 4399 has three rollers on separate axles, the 

Fig. 4399. 


rear one trailing behind, traveling upon the ground 
lelt unrolled between the two preceding ones. 

Land-rollers are also made of pecidiar construction 
or size for specific purposes in husbandry, as the 
corn-roller, caue-roUer. 

The roller-drill is one having a roller following 
the seed-depositing share, to compact the ground 
upon the seed. Such a roller is a covering-rolU'r. 

The a(«j?i(7-roller (a) has a central axis and a se- 
ries of circular cutting-plate.s, divided by interven- 
ing collars, which maintain them at the required 
distance. It is used in preparing ground for tillage, 
cutting through sods and tangled grass and herbage 
to prevent choking of the plow. This is also known 

Fig. 4400. 

as a (^isyt- roller or a flanged roller for restoring mead- 

2. A machine for leveling roads (see Road-roller) 
or for garden-walks. 

Corntgaled or toothed rollers have been introduced 
into land culture, and are known as clod-crushers. 
This is the normal idea of a roller, but these ridged 
or spiky cylinders are more effective in breaking 
than their smooth relatives. 

The clod-crusher (b) consists of a number of seg- 
ments attached to an iron axle 6J feet long. The 




segments have protuberances which give the knobby 
charuoter to the roller. 

Fig. 4401 is a combined harrow and roller. The 
harrow is adjustable vertically by a lever and rotated 

Fig 440L 

Harrow and RolUr. 

by gearing from the axle ; it is followed by a roller 
on the same frame. 

3. {Xiiiitical.) A cylindrical anti-friction bar 
which revolves as a hawser or rope traverses against 
it, aud thus saves the rope from wear. 

4. (Ordnnnci.) a. A cylinder of wood, used as a 
winch in mounting and dismounting guns. 

b. For meclianical maneuvers in the ordnance 
department, roll-rs are used for mounting and dis- 
mounting cannon, or for transporting them to short 

Lonq and short rollers are circular in .section, be- 
ing slightly hollowed out at their midleugth, the 
better to prevent the gun from slipping otf. The 
half-roller is semicircular in section, but is similarly 
hollowed out on top. 

5. (Mclal-workimj). A ciicalar object in a ma- 
chine acting as a carrier, as a culler, as a die, as an 
iinpresxion-cylindcr, or as a flutloier, e. g:, — 

a. The carrier has an e.'caniple in the rotating 
be.irers on which the bed of a printiug-michine trav- 
erses. It is common in other machines also, as the 
(i;'rtW()i^ rollers of siiinning-machines, the /(^>^c,)/ roll- 
ers and flu rollers of scrAbliiig-nuichincs, the tinsel 
roller of a lace-rriMhiyie. 

b. The cutter is shown in some forms of rotary 
shears and siiltiiirf-itviehiiics, in which the edge of 
a roller laps past another roller or a plate and makes 
a shear cut. 

c. The rfi'<; is found in the hub or roller die of 
the bank-note engraver's transferring-niachine (Fiw. 
4403). E.xamples are also to be seen in many kinds 
of embossing-machines. 

d. The impression-cylinder is found in copperplate 
printing-presses, some forms of printing- machines, 
aud in calicu-printing machines. 

e. The flattener is found in rolling-mills, etc. 

6. (Hardwrire.) A broad-faced wheel having 
gudgeons, and used as an anti-friction de\'ioe to fa- 
cilitate transportation of the object resting upon it. 
A caster. May be cited, — 

Barn-door roller. 

Sash<ord roller. 

7. (.Vusic.) The studded barrel of the mu.sical 
box or chime-ringing machine. 

8. (Statioiiery.) A rolling blotter. 

9. The printer's inking-cylinder. A cylinder of 
wooil covered with a composition of glue and molas- 
ses, which is poured around it in a moM. The cyl- 
inder revolves on an iron axis as the roller runs over 
the face of the form. 

10. Paper-making machines require cylinders of 
great accuracy, and their preparation involves .several 

Abradant3 are dispensed with, and (he required accuracy of 

1 contact 19 attained by the friction of the surfaces of the rollers 
on each other, water being plentifully supplied to prevent their 
beating and tearing each other. 

They are first turned as truly cylindrical as possible in the 
lathe, and tested for parallelism by a thin copper wire applied 
around the circumference at various parts. The journals are 
turned at the same time to insure their concentricity with the 
cylinder. They are then mounted on their own bearings in a 
frame similar to that in which they ar« to be eniployi-d, and 
their surfaces carefully adjusted to each other, the bearings of 
one being fixed, and those of the other provided with a screw 
adjustment, bo that they may be closed upon 
each other until their highest points just touch. 
They are then exaniined to see how they corre- 
spond to each other. Having been turned in the 
same lathe, their errors are usually alike, that 
is, they are either both convex or both concave; 
long rollers generally have the latter defect, in 
consequence of the middle part of the slide be- 
ing more worn from turning short pieces of work. 
When there is a considerable want of correspond- 
ence between the two it is reduced by grinding 
each separately with a lead grinder mounted on 
the end of a long lever and supplied with emery. 
When reduced nearly to correspondence with each other, they 
are adjusted so as to revolve in contact, and the face of one \i 
' marked with chalk lines at intervals of a few inches ; the man- 
ner of transfeirence of these from one to the other indicates 
which parts do and which do not come in contact. The pro- 
jecting parts are then farther ground away. When all the lines 
are transferred with considerable regularity, showing that the 
two surfaces nearly fit each other, thev are adjusted by bringing 
their highest point,s into contact, and are then, by belt and pul- 
ley conuections, caused to revolve in opposite directions and at 
ditferent speeds, a constant stream of water being meanwhile 
directed upon them. By this means fresh points on each are 
continually brought in contact with each other, causing an 
equal and uniform abrasion, and gradually reducing both to a 
truly cylindrical surface. As the most projecting parts arfl 
gradually brought into correspondence, the two are pres.=ed to- 
gether by the adjusting screws, bringing a greater proportion 
of their surfaces into coht;ict, and the openition is thus con- 
tinued until both are gradually reduced to their true form, car* 
being taken to avoid too great friction between them, which 
might heat and tear the surfaces. The process is tetlious, and 
requires several days for its completion. See also Fig. 4405. 

Sometimes the rollers are ground under a pressure equal to 
that which they will have to sustain when at work, in order to 
ensure their not bending when actually required to perform 
their duty in the machine. In this ease the two are driven in 
the same direction, but with slightly diifering velocities. 

11. (Saddlery.) The broad, padded surcingle used 
as a girth to hold a heavy blanket in its proper posi- 
tion, generally made of twilled web with leather bil- 
lets and chapes. 

RoU'er-bar'ro^y. A barrow mounted on a wide 
roller so a.s to cause 
no injury to the 
grass, as the wheel- 
barrow does, by cut- 
ting into the turf 
with its narrow 

RoU'er-bowl. ^ " j^ 

{JVoolcn - Ttianufac- —'n^ " . 

lure.) A device at Bo 

tie delivery end of 

a wool-carding machine, for rolling the stivers de- 
tached by the dojfing-kuife from the longitudinal 
band-cards of the doffing-cylinder. The rolling com- 
pacts the stivers into cardings or rolls, \\\w\\ are de- 
livered upon an apron, and are removed to the slub- 
bing-machine, where they are joined endwise and 
receive a slight twist. 

Fig. 4402. 

RoU'er-die. A die 

of cylindrical form, used 
in transferring steel-plate 
engravings for b.Tnk-note 
printing, and also the 
patterns to the rolls used ^ 
in calico-printing. The 
design is first engraved 
on a plate of soft steel, 
which is then hardened 
aud subjected, in con- 

Fig. 4403. 




junction with the die of soft steel, to the action of a 
jiowei-i'ul press, by wliich the intii^lio lines of the 
jilate are transferred in cameo to the die ; this is 
afterward hardened, and serves to transfer the design 
to a plate, a roller, or to another die. 

RoU'er-gin. 1. One in which the cotton is 
drawn away from the seed by pinching-roUers, in 
contradistinction to the saw-gin. See OuTTuN-GIN. 
2. (Hoisting.) One provided with a roller on 
which the rope winds, and with a ratchet and pawl 
to sustain the weight. 

RoU'er-lift. (Printing.) A small cam to raise 
the rollers from the ink surface in a power- [iress. 

Roll'er-lock. (Printing.) A frame carrying 
adjustalile roller-journals. 
RoU'er-mill. A machine for bruising Haxseed, 
before grinding under edge- 
Fig. 4404. stones and pressing. The 
seeds are placed in the hopper 
a, and are fed downward to 
the crushing-rollers b h' by a 
small roller c within the hop- 
~] per. The rollers b V ai-e 
I geared together so as to ro- 
i tate in opposite directions, 
' and are turned by a hand 
crank on the sliaft d, whicdi 
carries a fly-wheel at its other 
extremity, and also a pulley, 
which rotates the feed-roll c. 
The crushed seeds fall through 
a slit into a box beneath the 

RoU'er-mold. (Print- 
ing.) A mold in which com- 
position inking-roUers are 

Roller-MM. Roli'er-stock. (Print- 

ing.) The frame upon which 
composition rollers are cast. It has usually a jour- 
nal at eacli end. 

Rol'ley. (Mining.) A large truck in a coal- 
mine, holding two corves as they arrive on the trains 
from the workings. A number of rolleys are couplerl 
together and hauled by a horse to the bottom of the 
engine-shaft. A trolly is a small two-wheeled truck 
used in a rolling-mill to wheel the balls of j)uddled 
iron to the sc|ueezer. 

Rol 'ley-way. (Mining.) A tramway in a 

RoU-grind'iag Ma-chine'. A machine for ac- 
curately grinding rolls for the finer kinds of sheet- 
metal rolling, and more especially for calender rolls. 
Poole's machine, p.atented July 8, 1868, has one or 

FiR. 4405. 

PooU^S RoU-Grin'tin^ Mackitu. 

more pairs of cutting or grinding tools upon a frame 
which is free to move laterally or transversely to the 

object which is being turned or ground, the tools 
constituting a |iair being capable of adjustment 
thereon, in relation to one another, and dependent 
for their movements to and from the surl'ace of the 
object placed between them to be turned or ground 
by their contact with the surface or surfaces of the 
object at opposite points thereof. 

The view is a transverse section through the roll 
D, bed J, and w'ays ti, showing the grinders F, 
rests G, and slide-bed H in end elevation. 

See also his patents, January 18, 1870 ; June 21, 
1870 ; August 20, 1872. In the June 21, 1870, jiat- 
ent, the surface is reduced by devices moving parallel 
to a vertical plane passing through the axis of the 
roll, but inclined to a plane passing horizontally 
through the said axis. This obliquity is obtained 
by the depression of one of the bearings. The effect 
is to give a diminished waist to the roller, the grind- 
ing line being a curve and the roll spindle-shaped. 
See also description under Rollek, 10 (pievious 

Elliott, December 15, 1874, has an arrangement 
of three grinding wheels presented at an angular re- 
lation of 120° to the roll to be ground, the grinders 
being journaled in a frame, which is free to move in 
all directions in a plane transverse to the cylinder 
placed between them, their movement depeniling on 
the surface to be ground. To prevent undue pressure 
of the upper wheel upon the surface, the weight of the 
frame is counterbalanced by a lever and counterpoise. 

RoU'ing. 1. (Metal-working.) The process of 
drawing out or flattening metal by passing between 
rollers. See Rolling-mill. 

2. (Bookbinding.) The process of flattening the 
pack of gathered signatures by hammering or pass- 
ing through the rolling-press. 

Roll'ing-bar'rel. (Gunpov-der.) A barrel in 
which the ingredients for making giiniiowder are 
jiulverized. It has an axis at each emi, on whirli 
it rotates, and a door for the introduction and re- 
moval of materials. That used for charcoal is of 
cast-iron, having a series of interior ledges, and that 
for niter and sulphur of Ic.ither .stretched on a wood- 
en frame. The material, together with twice its 
weight of bronze balls, is placed in the barrel, wliich 
is rotated from one to eight hours, accoiding to cir- 

Roll'ing-bridge. a. A railway draicbridgc made 
to move laterally upon a car- 
riage until it has passed the Fig. 4406. 

junction of the line of rails, f^ ,^t„ 

and thence to pass inward, / \\ j ; ^ 

so as to leave the water-way ^ =*= .in ^ 


h. Another form of tlie 
rolling-bridge, intended for 
ordinary roadways, is merely Rolling-Bridge. 

withdrawn on the main track, 

and when restored is sup]iorted by struts which rest 
in set-offs in the wall of the abutnjent. 

c. Or the rolling-bridge may have a strong frame 
supported by wheels upon a line of rails and an 
overhanging portion sufticient to span the water- 
way ; or one half of the water-way, if it be met 
by a similar half-bridge from the other .side. 

When closed by being rolled forward, the rolling 
frame leaves a gap between its platform and that of 
the approach. This gap is filled by another rolling 
frame that moves sideways. The latter rolling frame 
is rolled out of the way before opening the bridge. 

Another rolling-bridge traverses in an arc on can- 
non-balls. See Swing-bridge. 

d. Figs. 4407 and 4408 illustrate the bridge con- 
necting the towns of St. Malo and St. Servan, in 




Fi-ance, on an estuary into which the river Ronce dis- 1 roller revolving between cam-wheels. Tliis move- 
charges. The rise of the tide is here very great, so tliat | ment was invented by Dick, about 1848. 

_, .,„ Inthefigure,ao'arethe 

Fig. 4107. sectors, the lower one of 

which has a beariug id a 

Fig. 4409. 

RoUin^-Bridgr. of St. Malo, France ( Tide out). 

while at low tide the bed of the estuary might be 
crossed, at high tide passengers were compelled to 
make a wide circuit. To obviate this, the arrange- 
ment shown, consisting of a platform having accom- 
modation for liorses antl vehicles, supported on 
pillars, and having wheels running upon rails laid on 
the bed of the estuary, was designed by M. Leroyer. 
e. The rolling-bridge for the assault of fortihcations 
is a platform on wheels or rollers, driven up the 

Fig. 4408. 

groove in the lower fixed bed, and 
the upper in iv groove in the mov- 
able bed above ; their faces are in 
contact with the eccentric journnls 
of the can)-%vheels 6 b' , which rise 
and fall between guides on the 
standards p, and between which the 
roller c is interposed ; on depressing 
the lever tl to which this roller is at- 
tached, the sectors are caused to 
rotate iuto the po.«ition shown, ^^-*Qi 
bringing the longer axes of the 

Dick's Anti-Friction 

cams into perpendicu- 
lar position, thci-eby 
raising the upper bed. 

chocks. (Nau- 
tical.) Jaws on a 

Fig. 4410. 

Rolling- Eriilge o/ St. Malo ( Tide in). 

gl-tci? and intended to span the ditch, to admit the 
assaulting column into the works. 
Roll'ing-cam Press. A press operated by a 


_ yard to steady it tlie mast 
when a sliiji rolls. 
ter. A sharp - 
edged wheel which 
is attached to the 
beam of a plow, 
and cuts down- 
wardly through the 
ffi'ass and soil to divide the furrow-slice from the 
Roll'ing-frame. {Dyeing.) The frame with 




Rolling- Cotter. 

Fig 4411. rollers by which cloth is 

drawn through the dye- 
beck. Gallopers. 

(yaiUical.) Piissing a 
rope round a spar, log, 
or cask, so that a jiull 
upon the rope will roll 
the same. 

Not to be confounded 
' with the Paiibucki.b, 
which .see. 

RoU'ing Met'als. 
{Mdal-wurking.) The 
pro<;ess of forming met- 
al into rods, bars, or 
plates by drawing it between cylindrical rollei's, 
which are either plane or grooved to suit the shape 
to be imparted. 

The grooved rolls are the invention of Henry Cort, 
in 1783. Iron, steel, and copper are rolled wlii e 
red-hot, but most other metals and alloys are rolled 
cold ; in most iust vnees requiring frequent anneal- 
ing during the [irocess of their gi'adual reduction to 
the required dimensiuns. With the e.xception of 
iron and steel, the metal is cast into slabs prepara- 
tory to being drawn into sheets. 

In some instances, as in the case of plating silver 
with gold, one metal is united with another by roll- 
ing. .See Hol.LING-.MILL. 

Roiring-mill. In the rolling-mill, the iron, 
wlurli is heated and balled in the puddling-furnace, 
is made into bars or sheets. The rolls are journaled 
in p-urs in metallic boxes in the iron standanls or 
cliei'ks, and are capable of being set toward or from 
eai'li other by means of set-screws. The grooves in 
the rolls are so made as to be coactive in giving the 
required form to the heated iron passing between 
them. Somethnes, as in the larger description of 
rolls, the grooves are counterparts, each forming one 
half of the bar of iron ; and sometimes a ridge or 
rib on one roll projects into a groove in the roll be- 
neath and forms one side only of the bar. The face 
of each roll has a series of grooves gradually decreas- 
ing in size toward one end. The iron is passed 
through each in succession, being thus gradually 
reduceil in size and increased in length. Laeh time 
through is known as a pass, — a term which is also 
applied to the groove in a roll or the o]q)osite groove, 
forming the s|)ace through which the bar passes. 

The liall of iron from the squeezer is dragged along 
a traek of iron plates on the floor of the mill and 
jerked on to a platform in front of the train of roll- 
ers. It is here directed by the operator into the 
larger of the grooves, is nipped by tlie rolls and 
drawn through. If the mass be large it is received 
on the other side of the rolls by two men, one of 
whom it by a bar which is suspended by a 
chain, the other man seizing the end of the bar with 
his tongs, aiul directing it so as to rest upon the np- 
1»T surface of the upper roll which carries it over 
and allows it to drop again on to the platform. The 
head operator then again seizes it w'ith his tongs, and 
directs its end into the ne.xt of the series of grooves, 
when the operation is repeated again and again till 
the reciuircd size is reached, anil the bar is dragged 
off and laid on a floor to cool. 

The operation of rolling has the effect of compress- 
ing the irim, knitting its fibers together, and draw- 
ing them out .so as to assume a direction longitudinal 
of the bar, some extraneous matters being also re- 
moved in the operation. 

In the year 1783, Henry Cort, of Gosport, Eng- 
land, received an English jiatent for the rolling of 

iron, as a substitute for hammering. During the 
following year he patented the puddling process. 

Cort is the greatest name on record in the " His- 
tory of Iron." 

Plain rolls for reducing metal were in use before 
Cort's invention, and are mentioned in Dr. John.son's 
Tour, 1774 : — 

'* We then saw a brass works, where the Inpif calaminnn's is 
gathereJ, brolcen, wa.shed from the earth, and the lend (though 
how the lead was j-epanited I did not see) then calrined. after- 
ward ground fine and then mixed by fire witli copper. We paw 
several strong fires with melting-pots, but the cotistruetion of 
tile fireplaces I did not learn. At a copper works, which receives 
its pigs of copper, 1 think, from Warrington, we saw a plnte of 
copper put hot between steel rollers and spread thm. I know 
not whether the upper roller was set to a certain distance, as I 
suppose, or acted only by its weight. At an iron works I saw 
round bars formed by a notched hammer and anvil There I 
saw a bar of about half an inch or more square, cut with shears 
worked by water, and then beaten hot into a thinner bar. The 
hammers, all worked as they were by water, .acting upon small 
bodies, moved very quick, as quick as by the hand. I then saw 
wire drawn, and gave a shilling. I have enlarged my notions, 
though not being able to see the movements, and having not 
time to peep closely, I know less than I might.*' 

Cort was the first to use grooved rolls, for which, 
in combination with other improvements, a patent 
was granted him. The first mention tliat we have 
of the use of rolls for reducing iron is to be found 
in "Coxe's Tour in Monmouthshire," where they 
are said to have been invented by John Hanbury, 
and used for rolling plates. This is mentioned in 
a note to chapter second, by Scrivenor, "On the 
Iron Trade." 

Kolling-mills are of several kinds, according to the 
condition or the destination of the iron. 

The first set is called the forge-train, 'inuck-train, 
blooming -mil I, or puddle-bar train. 

The .second is called the mcrcluinl-bar train, plate- 
mill, rail-mill, or vire-m ill. 

The first pair of each set is the roughing down, and 
the second pair is the Jinishing. 

When the iron is to be re-rolled, as for nail-plates 
for instance, the bars are cut into pilates of equal 
length and built in piles, into a re-heating furnace, 
whence they are taken and rolled in the nail-plate 
train, assuming a width equal to the length of the 
plates from which the nails are to be cut. See Bar- 


For special and important work, such as breaking 
douti (rolling to a gage) ingots of gold or silver for 
coin, a register has been contrived by Franklin 
Peale, late chief coiner of the United States Mint, 
Philadelphia. It has a hand and index, and the 
crank on the hand arbor is the means of giving the 
set to the rolls, while the hand indicates their rela- 
tive distance. See Kegister. 

In the and French departments at the 
French Exposition were exhibited armor-plates for 
ships originally rolled from 20 to 30 feet in length, 
from 3 to 6 feet in breadth, and from 8 to 13 inches 
in thickness. 

An armor-plate was rolled at the "Atlas Works," 
Sheffield, England, in 1862, 20 x 4 feet, anil a thick- 
ness of 1.T inches. The operation was thus described 
by a spectator : — 

The plate, when laid in the furnace, rests upon little stacks 
of fin?-bricks. so that the flame and heat play equally round it, 
till all is glowing white and the successive laiers hare settled 
down into one dense ma.s8. At a signal from the furnareinan, 
the bands of workmen, to the number of about 60, arranged 
themselves on each side of the furnace, as near to it as they 
could bear the heat. Then the doors were opened to their full- 
est, and in the midst of the great light lay a even whiter 
than the rest. To this some half a dozen men drew near. They 
were all attired in thin steel le.ggings, aprons of steel, and a 
thin curtaiu of steel wire-work dropping over their fiices like 
a large, long visor All the rest of their bodies were muffled in 
thick, wet sucking. Thus protected they managed, with the 
aid of a gigantic pair of forceps slung from a craue above, to 




work, as it were, atiiid the 6ame.s for a few eecond^t and to nip 

the huge plate *vith the torceps. The signal was thea given, 
anJ the w.iole mass of iron, fizzing, sparkling, aod shooting out 
jets of lambent flame, was, by the niaiu force of chains attached 
to the steim rollers, drawn forth from the furnace on to a long 
wrought-iron car. The he-it and light which it then diffused 
were almost unbearable in any part of the huge mill, but the 
men seemed to vie with each other to approach and detach the 
colo.-;sal pinchers which had drawn the iron forth. More than a 
dozen attempts were made on this occaiiion before this was 
effected, and more than a dozen of the best and most skillful 
workmen were driven back one after another by the tremendous 
heat and glare. At last all was made clear. The forceps, then 
red-hot from their grip of the plate, were drawn away, the chains 
cleared from the rollers, and, with a great hurrah, the other 
workmen seized the chains atticheJ to the iron truck and drew 
it to the incline by main force, where it was left by its own 
weight to run into the jaws of the rolling-mill. It was then 
sauve qui pent among the workmen, who rushed for shelter in 
all directions as tiie mass was uippel between the rollers and 
wound rapidly in amid quick reporus like those of dull musketry, 
as the melted" iron was squeezed by the tremendous pressure out 
of the mass, and flew out in jets of hquid fire on all sides. The 
turning of the rollers crushes the plate through to the other 
side, where it rests for a minute on a wrouglit-iron truck simi- 
lar to that on which it was brought from the furnace. The ac- 
tion of the rollers is then reversed after they have been, by the 
action of screw levers, brought closer together by- about an inch. 
Theseag.iin nip the plate and drag it biick in an opposite direction, 
and again and again does the mass go furvvard an i backward, each 
time pissing between a smaller space between the rollers, till the 
whole of the Huge thickness is reduced to a compact mass 15 
inches thick in less than a quarter of an hour. During every stage 
of the process, quantities of fine sand are thrown upon the plate, 
and this literaUy take-s fire as it touches the ttaniiug surface, and 
covers it as it melts with a coat of silica, or with a glaze like that 
of earthenware. After every discharge of sand, and these go on al- 
most incessantly, buckets of water are thrown upon the plate and 
explode in clouds of scalding steam ; and when these are partly 
dissipated, men rush forward and with wet besoms with handles 
20 feet long sweep off whatever little scraps of oxidation may 
have taken place. Thus, every time the plate passes through 
the mill the sand is scattered, the water th^o^vn,and the surface 
swept, and at everj' roll the chief roller of the establishment 
runs forward, and, under the shelter of wet cloths, measures 
with a gage its thickness from end to end. The required dimen- 
sions were obtained by less than a quarter of an hour's rolling, 
and a plate 15 inches thick, the product of the labor of nearly 
200 men and of the consumption of nearly 250 tons of coal, was 
shot out by the roiliog-niills and left to cool. When this had 
been effected, two large ro.lers of iron, each weighing 15 tons, 
Were placed upon it by the cranes, and moved slowly backward 

Fig. 4412. 

Fig. 1. 


ri-^— fi 


[— q^ 


— ^ 



and forward; and eventually, as the platecooled, were left upon 
its ends to keep the whole perfectly level. Nothing farther now 
remained in order to completeit as the finest specimen of armor- 
plate manufacture ever attempted but to plane off its rough 
ends and edges. The flat surfaces on either side, which form 
what is called the skin of the plate, are never interfered with, 
for the action of the steel rollers leaves them literally almo.<;t as 
smooth as plate-glass. 

Several devices for making the rolling of bars more continu- 
ous in point of time have been suggested, and one of them uped, 
the three-high train, in which the iron is passed between the 
upper and middle roll, then back between the middle and lower 
one, and so on. A series of six rolls in the same vertical .series 
has been proposed, so that the bar might have five passages 
without much loss of time. 

The other proposition was to set the rolls in parallel rows, so 
that the iron would pass from one set to another, preserving 
the same line of motion through as many as might be necessary 
to produce the grade of bar required. 

The threfhigh train has three rolls in vertical order, affording 
two sets of passes , one between the upper and middle roller, the 
other set between the middle and the loner roller, as seen at 
Figs. 4412, 4416. It is designed to enable the metal to be paf.'^ed 
in each direction, rolling at each passage. Fig. 4412 shows the 
three-high feature, and also the n.ode of bringing a bar grad- 
ually to form by sending it through pasfesof a shape gradually 
approximating that required. The triple flange is gradually 
educed, as may be seen by tracing the shape from the square 
bar in Fig. 1, through that series, and then through the series 
in Fig 2. 

Reversing-mills are generally employed in Great Britain in 
preference to three-high rolls. In France,"three-high trains 
hare been in use for rolling girders since the year 1849, and 
everywhere upon the Continent of Europe the principle seems 
to be perfectly well understood ; but the reversing-mUl is gen- 
erally preferred. 

Fig 4413 is an arrangement of rolls for rolling taper tubes or 
rods. Each of a pair of rolls has a spiral groove of variable 
depth, and of half-round section, turned on it The groove in 
one roll is a right-handed, and that in the other a lift-handed 
spiral, as shown in the engraving ; and when the rolls are placed 

Fig, 4413. 

TfiTfe-High RoUs/or making Triple- HearJed Rails. 

Spiral- Grooi-f Rolls. 

together and geared, so as to revolve in union, the prrooves form 
a series of eyes, which, as the rol's revolve, api'K'ar to move lat- 
erally and gradually decrease in size. Thus, if a bar or tapered 
strip of iron, bent so as to approximately form a tube, be in- 
troduced between the rolls at that end where the grooves are 
largpst and deepest, it will be gradually shifted toward the 
other end of the rolls as it passes between the latter, and will 
thus be rolled taper. 

A mill adapted to sheet-iron or sheet-load has a 
plarforni like that of a \vood-]ilaning machine, except 
that it ha.s rollers to enable the sheet-lead to travel 
with less friction, and thus prevent buckling. 

Fig. 4414 shows Bessemer'.s plan, intended to make 
the plates or sheets of metal directly from fluid iron 
or steel as it comes from the furnace. The metal 
is allowed to flow from the ladle or funiace into 
the space between two rollers, the said rolh'i"S 
being provided with openings in their centers for 
the circulation of water. The external surfaces of 
the rollers are cooled by jets of water. 

The same jdan was attempted many years ago by 
Chance of Birmingham, England, for making plate- 
It was abandoned. 




Fig. 4414. 

Rolling-Millfor making Plates from Molten Metai, 

Owens's (Rothcrham, England) method of making tires, etc, 
consists in bending a rod or roils of iron around a block, so as 
to form a coil having about i the diameter and 2i or 3 times 
the depth oltlie finished tire. 

Thi* U brought in a furnace to a full welding heat, and trans- 
ferred to a die on the anvil of a steam-haninier, whose piston 
carries a .similar die. By these it i^ comp.icted into a homo- 
geneous mass, wliich is expanded to the proper diimeter be- 
tween two roLers, the upper one of which may be lifted to any 
required distance from the lower by means of a small hydraulic 
press A larijer hydraulic press is employed to force the two 
rolls together in proportion as the diameter of the tire is en- 
larged Other rods, adjustable by hand or automatically, serve 
as guides to impart a true circular form to the blank 

■DiiTerettt plms have been adopted by others for preparing 
tire-blanks for th ■ rolling-machine Krupp's method consists 
in forging a bar of steel into the form of a compressed hoop, 
which is then cut down the middle, opened out, and afterward 
finished in the rollers. 

Bessemer forms an ingot of steel and cuts out the central 
part, so that the annulus left may be enlarged by the rolls. 

Naylor and Vickers, of Sheffield, prepare the circular steel 
blanks by casting. 

An cXL'inplitication of the nicety to whioh the roll- 
ing of metal can be carried is shown in the process 
known as nature-printing. A piece of delicate lace 
is placed on a small .sheet of metallic tin, which is 
then passed once between a pair of steel rolls, the 
surfaces of the latter being brought in close approxi- 
mation by means of actuating screws. The pattern 
of the lace is reproduced with the utmost fidelity on 
the tin. See Nature-printing. 

Fig. 4-115 exhibits some of the many forms -which 
miy be imparted to malleable iron by suitable gi'ooves 

Fig. 4415 

j^^ o &=o Y-f. 



a== c^ 



Rolled Irons. 

in the rolls composing the train. Kach is made by 
one continuous op.'ration. See also Figs. 2698 and 

Pig-iron is the crude raetal from the pmelting-fumace, cast 
into bxrs or pigs. 

The term bar-iron is restricted to refined or wrought iron. 
The bars are flat, square, round, ox-a/, half oral, or half round ; 
hor^eskop is a fine qualitv of flat bar-iron : nail-rod iron, small 
square iron of fine quality. Hmvij Knnds, light band*, and 
hoo/> iron are thin and comparatively wide bars Raihnnd irnn 
includes Hat and T rails, axle«, fish-plates, bolts, chairs, and 
spikes. Huilding-iron euibraces b^am^, deck-beams, channel- 
bars, T-irnn, and fittings. Angi'-iron i« known as eaun'-sided, 
unequal-sided , obtuse, star, sash, etc. Sheet-iron is divided into 

common, rhareoal, galvanized, and planished. Russia sheet is 

s fine quality of planished charcoal iron 

See IlUSsu IRO.N. 

Koojing-iron is 


or crimped 

, and is either ^a/ran- 

ized or black; it 

is numbered accordin 

a to thickness. Ta/ik 

and Jire-bed iron 

are similarly classified. Boiler-plate iron is 

thicker than the above, that 

common in 

the trade varying from 


IVeights of Wrought-Iron, 

Sieel, Copper, and Brass Plates 

soft roUfd. (Haswkll.) 

Thickness determined by Am 

erican Gag«. 


of each 

Plates, per Square Foot. 
















18 7036 

20 838 

19 688 




16 6559 






14 8328 

16 5254 






13 904 



11 G082 






10 3374 



11 U266 






9 8192 




8 3078 

9 2552 






8 2419 






7 3395 

6 9345 









5 1557 

5 2244 

















3 641 

8 6896 













3 2598 





2 6057 





2 2899 








2 3021 

























1. 31579 








































. 772 

















































































Specific gravities 





Weights of a cu- 

bic foot (lbs.). 




513 6 

Weights of a cu- 

bic inch (lbs.). 






Roll'ing-mill Train. The sy.<item of grooved 
rollers liy wIul'Ii iron biMS are graiUuiUy drawn down 
from balls or blooms. 

The rolls in Fig. 4416 are arranged in series of 
three each, each liaving grooves eorres|ionding to 
those in the roller above or below it. The rough bar 
is drawn through the largest and then through 
the ne.xt smaller, and so on in succession to the 
smallest, by which the fini.shed bar is completed. 

The grooves are of sueh sections as to form S(|nare, 
round, T, or other angle iron, and are known as 

Fig. 4417, n a' and b V are two-high grooved rolls 
made of chilled cast-ii-on. The former are designed 
for rolling Hat and the latter S(|uare bars. Nuts c c' 
regulate the distance of the rolls from eacli other, 
and the tubes d d' serve to convey water for cooling 




Fig. -HIU 

Three-Hlsh RoUing-Mia Train for Merc/iartt Bar. 

the inacliinery. By means of the coupling e, the 
rolls are put in or out of gear with the motor which, 
throu!<h the mcilinm of the gears//", the up- 
per and lower rolls to rotate in opposite directions. 

Fig. 4417. 

Rol!ing-M,!l Train. 

Roirjng-pen'du-lum. A cylinder caused to 
oscillate in small cxcuisions on a horizontal plane. 
It was designed a-s a time-measurer, but appeal's to 
have answered no practical purpose. 

Roll'ing-pln. (Domestic.) A wooden cylinder 
having a projecting handle at each end, by which 
dougli is rolled into .sheets suitable for pie-crust, etc. 

Roll'ing-press. 1. (Printing.) The copperplate 
printiiig-jiress in which the plate and bed pass be- 
neath a roller by means of rotation applied to the 
latter. A certain degree of elasticity is afforded bj- 
a sheet or two of paper between the plate and the 
bed and a number of blankets on the roller. See 

2. (Bnokhiadiii^.) A machine for smoothing and 
condensing tile leaves of books as a substitute for 
hannnering. It usually consists of a pair of iron 
rollers turned by a crank, and having a table at each 
side for the feeding and delivery of the packets be- 
tween plates. 

Fig. 4«S. 

Roll'ing-press'ure Press. A baling-press In 
whiuh the lol lower is depressed by the pressirre 
of the roller i at the end of the e.xtension-bar g, 
which traverses to and fro, as rocked by the levers 
f /. The downward posi- 
tion of the follower is sus- 
tained liy serewsy/ 

Roll'ing-stock. (Eail- 
u-atj.) The cars of all de- 
sciiptions which traverse the 
rails of a railway. See Loco- 
MOTivE; Railway-car. 
See also list and general in- 
dex under R.^ilway Exgi- 
KEEHi.vo and Pl.\nt. 

The return of railway 

rolling-stock, as given in 

"Poor's Manual" for 1874, 

1875, on the roads of the United States and Canada, 

is as follows : — 

Pas.«€ng«r-cars of all cla^ees 2,900 

Bnggagc. mail, and e-xpress cars 4,157 

Box . uiercluiudi.'^e, and bou.<^! cars 87 ,0(l9 

Platform, gondola, and flat cars 52,198 

Ptock-cars 14.222 

Coal^;ars (number of wheel.^ not stated) 66,887 

Four-wbeel cars (mostly coal) 37,892 

Caboo>e-cars 1,549 

Oil-cars 3,154 

Ore cars 2,1(12 

Lumber-cars 193 

Freight-cars not classified ^4,694 

RoUin^-PressNrf Baling 
124 373,959 

Locomotive engines 14,939 

Deducting from the.-ie aggregates 774 engines and 13,980 cars 
of allclai^ecs, .as returned by the Canada roads, leaves for the 
roads in the L'nited States a total of 14,l(Jo engines and 359,979 
cars, exclusive of what are denominated service-cars, and ex- 
clusive of narrow-gage cars. 

RoU'ing-tack'le. (Xatilicnl.) A tackle which 
keeps a yard over to leeward when the ship rolls to 
windwaid. It is hooked to the weather iiuarter of 
the yard, and to a lashing on the mast near the 

Roll-joint. A sheet-metal joint in which the 
parts are lolled iipon one another and pressed tight. 

RoU-lathe. ' (Mttckiiten/.) A lathe for turning 
off rolls for lolling-raills, calendering-machines, and 
for other purposes. In Fig. 441!), it is shown as 
having a pair of rests a a, in which the journals of 
the heavy iron roll rest, .so sis to take the weight 
from off the centers. The inan<lrel of the head-stock 
is driven by the usual slow -speed geaiing from the 
band-pulley b. c is the slide-rest which carries the 

RoU-mold'ing. (Architcciure.) A molding 

used ill (iotliic architecture, the upper half of 

which extends over tlie lower half, as if it were 

formed of a thick substance rolled up. 

Rom'al. (Fnln-ic.) An Indian silk. 

Ro'mau Bal'ance. An instrument for weigh- 
ing, consisting of a lever h.aving arms of unequal 
weight on the respective sides of its point of suspen- 




Fig 4419. 

Roll- Lathe. 

sion, and a /jo^Mvliic-h traverses the longer, graduated 
linili. SiH' .SrKKi.YAUi). 

Ro'iuan-can'dle. {Purotcchny.) a. A tube (an 
old gun-banvl sawn oli" -short is l)est) is partially filled 
with alternating perforated stars and small charges 
of gunpowder. Fire communicated to the upper end 
ignites the charges successively, which throw out the 
stars until all are discharged. 

h. A similar firework in paper tube. 

Ro'mau-cem'ent. A kind of cement originated 
about ISl'i, by Parker, of London. The term 
''Koman" is a misnomer. Septaria — nodules of 
indurated clay with lime and iron — are burned, 
ground, and mixed into a mortar with lime and 
sand. It hardens very (juickly, and is veiy durable. 
See Pozzi'OLANA ; Hydraulic Cement ; Cement. 

Ron'dle. {Metal-working.) A round plate or 
disk. The term is applied to the crust or scale 
which fin'ms upon the surface of molten metal in 
cooling, and which is removed from the crucible or 
cistern from time to time as it congeals, in order to 
obtain the metal in a form suitable for farther treat- 
ment instead of in a solid mass. Spelleil also rondcVc. 
Copper thus treated is known as rose copper^ from its 
red color, and the disks are known as roscUca ; they 
are again refined to restore or acquire malleability 
by the reduction of the suboxide of copper. 

Ron-geant' Style. A mode of calico-printing. 
See DisciiAi; ;e-si'yle. 

Rood-loft. {Archilrctiirc.) A gallery over the 
entrance to tlie choir in medieval churches, at the 
front (if wdiich a large rood or crucilix was usually 

Roof. 1. {Architecture.) The uppermost mem- 
ber (»f a building. It consists of th^ framework and 
the covcrhirf. 

The folhjwing table shows the structure, flattest 
ordinary slope, and weight in pounds per square foot 
of several kinds of roofs : — 

Flattest ordinary Weight in lbs. 

Material Slope. per s(i. foot. 

Sheet-copper, .022 inch thick.. 4° 100 

Shent-leiul 4° 7.00 

Slieet-ziin; (average) 4" 1 50 

Sheet-iron. 1 i„ inch, plain 4° 3,00 

Sheet-iron, i ,„ inch, corrugated 4' 3.40 

Cast-iron plates, ^ inch 4^* 15 00 

Slates 30° to 224" 5-00 to 11 .20 

Tiles 30no 22j° 6.50 to 17 80 

Bo.inling, 3 inch thick 22^** 2.50 

Thatch 45° 6 50 

For the extra timbering of slated 

and tileil roof-s, add 6.00 

For the pressure of the wind, 

add 40.00 

Tlie sp'in is the width between supports. 

Tiie rise is the hight in the center above the level 
of the supports. 

The pitch is the slope of the rafters. It is ex- 
pressed in many ways : — 

1. The a7igk which it forms with the horizontal ; 
expressed in degrees. 

2. By a name 
which indicates 
to the exjiert 
conforndty with 
reeeived models 
and standards, 
as, — 

a. Grecian pitch, 

whicli has an angle 

of 12° to 10°, or a 

hight equal to i „ to 

^'70! the t'pan. 

■ b. Rommn pilch ^ 

" which li:is )in angle 

of ^3' or 24°; or a 
higlit eijuat to l to 
- ;, of the sjHin. 

c. Gothic pitch, which is equilateral, the rafters buing tqual 
to the span. 

d. Elizabethan pitch, the rafters longer than the span. 

3. By the hight in jiarts of tlie span, as quarter, 
Jffth, itiiofc, etc. 

4. By the length of the rafters in parts of the 
span, as Ijvo thirds, three quarters, etc. 

Pitch varies between the knife-edge, as the Eliza- 
bethan is sometimes called, and tiie Hat leads in 
wliich the slope is only sufficient to carry olf the 

Common pitch, so called, has a rafter f of the 
span. See Pitch. 

The names of roofs indicate form, .structtn-e, ma- 
terial, nationality, etc., and the lollowing includes 
the principal varieties. Some of the names are 
.synonyms : — 

*\nnpii.sed roof. 
Crown-plate roof. 
False roof. 
Flat roof 
French roof. 
Gabled roof. 
Gothic roof. 
Gravel roof. 
Greriim roof. 
Half-hip roof, 
lligli roof. 

Imperial roof. 
Kille.^sed roof. 
King-post roof. 
Lean-to roof. 
Pavilion -roof. 
Plat form -roof. 
Pointed roof 
Queen-post roof. 
Kidged roof. 
Saddle roof. 
Shed- roof. 
Span -roof. 
Tin roof. 
Truncated roof. 

The early Gothic architects endeavored, as far as possible, to 
dispense with wood by the employment of stone vnulting, and 
it is not until the reign of. Edward III., 1327, that tiniber- 
fi-anied roofs became common in Inrge constructions. They be- 
gan to be common in churcbe.'* about tbe year HOO, and from 
tliat time to the present, wood, though now to some extent sup- 
planted by iron, has maintained a preeminence as a roofing 

The simplest form of roof (1) consists merely of inclined rafters 
n b, butting at their upper end.'« ; to keep their lower ends in 
place, however, a fixed bearing of some kind is neces.'^arv. For 
this purpose the tie-beam c (2) is introduced, into which tbe 
lower ends of the rafters are mortised. 

To stiffen the truss thus formed, and to support the middle 
of the tie-beam so as to prevent its .sagging at tlie renter, the 
king-post rf (3) is added ; this is formed from a large piece of 
timber, partially cut away for the greater portion of it.« length, 
so as to leave a projection on either side at top forming the 
jn^s^/es, against whose under surfaces the rafters rest, and two 
shuulders toward the bottom against which struts e (4) support- 
ing the rafters hear. 

Tlie lower end of the king-post may be mortised into the tie* 
beam, but is preferably connected with it by an iron strap pa.'ss- 
ing round the tie-beam and secured to the post. The ends 
of the tie-beam are immediately supported l\v the wnlls of 
the building. Thus it will be seen that the tie-beam supports 
the mfters, and keeps their feet from spreading apart ; that the 
rafters support the king-post and through it the center of the 
tie-beam ; and that the king-post, in its turn, through the me- 
dium of the struts, helps to sustain the rafters. 

">,*} are two forms of Hat-topped roof. In the first, the tie-beam 
is supported at two points by the side pouts//-, these depend 
from the truss-beam if, against which the upper ends of the raf- 
ters rest. This construction is not so stable as the following, 
in which the lower ends of the side posts are united by straps 
whicli also serve to connect them wirh the tie-be«tu. 

7 is a qucen-poEt roof. Tbe rafters are sustained at dif- 




ferent points by the struts f, straining-beam/, and braces ? , ; supported by the girders, which perform the 

the straiuiug-beam depeudsfiom tlie central post agunst which i aud are themselves sustaiued by wall-posts, 
the ends ot tlie raIU.-ra abut, and the qut-eu-post* h k support ' 
tlie tie-beaui on either siJe of the center, as iu the first form 
of flat-topped roof. :5ee aUo Qu^ex-posT Koop. 

It is not usual, except iu tii« smallest aud cheapest construc- 
tions, to f.isteu the boarding to which the roof covering, wliether 
shingles, tilt-s, or slates, is nailud, directly on the main rafters. 

These are coupled at intervals of 8 or 10 feet, and have trans- 
verse-pieces, called purlins, let into them to support the com- 
mon r.ifters, placed at closer intervals, to whicii the boarding 
is f;istenL-d. See Fig. 2704, C. 

The mansard-roof (8) has two sets of rafters, the upper set 

office of 

so as to 

a tie-beam, 


having a less inclina- 
tion than the lower. 
The latter brace the 
upper ends of the 
queen or side posts, 
which, by means of 
the struts i /, assist in 
supporting the strain- 
ing-beam ; this de- 
pends from the upper 
pnir of rafters by a 
center post and side 
posts ; the upper raf- 
ters are braced by 
struts from the center 

In the arched roof 
(9l two stretchers or 
hammer-beams k k are 
substituted for the tie- 
beam. These are held 
partly by their press- 
ure against each other 
and partly by the king 
or center post, and are 
tied to the feet of the 

10 illustrates the 
roof- framing of the 
circus at Edinburgh 
It will be seen that the 
downward pressure is distributed upon the rafters a a and 
stretchers b b' , which are so tied together by straps as to bring 
the stress of the outward thrust ultimately upon b. 

11 covers the principal apirtment of the Episcopal Palace at 
Auxerre. France. Two sets of stays g g' are inserted above the 
tie-beam, between the king-post and principal rafters ; a series 
of curved ribs rci-eives the ceiling plapk 

12 is a Xormnn roof; so called because it was introduced by 
that people into Southern Europe. The rafters a a butt against 
jogirles on the king-posts b 6, between which braces are disposed. 

13 shows in dotted lines a way by which a pointed Gothic 
roof was converted into a flat roof by carrying the nave walls 
up so as to obtain a clere-story. 

In 1-1. the tie-beam 1^ supported at the center by struts from 
the main beam. A post resting on the tie-beam supports the 
rafters at the ridge. 

15 resembles in appearance a king-post roof, but is in fact 

the pressure over a 

considerable surface 
at the upper part of 
the wall. 

16 is a form of roof 
commou in Gothic 
constructions. The 
principals a a are 
connected by a coi- 
lar'beam or wind- 
beam t, and are sup- 
ported by ha7V77ur- 
beams c c resting on 
the walls and on 
curved struts d d 
attached to posts 
supported by corbel 
ing Auxiliary struts 
are introduced be- 
tween the collar- 
beam and queen- 
posts, the whole be- 
ing so disposed as to 
produce the effect 
of a vaulted ceiling. 
In the roof of the 
hall at Eltham Pal- 
ace, Kent (171, the 
whole weight is 
throvsTi on the top 
of the wall; the bot- 
tom pieces 6 are 
merely ornamental, the tension-pieces a forming a complete 

Theroof of the great hall at Hampton Court (18) is so ar- 
ranged that the beams a b c serve as ties; the curved struts d 
distribute the pressure over the wall and its sustaining buttress. 

In (19) the roof of Westminster Hall, the weight rests entirely 
on the upper part of the wall ; the arched rib a distributes the 
thrust and assists in preventing the hammer-beams b from shd- 
iug on the walls 

Westminster Hall was erected under the orders of William 
Rufus at the latter end of the eleventh century. It is 274 X 74 
feet, without a pillar. The room and the roof are equally ad- 
mired- William said it was only antechamber to the one he 
would build; but that arrow of Sir Walter Tyrrel upset this 

21 illustrates a queen-po«t roof of 80 feet span, covering the 
theater at Birmingham, England. 

Fig. 4422. 

Queen-Post Roof, Birmingham Theater, England. 

Iron roofs were first used in Enjjland, and were 
the .subject of a patent by Robert Ransoine, 1783. 

They are composed of e.ssentially the same mem- 
bers as those of timber, malleable rod3 or flat bars 





beinjj substituted for the tie-beams and kinf;-i»osts, 
and the ralters and poi>ts made of sutiident stilhHss 
with liars oi' malleable }j or T iron, or with cait-irou 
of suitable form and .section. 

Tiie nieeling jiointa of the several parts of each 
truss are provided w ith cast-iron shoe,s, sockets, and 
connectin*; plate.s, into uliich the ends of the i-;iftei:s. 
struts, and rods are secured with screw-lwlts and 
nuts or gibs and keys, 

The roof of SmithficM Market, Manchester, is ono of the sini- 
plfst foruis (21, Kig. 442;i); its total width is '^44 fet-t, covered 
by two out£T ppan:v of 5" und two central spans ot 72 feet euch^ 
supported on ca^t-iron pillars. 

Iron Roofs. 

22 is the rnnf of the Providence ^la^azim* at Paris. Tt has S7 
feet (1 pan. The roof of the railwiiy station in Lime Street, 'Liv- 
erpool (23), has a span of l.>3 feet 6 inches. 24 is aa ordinary 
freighVdepot with iron roof and columus. 

The roof of the Pancras Station, Midland Railway, 
London, has the widest span of any roof, unbroken 
by ties or braces. It covei-s ten aeres. It is illus- 
trated on the opposite page, Plate Lll. 

The length nf the mof is. 690 fret, with a clear !T>an of 240 
feet, covering five platforms, ten lines of raits, and a rah-stand 
2.'» feet wide, thus making: n tnt-xX area of ltv».*iOO siinare fei-t. 
lu hight at the ridce i^" 1-25 feet a>>ove the Invel of tl»e road. 
There are twentv-five prinripTl ribs in the roof each weijihiriff 
about 50 tons. Between each of these, which an? about '29 feet 
4 inches apart from center to center, are three intermediate 
ribs, earned by trussed purlin-, constructed so as to stiffen the 
bottom t1an<res of the main rib= Jaterally. The station walls rise 
b*>hind the "^prin;; of the principal, the space at the top beins 
filled in vnih open iron-work 

The roof is ^rlazed about 70 feet on each side of the center, 
and the ren^ainder is covered with slates on hoartJin-: one inch 
and three eishths thick, {rrooved and tongued and chambered, 
the under side being Tarnished. 

The transrerse girders which support the floor of the station 
take the thrust of the poof. They are connected so a> to lorm 
continuous girders across tiie stition. Be.-ides Ifinj; tied to 
tlieui, the fi?et of the ribs are each socured by fourd-iiich bolti 
to an amhor-plate built into tlie wall and stwugly fnstentU. 

The mil kvei of the station is alwut 17i feet :il«vc that of 
the a<V)oiiung streets, thus atfordiug very exteusiix; cellarage 
See also Plate III. 

Among other kinds of roof-coverings may be cited: — 

Metal in sheet-s, seamed and [tainted. 

Fabric or paper saturated in tar and covered with sand and 

Fabric or paper treated with a material which will reMst sun, 
rain, and frost. Among the conipositioas for this puri>ose are 
the following : — 

>Vest, 1855. Gutta-percha: oil. 

Billings, 1856. Shellac, 50 Kiimds; rosin, 120 pounds; lin- 
seed-oil, 10 quarts ; steatite, 150 pounds. 

Smith, 1857. Coal-tar, 21 ; linsced-oil, 1. 

Milks, 1857- Naphtha, 20gaUons; turpentine saturated with 
a.'=phaJtum.2gaIlons; alcohol saturated with shellac, 2 gallons; 
turjK-ntinc saturated with caoutchouc. 2 gallous; iinsecd-oil. 1^ 
gallons ; steatite, 10 pounds ; g) psum, 1 peck. 

Lighter and Morrell, 1857. CoaJ-tar, 1 : piue-tar.50; rosin, 12; 
caoutchouc. 6; gutta-percha. 6; a.-spbaltom, 12: shellac, 6; 
lim^-ed-oil, 12: litharge, 6; fire-proof material to be scattered 
on .'Surface of the above. 12 ; yellow ochcr, 12 ; tn-e.-w:!*, 3. 

Oaks, 1859. Coal tar, 25' pillons : linsecd-oil. 2 gallons; 
caoutchouc, dissolved, 2 gallons; j^hcllac, dissolved. 2 gallons; 
asphaltum. 5 pounds: steatite, pulveriad. 5 pounds: litharge, 
5 pounds ; snip. bar> ta, 5 pounds ; g_\ jit^um, 5 pounds. 

Grant, 18ti2 Coal-tar, 25 gallons: lin.'«ed-oil, 3 gallons; 
caoutchouc, dissolved, 3 pillions; sliellac. dissolved, 1 5 gallons; 
asphaltum, dissolved, 2 5 gsillons; Japan varnish, 2 gallons; 
wnite-lead,^ pounds: ivineral paint, U) pounds; yellow ochcr, 
b pounds ; acetate lejid, 5 pounds. 

Wauzer, 18()2. Pitch, 1 ; quitklime, 2 ; Ven. red ocber, 2; 
linsced-oil, 05- * 

Fuller. lSt3. Saturated sheets of paper. 

Wheeler, 1866. Coal-tar. 20 gallons; linseedoil, 2 gallons; 
1 sliella<', 10 pounds : rosin, 4 pounds. 

j Stead, 1866- Paint-skins, broken up; pota.=h. 2 pounds; 
water, 1 gsiUon : linsci'd-oil, 2 gjillous. Boil to evaporate water, 
I and add miccral paint, 10 pounds. 

I Fields, 1867. Coal tar, 1 l,aiTel ; fire-clay: silicate of iron ; 
i silicate of magnesia; linfcedoil. 1 gallon ; litharge, 3 pounds, 
j Hutchings, 1868. Kosin, 1 pound ; leaclud ashes. 1 pound ; 
whiting, 5 pound: salt, 0.5 pound; red-lead, 0.12 pound; 
linseed -oil. 0.12 pound. 
I Irish, 1868- Gypsum, 10 pounds: water, 1 gallon; linseed- 
oil. 05 Qint ; white-lead. 08 pound : turpentine. I ounce. 

ninnian, 1868. Coal-tar. 1 barrel; glycerine, 2 gallons; oU, 
2 quarts ; caoutchouc, dissolved, 3 pints. 

Capron. 1868. Coal-tar, 40 gallons; acetate lead, 5 pounds ; 
Japan varnish. 2 gallons: caoutchouc, 4 pounds: shellac, 4 
pounds; linseed oil, 2 gallons ; turientine, 2 gallons: alcohol, 
2 gallons. 

Hutchings. 1869. Kosin. 1 pouod; linseed-oil, 03 pound; 
covered by sifted sand, 4 pounds. 

Joy. 1869. Coal-tar, 1 barrel: linseed-oil, 3 gallons; com- 
pounded with pulverized clay and sand, equal parts. 

Dunipleman and Dotch, 1869 Coal-tar, 1 barrel ; pine-pitch, 
I barrel: sulphur, 15 gallons; iithat^,2 pounds; pulverized 
slate, 2 pounds : linseed oil, 2 gallons. 

Fi>k, ISfQ Linseed-oil, 1 : rosin, 5: petroleum,!; pitch, o; 
tir. 5 Mix with gravel, broken stones, or cinders. 

Kiittkav, 1870. Linseed-oil; pulveiized' &tone; litharge; 

Ruttkav, 1870, Sifted gravel , 3 : pulverized brick,05 ; lith- 
arge. 012; linsced-oil.O 25 : Japan varnish, 0.08. 

Barnes. Coal tar, 40 gjillons; pulverized slate, 30 gallons; 
pulverized cl.ay, 10 gnllons; boiled rice, 5 pounds; glue,l pound ; 
terra de sienna, 1 pound; lin-«eed-oil, 1 gallon. Mi.x the coal- 
tar.slate, and clay together. Boil the rice and stntin it through 
a fine sieve, and liquefy the glue by heat. Add the rice, glue, 
and term de sienna to the linseed-oil, and incorporate. Apply 
with a brush or trowel. 

See L. W. Sinsabaugh's " Digest of Paving and Roofing Ccon- 
posilions," Washington, 1875- 

2. The ceiling of a mine. 

3. The top of a standing-top carnage, coach, or 
car. The central, raised portion of a car-roof is the 

4. The arclied top of a reverberator^- furnace. 

Roof-guard. (Builtfivff.) A device for prevent- 
ing' snow from sliding from a roof. It oonsist^s usu- 
ally of a continuous seiies of horizontal slats, slightly 
i-aised above tlie roof-cover and su]ij»orted byu]»rights. 
In the example, the finme is attached to tlie sheath- 
ing iMMieath the shingles and carries horizontal Ion- 
gitudimd bars. 

Roofing-ma-chine'. One for pi-eparing mate- 




Fig. 4421 

Roof- Guard. 

rial for roofing purposes ; saturating or paying fabric 
or paper with a wa- 
ter - resisting com- 
pound, or preparing 
metallic jilates for 
roof covering. 

Haven, 1857. The 
sheet is drawn down 
through a hopper con- 
taining tar, and passes 
out between pressure- 

Davis, 1858. The can- 
vas i3 drawn tlirough a 
vat containing coal-tar. 

Pomeroy and Allen, 

Anderson , 1861. 
Steam-pipe to h2at com- 

tarring- roll era rotate in fountain-troughs, and raise the con- 
tents into contact with the paper. 

Pulte, l8Utj Hoi>pi-r and movable gate. Felt drawn over a 
roller in the bottom of the hopper. 

Brown, 186U. Mixing vessel with steam-jacket and beaters. 
Sand-bo-t and movable apron for currying along the uiate- 

Cobb, 18fj9. Tank, sand and gravel box, and pressure-roller, 
so as to make the operation ou tue paper continuous. 

Benton, 1869. Felt or paper placed on a teii, imd the tar- 
hopper moved over it, spreading the tar. Sand operation 

Fig 4427 is a machine for forming sheet-metal plates into 
coniinuous strips for roofing, the strips bt-ing afterward joined 
together on the I'oof. The ends of sheets or strips of n.etal 
are interlocked, and the metal then pushed bet«ei'n rollers to 
close the seams, ;ind tlicn through a bath of molten tin or other 
soft metal, which coats the surlace and closes and covers the 

Fig. 4427, 

SIieel-Melal Konjing-Mackine. 

Robinson, 1865. Coat sheets of felt, etc , with asphalt on one \ seams, so as to form continuous pieces, of indefinite length, 

side, the other being supported by a roller. Sheets cemented 
together between pressure-rollers. 

Fig 4425 is a machine for preparing roofing fabric by passing 
sheets of felt or other materinl between rollers, the asphalt in a 

Robinson''s Ronfing-Mach'inc . 

plastic state being applied between the sheets as they pass be- 
tween tht rollers. The uppt?r roilc of paper are shown in the 
holders from wliich the sheets piss beneath rollers i /, and are 
compacted together with an included thickness of asphalt by 
the pressure of rollers b b. A third sheet of piper comes from 
roll A, p;tsses beneath r-^ller k. and is compacted with the former 
Pheets by roller.* c c. The three-ply mofing-paper receives its 
final pressure between rollers t/ d. The material used upon the 
paper is coal-tar. or Triniilad pitch, with f^O per cent of earthy 
matter, chietiy clay, though lime and sand may be used. Fig. 

Fig. 4426. 

Roofing- Fabric Machine. 

4420 is a modified form in which the strips of paper are tarred, 
cemented, and pressed together by passage between rollers. The 

without appreciable or pervious jaiuts. 

See aL<o roofing-machines and machines for making roofing. 
Numbers of patents : — 

Fig. 4428. 



63,S73 114,1.39 

76,197 114,174 

77,257 1115,470 

78,114 119,i«l 

S3.575 120,153 

84,074 121.118 

84,205 121.166 


91,577 124,794 

99,701 123,617 

101,478 12K,367 

104,3.S0 130,022 

— 1 





B c 



Roof- Sea If mig Machine. 

Roof-seam'ing fifl^a-chine'. A device for unit- 




illg the joining edges of sheet-metals in covering l ''<'!'"'"i' a regular pari of the system of British husbandry. To 


The ilouble-seaniing tool for roof consists of blocks 
A £\ which pinch together tlie upturned edges of 
the adjacent sheets wlien the handles 
C D are gfasped, as shown in sections 
2 and 3 of the tigiire. Bj' then turn- 
ing tlie lever F, tlie block B, which is 
journaled in the ends a a, is laid over 
against the block £, cari-ying with it 
the taller of the two stiips, as shown 
at 4 and 7. The bending a]iparatiis is 
tlien shifted along half its length, and 
the other part of the block B acts upon 
tlie bent-over edge of tlie strip, as 
shown at 5 and at 8. The sole-pieces 
c 7)1 are now taken out, which lowers 
the blocks ^4 E, and tlie piocess is re- 
peated, as sliown at ti and 9. See also DoiDLi;- 
sEAMixa JIacu[Xi;s. 

Roof-stag-'ing. A scalTold for resting upon a 
slanting rool wliile shingling, slating, repairing, or 
]iainting. Tlie barbed rod is thrust up lieneath a 
course of shiugles, and the barbs hold in the course 

briug tile roots to a conveoifnt siae for the stock and to removo 
Fig. 4430. 

both above and below. The claw-plate 
holds to the top of the roof, and serves, 
with the barbell rod, to liold the plauk to which the 
bi"acket is hinged and braced. 

Roof-truss. The framework of a roof, consisting 
of thrust ami tie pieces. See RooF. 

Rook'er. (Bakerij.) A tool like the letter L, 
useil for nitliiliawiiig ashes from the oven. 

Room. (Miiiin'j.) The worked space in a mine, 
especially oE a coal-mine, where the i-oof is supported 
by regular pillars. Tiie whole winning is thus said 
to be worked with pi'lnr and room, ov post and sta/l, 
— the same thing. Thirluiffs ai-e worked sjiacss 
connecting rooms, and the cutting of the tkirliiu/s 
change-i a irtf/ to a row oY pt'/'irs. 

Room and Space Staff. (S/upbuilding.) A 
long measuring-ioil used in spacing and regulating 
the ilistaiiccs apart of a ship's frames. 

Btinm and spice is the distance between the sta- 
tions of the timber frames which constitute the ribs. 
It varies from 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 9 inches. 
Ilonm is the lib ; siiarr the distance apart. 

Room-pa'per. Wall-paper. Paper-hangings. 

Root. (Hi{dra\dic Etvjintrring.) The end of a 
Weir or dam where it unites with the natural bank. 

Root-bruis'er. (.4(jriciil'nrc.) A machine for 
masliiiig 111' bruising tiotatoes, turnip.s, carrots, or 
other raw routs for feeding stock. The machine n, 
used in Biitaiii, lias two wi.hdy fluted rnllcrs placed 
under a hopper and turned by two hand-cranks. 
The pom.ace falls into a chute, which didivers it into 
a tub. The object is to obtain the root in such a 
shape as to be more digestible ami less likely to 
choke the animals. 
The feeding of turnips, mangel-wurtzel, and other root5 has , 

'-Machines. , 

the danger of ehnkinjr. root-eiitters were introduced. These at 
first consisted of wheels or reciprocating blades, which cut the 
root into broad and thin slices; hut. by an additional set of 
knives, these broad slices are cut into pieces about the size of 
one's finger. 

There are three different forms of turnip-cutters in use in 
Britain. One has knives placed on a disk : another, knives 
placed on a cylinder: and lastly, knives working through a 
gratinsr by a crank motion. 

In the first form, a series of knives are placed in the face of 
an iron disk \<y screws. The turnips are placed in a hopper sot 
at an angle, so that thcv may press by their own weight against 
the disk. 

The knives are of two kinds ; one flat and extending from 
nearly the axle to the outer edge of the disk, and at a distance 
from it equal to the thickness the slice of the turnip is required 
to be. 

If only .slices are required of the full breadth of the turnip at 
the part it is cut. then this knife is used by itself: but if it is 
neces.s.arv that the turnip should lie cut into sections the cros.s- 
way of the cut, as for sheep, then a series of smalt knives,^ro- 
jecting from the face of the disk at right angles, are placed at 
distances apart equal to the width required The pieces, after 
being cut. fall into the recenticle beneath. 

0.irdner"s root-cutter {Rnglislil. ft, has curved peripheral 
knives which remove the slices from the roots in the hopper, 
and radial knives which give preliminary gjLshes in the root« 
befire the curved knives reach theni,so that the slices removed 
bv the latter fall into pieces and drop into the basket below. 
The illustration shows two of the peripheral knives, each pre- 
ceded by a set of slitters, which are arranged in a V-form, on 
the fice of the cylinder, so as to come in action in turn. 
The knives of the root-slicer c are attached to the arms of a 




fly-wheel and act upon roots presented at a side opening at tlie 
lower pjirt of the hopper. Hy having two sets of knives, one to 
cut ht!t> the root to a eertsiin deptti, and the next to ail off a 
slice, the roots are reduced to strips, as in liaird's machine ((/). 
Tile eiitter-wheel of this maehiiie is thickeueil toward the eilge, 
to give it the effect of a tty-wheel. The knives are set to a dis- 
tance from the fice of the disk according to the thickness of 
the slices required. Each knife is preceded by three or more 
laacet-pointed studs, whii^h slit the roots iu pa.ssing and prepare 
the slices for falling into pieces as soon as they are detached 
from the root by the radial knives, which are parallel with the 

Where roots are fed upon the ground, a chopper is used to 
divide the root, to bring it to a more convenient sine and a shape 
less likely to ehoke cattle. 

A simple device (c) for cutting roots consists of a box a with 
a row of sliarp knives in the bottom, their edges presented up- 
wardly. This is secured to a bench, and above it is a pivoted 
lever having on its lower si.le a block h fitting the box and pro- 
vided with studs agreeing iu position with the openings through 
which the slices are to be thrust. The roots are fed into the 
box, and by the descent of the lever are driven out below, being 
divided by the sliarp-grated bottom. See VEGi:T.\BLE-CUOPP£R ; 

Root-dig'ger. {Agriculture.) An implement 
for piillihg up rusiform roots, as beets, carrots, ete. 
The e.xample (Fif;. 4431)lias jaws, eat-h of which forms 
part of tlie seiiii-IVustuiii of a liollow cone, aHbrding 
a firm hold on the upper part of tlie root. See also 
Potato- DioGicu. 

Fig. 4432. 
Fig. 4431. 

Root- Grinder and Root-Putper, 



er. A niarhine 
(«) for comminut- 
ing roots for the 
purpose of obtain- 
ing starch, sugar, 
or color from 

Instances of its 
employment are 
found in grinding 
potatoes for 
starch, beets for sugar, madder for dv(\ One form 
of tlie mill is sliown in the cut. The cylinder of 
sheet-metal (a) is puncheil from tlie inner surlace so 
as to leave sliarp projecting burrs whicli form teetli. 
The roots are plaeeil in tlie li'opper above, anil are 
partially grated by the toothed cylinder as they pass 
from thence througli tlie throat into a box 4, wlicie 
tliey are again subjected to the action of the grating 
cyliflder, against wliicli they an: pressed by a fol- 
lower c, which is pn.shed tlicni liy a bell-crank 
lever and weighted arm d. From this box they are 
discharged into a trough beneath, for clutriation or 
pressure, as the case may be. 

Root-pulp'er. (Ani-icnltitrr.) A iriachine (/), 
Fig. 4l:ti) lor liiicly coniiniimting roots to serve as 
food for stock. In the example, the roots placed in 
a lioppcr a are acted on by a series of tootlied knivi'S 
radially arranged ou the surface of an iron disk b. 

having a heavy rim which acts as a fly-wheel and is 
turned by a winch. The angle of the knives may 
be varied to cut more or less liiiely. 

Root-wash'er. A machine which usually con- 
sists of a slatted cylinder revolving in a tank of 
water. The roots are subjected to mutual attrition 
and contact with the bars of the cage, so as to loosen 
the dirt, wdiich settles to the bottom of the tank. 

Fig. 4433. 

1 oot U i«/ er 

Hoot- W'as/ifr. 

A modification of the foregoing is made by an inte- 
rior sjiiral chute, \\hich acts on the princiiiie of the 
conveyor, so that the roots which pass into tin' cyl- 
iniler from the hopper at one end are carried along 
and discliargcd at tlie 
other, the operation be- Fig. 4434. 

ing continuous. 

In another form, the i 
potatoes, etc., are place 1 
in a tube having arms 
F F and a sweep E at 
taehed to a vertical shalt 
whose rotation stirs and 
cleanses the roots. 

Rope. A general name 
applied to cordage over 
one inch in circumfei 

Ropes areof henip,flax, 
cotton, coir, or wire, and are known by their con- 
struction ; as, — 

Cable-laid ; tliree strands of hawser-laid rope, 
twisted right hand. 

Hairscr-laid : three strands of yarn twisted left 
hand, the yai'ns being laid uji right hand. 

Shroud-laiil or fonr-slraiid : having a 
strand slightly twi.sted and three strands 
around it. 

Hemp is laid up {-/(//(/-handed into yarns. 

Yams are laid up ?<:/i'-handed into sfrands. 

Three strands are laid up riijlit-handed into a 

Three hawsers are laid up /(//-handed into a cable. 

Voir ro]ics are made of the liber of the cocoa-niit, 
and will lioat in water. 

ll'ire ro]ies usually consist of six strands laid or 
spun around a hempen core ; each strand coirsisting 
of six wires laid tlie contrary way around a smaller 
hempen core. 

S'sh-/i)te ; a rope of plaitetl yai'iis. 

I'ojies arc known also by their purpose ; as, — 



















Cat. . 






























Id haul. 











See also Ricgi>g. 

A rope is — 

Whipped^ by winding twine around the end to prevent un- 

Fai/eU, by painting or tarring to resist wet. 

Snved, by coiling yarn around it closely and tightly. 

Parce/ed, hy wrapping with canvas. 

Fiidtleneily by making a bulky cushion around a part to pre- 
vent chafing. 

Stnpped^ when lashed ; as the end to the standing part in a 

Stoppered, when a rope is made fast to it to prevent veering. 

Bent, when it is .secured to an object by a liitch or otherwise. 
H'lirh, clinch, and knot are forms of fastening, tfce Knot 

Wormed, by laying a smaller rope or yarn in the lays of a 
cable. It i.< preliminary to serving. Link-worming is worming 
with chains. 

Lnid^ by placing and twisting the twisted strands together in 
the operation of rope-making. 

Grafting and splicing are modes of uniting one rope to an- 
other by interweaving the strands. t*ee SpuCE. 

Seizing and lashing are sailors" terms to express respectively 
the binding of one rope to another by a smaller rope or yarn, 
and the listening of one object to another by similar means 

Painting is a mode of finishiug the end of a rope by tapering 
and braiding the strands. 

To niarle a rope is to bind it with spun-yarn or twine, with a 
knot at each turn, so as to secure the wrapping if cut in one or 
more places. 

Galvanizing is applied to iron-wire rope. It consists in coat- 
ing the wire or rope with zinc. 

Ropes were made ol' various iiKiteiials in ancient 
E,i;'ypt, but especially of the papyrus and of leathern 
strauds. The use of tiie papyrus in tliis connection 
has been described by Pliny, ami is cited elsewlierc 
in this work, as is also that of the spartiuni, whieli 
was employed extensively, though the particular va- 
riety was confined to moderate geographical limits. 
The spartinin made a coarse article of cordage, as did 
the lecf or fibers of the date-tree, which were used 
for ropes in ancient and in modern Kgypt. For a 
finei- article, fiax was used. Pieces of ropes of these 
materials still remain as nienieutos of the ancient 
dwellers by the Nile. 

The rope- makers of ancient Egypt seem to have 

Making Ropes of Leathern Strands [from Tliebes). 

been destitute of machinery. One. man engaged a 
hook at the end of liis twister, and thi'U walked back- 
ward away from another, who paid out the fiber of 
hemj), flax, papyrus, palm-fiber, spartiinn, or what- 
ever the material might have been. The weight f-ii- 
abled hini to swing the twister, which was mounted 
on the .stem he held in his hand. 

In a tomb at Thebes, of the time of Thothmes III., 
the Pharaoh of the Exodus, is a group representing 
the process of twisting thongs of ie:ither, wlueh were 
fastened to the eu'l of a tube, which revolved on a 
cord slung around the loins of a man who receded 
backwardly from the person who arrange<l ami payed 
out the strands. The tube had, in all probability, 
a collar or sleeve which was grnsped by tlie man, 
and had a bar and weight which caused it to ro- 

tate as it was swung around by the operator. The 
strantls of the rope passed Vietwcen the legs of the 
stool and between the feet of the man who arranged 
the strands and kept them from bc<-oming entangled. 
The character of the material is indicated in the 
manner which is so peculiarly Egyptian, by the 
skin hanging up in the shop, and a man is shown 
cutting a continuous tliong with a knife like our 
modern leather-knife, and by the same means which 
we adopt, by turning the piece of leather round as 
he cuts. Two of the coils are represented hanging 
up in tlie shop. 

The pi'ocess of ]}reparing the hemp is .shown in the 
tombs of Beni-Hassan and Thebes. liopes of the 
jialni are found in the tombs, and it was probably 
almost as common as coir or cocoa-nut fiber in Imlia, 
The ropes which supported the planks of the Hel- 
lespont bridge constructed for Xerxes were of papy- 
rus and flax. These were the- ordinary materials lor 
the purpose in Egypt, from which country the king 
had a large contingent. See Military-buidoe. 

Ropes of goat's hair are mentioned by Aristotle 
and Virgil. 

The i'amons vessel, the *' Syracusia," built for 
Hiero, was furnished with hempen ropes from Rhodes, 
according to Jloschion. 

'* The ropes of the Tartars are made of camel's hair or horse- 
hair." — Hue. 

Coir rope is manufactured from the husk cr pericarp of the 

The nuts are picked a little before the fruit is ripe, and the 
rind separated by thrusting it upon an iron st.-ike fixed in the 
ground. The rind is then water-soaked for several months, to 
separate the fibers from the interstitial matter, is beaten with » 
heavy mallet upon a stone, and then rubbed by the hands to 
rid it of the cellular substance. 40 cocoa-nuts jield 6 pounds 
of coir, which is twisted into yarns and made into mats or 
[ cordage. 

Coir rope is more buoyant than hempen, and is an excellent 
material for hawsers. 

Its strength, relatively to hemp, is, for Inrgf ropes. 87 to 108 ; 
j for small ones, 60 to 65. It is not injured by sea-water, and is 
1 much used for running rigging, though from its contractibility 
j it is not so suitable for standing rigging. 

Wire rope appears to have been fir^t used in the silver-mines 
of the Ilartz jiountains. about 1831. They have since come into 
very geuerjil use for ships" rigging, as well as for transmitting 
power in other situations. .Some ropes of this kind employeti 
in the un<kTgrnund levels of the English coal-mines probably 
have a length of more than 3,000 feet. One construeted at the 
works of .lohn A. Roebling, a few years ago, was said to be the 
longest, largest, and weightiest wire-rope ever made in one 
piece. It is 3,700 feet in length ; its diameter is over 2\ inches, 
and its weight some 20 tons The maehinery employed is said 
to be capable of making a rope twice as long and 
large as this one. The rope is used upon an 
inclined plane, for the purpose of niising coal 
out of the Wyoming Valley. See Wire Rope. 

Various processes have been patented for 
making wire rope. For some purposes, un- 
twisted wires bound together by hempen cord 
or inserted within canvas have been employed. 
More generally, however, a slight is im- 
parted, and they are formed into strands, which are afterward 
laid up in a manner analogous to that used in niiiking briii]K'n 
or manilla ropes. The wires are galvanized, or rather zincked, 
or else coated with a preservative composition. 



C V 





Rope or Chain. 






Hi'tripen Rope. 





Girth squared 





Girth s()uared 

n 1-1 



Girth squared 


II uoaij 


Wire Rope {Z^ wires). 

Girth squarcfl 





Girth squared 




Rigging Chain 

Diameter of rod 







The preceding are the nnliiiftry rules forcaleuI:itinp the proof 
strunj^th HiiJ wci^^hts of rupfs iiiuU-hiiiiis, in Kiiglish tous {'2,240 
pouuJs) ; the dinii-ncions boiiip in inchos. 

The hrrakin^ loml is from tw» to Ihrei! times the above. 

The old rope-iiiiikors' rule for hempfii mpe viivs to t*(|uarc the 
girth of the rope in inches, wliich, nmltiplifd b,v4.;;:i%e thL* ul- 
timate or bruakiiif? stren;;tli of l\w rope in hundred weights ; 
and it was a good rule for small cordage up to 7 inches iu cir- 

The sijuare of half the circumference was considered to repre- 
sent the weight of a fathom in pounds. 

What is believed to tw the longest rope in the vforld is a 
grapnel rope, lO.iJOiJf^thoms long without a splice, and has been 
i)i;kde for the Siemens Telegraph i'nnipany. It is made of three 
strand*, the diameter of the completed rope being 2 inrln-s. 

The table below shows the comparative strength of various 
kinds of rope and chuiu, the sizes ou each hori/uutal line being 
of equal strength. 

pissed around a mast ; it is often provided with rollers to enable 
it to slide up and down easily. 
Man -rope- See F.n tering- Hope . 

Masl-rope ; a rope used Tor hoisting and lowering masts. 
Parral-rape ; a single rope secured at the slings or centers of 
yards, and pa.ssed around the mast. Used only on light yards. 
Htng-ri>p»'- ; a rope rove tlirough the ring of the anchor and 
secured to the end of the cable 

tUtfh-rope : used to suspend the bight of a haw?er or cable. 
Tillir-rope: a rope connected to the end of the tiller and 
wound around the barrel of the steering-wlioel. 

T"jf-ropr : a rope used iu swa\ing up a topmast. It is rove 
through the top block, hooked" in the cap, and through the 
heel of the topmast.- 

Yoie-ro/.f : a small rope attached to each end of the yoke by 
which a boat is steered. 

Uounil-in : to haul upon a rope; generally used with refer- 
ence to the weather-braces. 

Eonnrl-vp ; to haul up ; 
generally ai»plied to the act 
of hauling up the slack of 
a ro))e through its leading 
block or a. tackle, which 
hangs loft'e by its fall. 

Unusr : to "haul or pull 
togctluT on a ro|)e. 

Rope Bridge. 

Biidgfs of lope \\ere 
])ro ba bly fi con- 
structed in Cliina. 
Tliey aro of frequent 
occurreijep among the 
Andes of ISouth Amer- 
ica, wliere the ropes 
are made of ox-hide 
thongs twisted to- 
gether ; two are usu- 
ally emiiloyed, their 
ends being attached 
on each side of the 
chasm ; transverse 
pieces are lashed to 
them, over wliich the 
flooring is laid ; iu 
other cases but a sin- 
gle rojie is eniphiyed ; 
hould be one 1 from this a hammock or basket is .suspended, and 

Capacity of 

the Kopea and 


Round Iron 
Wire Rope. 


Steol Wire 


Hemp Rope. 

Flat Iron 
Wire Rope. 

Flat Steel 

Iron Chiiin. 











1 = 

° s 



^ 9 


a i 






is .3 













Lb.<. Tons 








































































12 V 







2 XI 












2 ;; J 












2 X i 










3 xj 


2 xi 












3 X .^ 






9,')00 27 






43:; 4x1 


2i X* 




10,100 1 3) 







4 Xi 


3 X i 




11,000 1 33 






,51 HI 

5 X .} 





li,000 33 










13,500 40 







54 X 


•i X. 




18,000 55 







6 Xi 


4 X 


22,009 65 









5 X 
4 Xi 


The winding drums or pullcvs for wire rope; 
hundred times the size of the ropi- and round roiH^s should , j,..^^,.„ f,.^„j |,.^jj). ^^ i.^^j^j. ^ at each Mile 

letd fair on to and fit the groove of the pulleys. . i • i , T i i ■ , 

A rope hndgp may be made by jilacing a tivstle at 

the midlength of a set of suspen.'^iou ropes and lay- 
ing two or more beams from each bank to this trestle 
to suppoit the roadway. Wlien a stream is too wide 
to be spanned by a single length, a mast may bo 
erected in the middle, and stead- 
ied by guys from each shore ; the ^'E- 4436. 
ends of the rope are attached to 
tliis, and the beams supporte<l by 
other ropes depending from it. 
In some cases masts are erected 
on both banks, and the ends of the 
suspension-ropes attached to their 
t(i[is; ropeshangiiigperjiendicularly 

! groove of the pulli 

Ail tiie ropes of avessel composing the standing rigging, run- 
ning rigging, ground tackle, etc., are distinguished by nanie^ 
corresponding to their uses, without reference to the make or 
size of the rope ; thus, the cable of a vessel may be hawsn-lriiti , 
or the hawser rablf-taid. The following is a list of thoi-e tech- 
nically termed ropfS : — 

BfCl-Tope; attached to the bell, on which the half-hours are 

BoU-rope ; that to which the head-leaches and foot of a sail 
are sewed. 

Erensi-rnpe : a band of canvas, secured at each end to the 
rig_'ing for supporting the body of the leadsman while heaiviiig 
the hand-lead. 

Burtctt-rnp'' : a laniard attached to a bucket for dipping water 
from alongside 

Biioii-ro/jf : a rope attached to the crown of the anchor, and 
to a buoy floating on the surface to show the position of tne 
anchor when in tlie ground 

Clew-rope : a rope attached to the clew of a sail, and leading I from these, and other ropes uXt'Mirl 

■ jj^^ diagonally fiom the nnists, sup- 

port the timbers carrying the road- 
way ; in this case the construction 
reseml>les that of a wire bridge. 


In ail cases, especially wliere the 
structure is of considerable length, 
guys extending up and down stream 
should be attaciied to the bridge at 
suitable points, particularly at anil 
near the .center, to check its vibra- 

Rope-clamp. A device by 
which a rope is compressed in or- 
der to restrain its motion. In the 
example, the rope pisses through 
the sleeve C\ and may be checked 

up forward ; used in clewing up the sails" for furling, and rous- 
iug the clew forward of the bunt. 

Crown-rope : used at the corners of the cable tiers to keep 
the fakes in their places. 

En'.rrini; or mnn roi>f : a rope .'=ecured at the upper end and 
hanging down the ship's side by the ladder for persons going up 
or down to hold on by. Also by the ladders at the hatches. 
The former may be termed riileritis, the latter ?nnn ropes. 

Font'rope. a. The bolt-rope at the foot of a sail. 

b Tlie rope beneath a \ard, or the bowsprit on which the 
men stand vvhen furling or reefing sail ; the former are also 
called horses. 

Gaub-rope ; a rope extending inboard from each leg of the 
martingale to sceure it. 

Grnb-Tttpe. ; u.-sed to confine the hunt of a sail in furling. 

Ou'St or ^nfS.t ropr : a rope used lor towinga boat or vessel. 

Gmj-rofie; used for stead) ing a purchase, spar, or other 
similar object. See GUY. 

Hratl-rope ; the upi»er boU-rope of a square sail 

Hfi-l-rope : a rope si-cured to the heel of a mast or boom to 
rouse it down, out, or in by. or to lash it. 

Jaw-rope ; a rope or parral secured to the jaws of a gaff aod 





or held by the pivoted tooth E, which is vibrated by 
the cord G. See Cable-.stoI'PEU. 

Rope-clutch. A device lor holding fast a rope, 
consisting usually of two movable jaws, or a movable 

and fixed jaw, wliicli are caused to nip the rope by 
piiUini; a cord, or sometimes by automatic devices. 
See t'.\r,Li:-sroFPi;ii. 

Rope El'e-va'tor. An elevator in which the 

Fig. iWT. 

Rope Elevator (showing the Hifdrauitc Machine in the Cellar). 

platform or rage is raised and lowered by means of 
a rope and winding nieclianism. 

In Fig. 4437, steam admitted to the closed end of 
the cylinder a operates a piston carrying a cross-head 

journaled ; as this advances .ilong the guides d c, it 
is at thi' same time rotated by a pinion /', which en- 
gages with a rack on the bed and a piidon on the 
dium-sliaft. The drum c' remains stationary, and 

b having a jaw at each side, in which the drum c is I the amount of rope taken up, and consequently the 

Fig. 44-1?. 

Rope "Elevator {showing Ike Apparatus as tin 




length of lioist, is cq\ial to tlie length of traverse of 
tlie (liiiiii c nniltiiilied l)y the number of turns of tlie 
rojie around it. 

Safety-catches are provided to arrest the platform 
in case the rope slionid break. 

When steaDi is permitted to e.-^cape from the cylimlcr a, the 
weiglit of tlie pliilforui eaiiws it to ijeseeiij, partly uncoiling the 
rope from the (li'uni.s c c' uad restorinj; the drum c uud pl.-ttou 
to their first po^itiou. 

The hoisting-rope a of the elevator { Fig. 4438) passes over a 
grooved wlieel in the upper story, and is wound upon the drum 
i, which is turned by the wheel c gearing with a worm on the 
shaft of the fust pulleys </ ci' '. one of the-se is driven by a 
str.iight and the ot.ier by a cro.s-sed belt, by shifting one or tli 
other of which from the loose eentnil pulley f to iU own proper 
pulley, the shaft is rotated in contrary directions, aud tile ele- 
vator rai.sed or lo.vered 

The brake-.vheclyis acted on by the device if, connected with 
the rod A, which e.ttends IVoiii t'be tap to the bottom of the 
building, and m ly he operated from eitiier ttoor. 't ^r, and that shown in the two succeeding 
figures, are each opcr.ited hy a and a cord passing over 
one or two pulleys. The safety-eatea is shovvu at a' in its normal 

Fig. 4439. 

Safety- Catcher for Rope Elevators. 

position, with the hoisting-rope intact ; the two levers d fi\ 
whose inner ends, passing each other, are supported on a pin 
within the box e. are connected by links to a cross-head, to 
■which one end of the lever f is pivoted, the other end being 
connected with the check-rope ^. The toothed-cam ends of the 
levers fl rl' are connected with the racks A A', with which thev 
mesh, rising and filling with them. They are also connected 
by straps with shoes behind the upright guides. Should the 
hoisting-rope break, as shown at a, the weight i is brought 
into action, depressing, through the lever A, the inner ends 
of the cnm levers rf </', bringing the shoes into contact with 
the back of the guides, anfl preveuting descent of the appa- 

In the two lower figures, the levers r/ tl' are, in case of break- 
age of the rope, actuated in a precisely similar manner, cau.sing 
detents at their outer ends to enter notches iu racks on the 

Rope-guard. A device to prevent cliafing. In 
Fig. 444", a hollow metallic knob is held at tlie ex- 
posed jioiiit liv II pin passing tlirough the rope. 

Rope Lad'der. (XidiiimJ.) "Ro]ie laihlers are 
employed for enabling iiersons to ascend and descend 
from the deck of a ship or from her booms into 
lioats alongside. They are also used in tire-escapes. 
Other uses will doubtless suggest themselves to 
readers of romance. The side pieci's only of side 
ladders are of rope, the rungs being of wood, and 
secured as shown in the cut. Those by which thi^ 
rigging is ascended are termed shrouds. A Jacob's 

Rope-ma-chine'. Hemp 

is niciiiiiineil by riiny as the 
favorite material for making 
ropes. iSjmrlium, a variety 
of the broom growing on a 
tract of ground hing u[)ou 

Fig. 4441. 

Fig. 4440. 

Roiie Ladder. 

Rope- Guard. 

the sea line of the province of New Carthage, ivas 
u.scd for common rope or cordage, and also for some 
other pnr]ioscs. The outer portion of the jiapyrus 
vas also used hy the Egyptians ioi' cordage. 

In fact, most vegetable libels of suflicient strength, 
as well as the hides and intestines of animal.s, are, or 
have been, used at different times and in various 
countries for this jiurpose. 

The twisting of the fibers into strands, and !ay- 
iiifi up these into rope, %vas, from the earliest times 
until a com]taiatively recent ju'iind, alnmst entire- 
ly eli'ected by manual labor ; the simple means hy 
which the process was effected hardly deserving to 
be called machines. A machine for this ]invpose 
was patented in England by liichard March in 1784, 
and another by E<lwaid Cartwright in 1792. In 
1805, Cajitain Huddard invented a series of ma- 
chines, in which some of the features of the latter 
were introduced, hy which hcni)! was successively 
combed, straightened, sjmn into yarns, tarred, 
twisted into strands, and hnally laid nji into rope. 
Theseweie introduced intotlie dockyard at Chatham, 
England, and eflected a great improvement in the 
manufacture of cables and cordage. Sec also Eng- 
lish patents, — Sylvester, 1783; Seymour, 1784; 
Fothcrgill, 1793 ;' Balfour, 1793, 1798; Chapman, 
1797, 1799, 1807. 

In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into 
the United States from England, for working the 
spun yarn into strands and ro|ies. 

Mr. Treadwell introduced his rope-making ma- 
chinery in 1834. 

In the ordinary process of mannfaetni'c, the hemp, 
having been heckled and foinn'd into .skeins, iss]inn 
into yarn by a number of men, each of whom wraps 
a bundle of hemp around his body, and attaches 
one end to one of a series of hooks rotated by band 
connection with a crank-wheid, and walking back- 
ward along the ropewalk draws out the libers from 
the bundle with his left hand ami com]iresses them 
between two fingers of the right, until he reaches the 
otlii'r end of the walk. The thickness and liardness 
of twist of the yarn is governed by the (innntity of 
hemp fed out hy the spiinner, and the ra]iidity with 
which the hooks are revolved. The yarn is then de- 
tachcil from the hook, wound on a reel, and the 
.siiinner proceeds as before, working this time in the 
ojiposite direction. If the ro]ie is to lie tailed, this 
ojieration is next perlormed. 300 or 400 yarns are 
bundled together, forming a hnul, which is dip]ied 
into a kettle of tar heated to .about 212°, and drawn 
through a hole called a (trip, r/rifir, or slidimj-nippcr, 
which presses the tar into the fiber and squeezes out 




the superfluous portion. The yarns, either tarivd or , intervals along tbe walk ; when they have become 
untamd, are next twisted or laid into strands, the \ shortened by twisting, they are detached from the 
twisting being performed in an 

ojiposite direction to that of 
the libel's in the yarns. For 
this purpose the yarns are 
made up into sets of e<iual 
number, which are each at- 
tached at one end to 
a winch or forelock 
hook, passing through 
holes in tbe tncklc- 
board, and are sup- 
ported on ^ikcs and 
sUikc-lieads placed at 

Fig. 4112 

posts to which their other ends were fastened, and 
these are attached to a slcdgr,, which is loaded with 
weights, so as to keep the strands taut, Tet yield as 
they become fai ther shortened by twisting. When 
each strand has hfcnme full hard, they are detached 
from the tackle-board, and the three are placed in 
the three grooves of a conical wooden block termed 
a top, through which is passed a transverse stick 
forjning the hanilles or wooldcrs : one end of each 
is fastened to the center hook of the tackle-board, 
and the other to one of three hooks in the bieast- 
board of the sledge ; these are turned in one direc- 
tion, while the tackle-board hook is turned in the 
other. The top, having been iiiserted between the 
strands as closely as possible to the tackle-board, is 
gradually forced along as the twisting proceeds, until 
it is brought up close to the sledge, the strands clos- 
ing in beliind it as it ailvances. 

By another arrangement, a carriage c, which is 
caused to traverse from one end to the other of the 
walk, is substituted for the sledge. This cames a 
frame and wheel, having spindles on which the | 
strands are wound, forming the equivalent of the I 
breast-board. The wheel is caused to rotate in one ' 
tlirection and the spindles in another, by gearing 
driven from the ground-wheels of the carriage as it ] 
is moved along the walk by means of the ground- 
rope d. I 

In the illustration, this is shown as passing around | 

Ground- Rope. 

revolve as described, and also gears with the ground- 
wheel of the carriage to give it a forward or back- 
ward motion. 

The ground-rope may simply be employed to turn 
the twisting mecbaiiism, the carriage being moved 
back and forth by ropes at eacli end ; or, as shown 
at g d', two gi'ouud-ropcs may be used, by one of 
which </ moves, as shown above, and imparts the 
traversing motion to the carriage, while the other, 
d', passing around the smaller jiulley, is nxed at each 
end, and causes rapid rotation of the operative ma- 

The principle on which the coai-se fibers of hemp, 
coir, manilla, etc., are sjjun into rope-yanis is essen- 
tially the same as that by which yarns or threads 
for making fabrics are produced. For forming the 
first into the cords or strands which are twined to- 
gether to constitute ropes, it is uecessaiy that each 
of the spools on which the strands are reeled should 
rotate on its own axis, in order that the strands may 
freely unwind, .ind also that they should have a 
combined revolution around a common axis to twist 
the strands together. 

In the machine (Fig. 4442), this is effected by the 
fixed sun-wheel a ; the three spools bed have planet- 
wheels at their ends, meshing with the teeth of the 
sun-wheel, and as they revolve on a comnftn axis 




concentrii,' ivilli its (■enter, rotnte iinleiieiideiilly oii | The machine (Fig. 4445) is ])artieularly designed 
their iiMji jourjial.s. Tlie rojie is condiu-ted through i for making small rope. Tlie bobbinlujlders a a a 
the liollow rotating shaft 

Fig. 4444. 

c and wound u])on the reel 
/, whose veloeity is such 
as to take up the rope as 
last as twisted and always 
maintain an ei|Ual tension. 
The prinriple is farther 
illustrated in Fig. 4444, 
in which the main frame 
revolves in one direction 
and the inner frames witli 
their reels revolve in the 
opposite direction : the 
threads and cords are I'e- 

spectively and successively associated and entwined [ are rotated in a vertical plane by bands, and tiie 
to form a comidete rope. I bobbins are turned by the unwinding of the strands 

Fig. 4445. 

Blackie^s Rope-Machine, 


b b h ; these are laid together and twisted by the 
revolution of the reel c d, on which the completed 
rope is wound. This is driven by a pulley c, r<!eeiv- 

ing its motion by belting from a drum on the same 
shaft l)y which the bol.liin-carriers are actuated. 
Fig. 4446 is a preparing machine for opening and 

Fig. 4446. 

J^icjtaritig Macliimfur Rope-Stork. 

Straightening such fibers as manilla, hemp, etc., and | machine, preparatory to being sptin into rope The 
formln^ them into slivers suitable for the drawing- 1 material, direct from the bale, is fed from the rack 




on the left of the machine to the large-toothed cyl- 
inder, hy which it is coiubed out, and, being taken 
off by the smaller slatted cylinder, is transferred to 
two rollers by which it is compressed into a sliver 
and delivered into the trough at tlie right. 

Rope-por'ter. A liglit, two-«heeled carriage 
employed in the Fowler system of steam-plowing to 
carry the rope clear of the ground. See SrK.\M-PLO\v. 

Rope-pump. A water-elevator, consisting of a 
rope or ropes or of a tibrous webbing, whose lower 
end dips in the water which is discharged at the 
upper end, partly by centrifugal force, and partly by 

Fig. 4447. 


the compression of the rope on tlie roller. The 
water is retained in the rope by capillary action. 
Snch a one was used at Carisbrook Castle, Isle of 
AViglit, England. 

Rope-rail'way. A railway on wliicdi tlie cars 
are drawn by ropes wound upon drums rotated by sta- 
tionary engines. This is frequently done on inclined 
planes in mining districts, and is sometimes adopted 
as a temporary expedient pending the construction 
of grades of lesser slope. See Inclined Pl.\ne. 

The Lonilon and Blackwall Railway, for passen- 
gers anil freight, formerly operateil in this man- 
ner by an engine at each end of the line. Arrange- 
ments were provided for detaching each car just 
previous to arriving at its desired station, so tliat its 
momentum would carry it to the proper point. Tlie 
length of rope reijuired was 6.V miles, double the 
length of the road. Wire rope was found best ; but 
the system was finally abandoned for locomotive 

The ropes were connected to the drums by friction-clutcbea. 
TheVlrums were of cast-iron, 2.3 feet in diameter, and their cir- 
cumference revolved at the rate of about 23 miles an hour. 

The rope w,is 5i inches in circumference, weigjiing about 40 
tons ; and to obviate the power required to drag this heavy 
weight at high speed, Mr. Elijah Galloway suggested the em- 
ployment of two sets of wheels of different diameters, around 
each of which ropes, extending the length of the track, were to 
be wound ; that pxssing around the larger outer wheel to be 
kept stationary at each end, while the other traveled a^ usual ; 
it would thus c-ause the wheel to move at a much faster rate 
than itself, the ratio being as the diameter of the larger to the 
ditference between it and the smaller. 

Oue of the stationary engines of the Blackwall Railway was 
afterward .set up in the City Flour Mills, Upper Th.ames Street, 
London, where it drove .32 pairs of stones, grinding 20.000 
bushels of wheat per week. It is on the marine principle, anti 
has 7 smoke-consuming furnaces When one fire has just been 
tired up, the smoke is discharged into the adjoining fire. 

Rope-trac'tion Pro-pel'Ier. A mode uf pro- 
pulsion adopted with canal-boats to avoid the swell 
raised by paddles. A rope is laid along the bottom 
of the canal, and is wound upon a drum driven by 
the engine on board the boat. The rope passes 
back into the water over the stern of the boat, and 

may be picked up again and used by another boat 
following in the same direction. 

The Chinese or diffeivntial pulleys have been in- 
verted and used for this pur]iose, w hen a light vessel 
is to be jiroiielled at a high velocity. See TowiNO. 
Rope'^^alk. A ground where ropes are made. 
Its length is estimated in fathoms, and is from 100 
to 200 fathoms. At one end is the sp(HnUirj-v:]iicl, 
which rotates the irhiricrs to wliiili the ends of a 
bunch of hempen libel's are secured, to be twisted 
into a yarn. Along the length of the walk are hori- 
zontal cross-bars with hooks, over which the yarns 
are swung as the men recede, walking backward from 
the ichirhrs and paying out the yarn. 

A hnjiny walk is one in which yarns are laid up 
into strands to form a rope. See Kotk-making. 

Rope-winch. A set of three whirlers driven by 
a stiap and twisting three yams which are to be laid 
up into a rojie. 

Rope-yarn. A single yarn composed of fibers 
twistetl right-handed ; used on shipboard for various 
purposes. Two or three twisted together form sjntn- 

The .size of a strand, and of the rope of which it 
foinis jiart, is determined by the number of lope- 
yariis in it. 

Rop'ing-nee'dle. (Xaulkal.) A heavy needle 
for sewing a sail to its bolt-rope. 

Ro'sa-ry. A string of large beads representing 
an eijual number of prayers, used by some religions 
sects. A bead is slijijied through the fingers at each 
repetition of a prayer, until all or the specified num- 
ber have been recited. 

In the rosaries used by Roman Catholics, the beads 
representing the " Our Fathers" are larger than 
for the " Hail Maries." 

They are made jif various materials, — dried ber- 
ries, wood, ivory, metal, etc. 

The Buddhists have lor more than 2,000 years 
used long rosaries to keep count of their ]irayers. 
They use the beads as counters for other things, 
and it is probable that the chaplct, twice as old as 
the Italian rosary, is the germ of the Abacus 
(which see). See also riiAYiNo-MAClUNE. 

Rose. 1. (Lock:) The annular scutcheon round 
the spindle of a door-lock. 

2. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A perforated cnp or 
■ nozzle acting as a strainer at the induction of water 

into a pump, or at the nozzle as a means of dividing 
the water into fine streams for sprinkling. 

3. (Sleam.) The perforated nozzle of the injection- 
pipe, distributing the injection-water in jets or .spray 
throughout the interior of the condenser. 

Rose-cut. (Gnn-ciitting.) A mode of. cutting 
gems in which the back is left flat and the face is 
cut into a series of inclined triangular facets arranged 
around a central hexagon. It is adopted for thin 
stones. See Cutting Gems. 

Rose-di'a-mond. The rosc-dinmond is flat be- 
low, and its upper surface has 24 triangular facets. 
The center has a hexagonal arrangement, and the 
base of each triangle is joined to another whose apex 
touches the margin. The intervening spaces are cut 
into 12 facets in two zones. The up]M-r or projecting 
is the crown; the lower jiortion, the teeth. See UlA- 

Rose-en'gine Lathe. (Engraring.) A lathe in 
which the rotatory motion of the lathe and the radial 
motion of the tool combine to produce a variety of 
curved lines. The mechanism consists of plates or 
cams set on the axis of the lathe, or suitably rotated 
and formed with wavy edges or grooves which govern 
the motion of the cutting point toward or from the 




In another form, the combine<l radial auii rotary motion ia 
inherent in tli« worlt, the tool being statioiiarv. In this ciise, 
tile renter of tlie eircle in wliicli tlie work revolves is not ii (ixed 
point, Lut U UKule to oM;illaCu »ith a bligllt luotiuu while tlic 
work revolves upon it. 

The manilrel upon whose end the work is cliuekeil docs not 
rotate in stationary stand.irds liketlioseot'a eonunon latlle, hut 
tlie standards form part of a frame wliicli oscillates upon a hori- 
zontal axis helow tile bed and parallel to tlie mandrel axis. 

The work is lixed in a eliuek at the extremity of tile itiaiidivl, 
and the tool is held by a slidi'-n-st, and adjusts it to tlie radius 
of the rose or fi!.?ure intended to be rut. Tile oseillatin;; mo- 
tioil is i^ivcii to the mandrel by means of metallic rosettes or 
wheels Hxeil upon the mandrel, each Iiaving its edge or peripli- 
ery indented and ciiivi-d witli a Wiiving line. Tile ro.settes are 
acted upon by a small roller at the end of a bar supported from 
the lied. As the mandrel revolves, the wavy periphery of the 
ro.sette is ap|ilied to the roller, which moves on a stationary 
axis and a vibratory motion of the mandrel us its fnime 
moves to and fro on its axis. 

The mandrel contains a number of ro.settes of different pat- 
terns, and the governing roller is slipped on its axis so ILS to act 
in ciMijunction with any ouo of the rosettes, according to the 
pattern requircd. 

Ko.^e-en^infS and ncomfUfc talftfs vary somewhat in their do- 
tails, hut agree in the general features that the work is |ter- 
formed by a combined rotary and radiil motion. If tho 
center of the rosette and the axis of rotation coincide, and the 
tool receive an oscillaMon radi il as to the .said center, a wavy 
circle is produced. If the chu<-k and itj5 mandrel, while ro- 
tating, are oscillated back and forth on a parallel axis (as pre- 
viously stited) while the tool is stationary, the .same elfect — a 
wavy circle — is produced: the change merely being to move 
one part or the other, relatively to its fellow, in the degive and 
proportion. If the center of the pittern do not coincide with 
the axi^ of the mandrel, the effect will be an eceeutric figure. If 
the radial oscillation be given to tool or chuck, in addition to 
the former conditions, a wavy eccentric figure will be produced. 
(See Chuck : Kc^e-Vtric.) If an or elliptical pattern be 
required, it m i.v be obtained by means of an eccentric guide or 
ring of brass fastened to the puppet of the lathe close to the 
collar ill wliicli the ucck of the mandrel runs. (Sts! Chui'K ; 
OviL.) If the governing eccentric be wavy, the etfect will be a 
w.LVy liy governing siiuares or other geometric figures, 
p itterns of the reiiuireil coiifofination are obtained By a suit- 
able ilisposition of the parts involveil in the circular and radial 
motions, the tool is caused to make the peculiar line required 
wit!iin the limits of the s.iid figure. Uy moans of a atrnti^ht-line 
ckmkt the patterns of a rosc-englnc afe made to follow in a 
striight instead of a circular direction. 

Notable instances of the uses of this cl;uss of instruments arc 
to be found in the ni.achines of engine-turning watches, and 
those for making the complicated figures termed Intlt^-tvnrk , 
which abound on tlie obverse and reverse faces of greenbacks 
and other bank-notes. 

Rose Gas-burn'er. A burner giving a circle of 
sm ill 11 flics. Si-c SnivE-nuiiNEi:. 

Ro3e-lash'ing. (Xautical.) A kinil of lashing 
or .s-i/.iiig cmiiluycd in wooUling sjiars. So teniieJ 
from its I'oivn. 

Rose-uail. A nail with a conical licail which is 
haiiiiii Ted into triangular facets. Sec N.VIL. 

Rose-steel. A kind of steel of ccmenfation 
whu.ic iiiteiiiir part exhibits, when IVactui'ed, a dilfer- 
eiit te.\turi' from tliat of the exterior. 

Ro-sette'. ]. (Milailargn.) A disk of red cop- 
per ffoni the refining hearth or crucible. As the 
impurities are removed in the shape of scoriie or 
slag, and the metal exposed, the surface of the metal 
is congealed liy throwing on wi.ter. This is called 
qaciu-khiij. The hardened crust is of a red color, and 
is called a ro.sette. The operation being repi-ated, the 
metal is obtained in a form for ready liaiidling and 
farther treatment, instead of being in a .solid mas.s. 
It is known as rosc-coppcr. See CiipPEK-FlTr.N.\c'H. 

2. {Mi/ 1.) A circular arrangement of sails in a 
windmill ; llie vanes attacheil to radial arms. 

3. A leather or metallic ornament jilaced on a bri- 
dle or halter at the point where the front joins the 

4. A circular ornament of fabric, plaited with 
leaves somewhat resembling those of a llower. 

a. (Oas.) A form of gas-burner in which the gas 
issues at a circular series of holes resembling a ro- 
sette. See St()Vi:-iit'i;nei'.. 

Ross'ing-ma-chiue'. 1. A machine for remov- 

ing tli(^ ross, or rough, scaly, exterior portion of bark, 
from the remainder. 

2. A machine for removing bark from logs in ad- 
vani'c of the saw. The bark, containing much .silex 
and sometimes grit, soon dulls the saw. See Fig. 

y. A machine for cutting up bark for steeping or 
boiling. The vegetable extract is used for tanning, 
medicine, dyeing, etc. 

In the most correct sense, the removal of the outer 
cuticle, there are several processes. 

Hy pressure against a splitting-knife. An ex- 
ample is shown in Fig. 4448, in which the bark is 
fed along a table and beneath cogged pressure-rollers 


which carry it against the stationary knife, which is 
adju.«talilc in higlit, so as to take olf such a thickness 
of liljn' as may be desired. The recpiired Jiressure of 
the feed-rollers is given by means of levers a actuated 
by treadle h. 

In a modified form (Fig. 4449), the bark is fed be- 
neath pressurc-rollci's while its liber is planed there- 
Fig. 4449. 

Rossing- Machine. 

from by a revolving cutter. The pressure on the 
rollers is given by tlie weights suspended from the 

In Fig. 44.50, an idle roller pl.iced between the 
upper edges of the lower rollers facilitates the pas- 
sage of the bark. A knife is placed between the 
rear edges of the upper and lower roller,^, and presents 
a cutting edge to the bark as it comes from the rollers. 

A common use of the 7-oxser is in saw-mills, where 
it is used to remove the bark from the log in advance 




of the path of the saw. This is to save the saw- 1 ^ig- **52 
teeth from being dulled by the bark. 

Fig. 4453. 

Bark-Planing Machine. 

Hotary Stamp-EaUtry. 

Stearns's machine {Fig. 4451) consists of an arm a fastened 
to the bearings 6, so that it swings freely thereon. At the other 
extremity of the same arm is a dislc r, carryiug a pulley, and a 
revolving cutter-head d. These cutters are driven by a belt e, 
at a high velocity. The disk c has an upright rod / attached, 
by which the action of the shields k is controlled, they being 
inclined on one side or the other as the rod/is diverged from a 

Fig. 4451 

Rossing Attachment for Saw-Mill. 

straight line. These shields guide the cutters. The arm a is 
counterbalanced by a weight /i, so that it is easily raised, by 
drawing on the line f , one end of which is attached to a lugj 
on the arm, and the other passes over pulleys to the workman's 

The shields i raise the cutters while in action, to suit any 
rough places or knots that may be on the logs by them. 

Rost'horn's Gun-met'al. An alloy composed 
of 55.04 parts copper ; 42.36 zinc ; 1.77 iron ; iind 
0.83 tin ; or, according to another analysi-s, 57.63 
copper; 40.22 tin; 1.86 iron ; and 0.15 tin. See 
table on page 61. 

Ros'trum. 1. (Surgical.) A crooked pair of 
forcejis with beak -like jaws. 

2. The beak of a still, connecting the Jiead with 
the worm. 

3. (Kavficfil.) The prow or beak of a vessel. 

4. The elevated platform or stage in the forum of 
ancient Rome, from which the orators addressed the 
people. A platform in a hall or assembly. 

Ro'ta-ry. Having a motion on its axis, as a 
wheel (Latin, rota), a ball, etc. The words rotary 

R"tar>j B:owerS- 




and revo'vind are needed in their peculiar spheres, 
and should not be conlbunded. 

Uolatiun, as of a planet on its axis. 

Revolulioji, as of a planet in its orhit. 

See RoTAUY PuMi-; Rotary Engine, etc.; Re- 


Ro'ta-ry Bat'ter-y. (Mciallurgij.) A stamping 
liattery lor uiusliiug ores. The stamps are arranged 
liiruLuly around a vertical shaft, which carries 
nround an inclined plane that raises and lets fall 
each stamp in suc^cession. 

Ro'ta-ry Bloiw'er. One in which the blast of 
air is obtained by the rotation of a piston or pistons, 
or of a fan. 

n (Kig. 4453) is a form in which two segments re- 
volve in a case in dirt'erent directions, their surfaces in 
contact ; the segments act alternately in driving air. 

b c are a sectional view and side elevation respec- 
tively of a fan-blower. 

rf is a three-head piston-blower acting upon the 
principle of a, but having a larger air-sjiace and 
heads which act in succession and alternation. 

c has pistons of varying shape, having concave 
and convex abutting surfaces respectively. 

/ is a double-headed blower. 

It will be seen that in a d c f the pistons are of 
such shape as to pack against the case, and also 
.against their fellows, so that no air may leak around 
tlieni or between them. See also Blower ; Fan. 

Ro'ta-ry Brush. A cylindrical brush turning 
on an axis. A kind employed by hair-dressers is 
turned by an elastic belt suspended from a pulley 
overhead, and the ends of the axis terminate in han- 
dles by wliicli it is manipulated. 

Another (Kig. 4454) has an interior helical spring, 
which is wound up by means of one of the handles, 
and actuates a train of clock-work, causing the 

Fig. 4454. 

Ro'ta-ry Crane. One , *ig 44^6. 

swinging on an axis, so as 
to present the jib in any 
direction to lift or deposit 
the load. In the example 
(a crane for light pur- 
poses), the barrel shaft 
has a screw thereon, which 
engages the sliding guide, 
to coil the cord laiily upon 
tlic barrel. See t'i;ANE. 

Ro'ta-ry Cul'ti-va'- 
tor. (Hashandry.) A 
digging imiilement with 
rotary spades which pierce 
and lift the soil. The 
shaft of the rotary digger 
is suspended by screw rods 
from the bridge of the 
frame, and is rotated by Rotary Cram 

gearing from the ground- 
wheel. See Digging-machine. 

Ro'ta-ry Cut-ter. 1. (Metal.) A toothed dislc 
on a mandrel, between the centers of a lathe. Used 
milling, etc. 

Fig. 4457. 

Rotary Bruxh. 

lirnsh to rotate ; a brake is provided for checking or 
sto|iiiing its motion. 

Fig. 4455 is a blacking-brush in which a rotary 

Fig. 4455. 

Rotary Btacking-Bntsk. 

cylinder at the back serves the purpose of the ordi- 
nary dabber in laying on the blacking. 

Rotary Cultivator. 

2. (Wood.) A cutting head in a planing-ma- 
Ro'ta-ry Cut'ting-ma-chine'. 1. A tool for 

Rotary Cutting-Machine. 




cutting an annular hole or kerf. A crown, trephine, 
or cylindrical saw, or an annular auger (which see). 

In the example, the middle mandrel acts as a 
holder when the screw is turned ; the sleeve is 
driven by the gearing, and has a cutter which is 
adjustable radially to regulate the diameter of the 
circular pieces of paper cut thereby. 

Ro'ta-ry Dig'ger. {Husbandry ) A machine 
with rotary spades. See pages 703, 1068. See also 
RciTARY Plow. 

Ro'ta-ry En'gine. See Rotary Steam-engine. 

Ro'ta-ry Fan. {Pntumalics.) A blowing-ma- 
cliiue with rotary vaues. See BoTARY Blower ; 
Blower ; Fan, etc. 

Ro'ta-ry Har'row. {Husbandry.) One having 
the tines set in a liarae which rotates on a verticil] 
axis as the harrow is drawn along the surface of the 

Fig. 4459. 

Double Rotary Harrow. 

ground. In the example, the bent rim and the 
spokes have teeth, and their axial pin is journaled 
in bearing sleeves attached to the draft-bars. The 
cranks of the rotary harrows are connected by a 
transverse bar. 
The circular tine-frames are so hung to the frame 

Kg. 4460. 

Fig. 4461. 

Rotary Meter. 

Ro'ta-ry Ov'en. One in wliiih tin- b end trnys 
or bread-tables rotate, so as to receive the din:gli at 
the oven door, carry it in a circuit around tli(' oven, 
and present it at the delivery door, the rate of pro- 
gression being so timed and the heat so regulated as 
to accomplish the baking during the circuit. 

There are two principal varieties of rotating ovens ; 
those in which the circular bread-table rotates on a 
vertical axis, and those in which the bread-trays are 
suspended fiom the arms of a reel which has a hori- 
zontal axis : the latter is known as a rcel-ovcn. See 

Wedge's rotary oven has an annular jilate n ro- 
tated by a pinion b operated by a band-crank or 
machinery, and sustained on friction-rollers c ; otbcr 
friction-rollers d prevent it from beaiing agninst the 
interior masonry c. Swinging damper-doors / pre- 
vent the escape of heat. These are kept constantly 
closed when baking crackers. The dough is iiitro- 

Fig. 4462. 

Rotary Harrow. 

as to rotate on their axes when dragged upon the 
ground. This motion is sometimes produced by 
hanging them eccentrically, so as to have a greater 
resistance on one side than the other. 

Ro'ta-ry Me'ter. One in which the measuring 
device or piston rotates in a case. It resembles in 
construction the Rotary or Rotary Steam- 
engine (which see), but has a vessel or passage of 
known capacity, and the i-evolutions of its piston 
are registered. In Fig. 4461, the inner cylinder is 
eccentric, and has radial pistons i connected by links 
m to a wrist that foinis the center of motion, around 
which the pistons revolve. A fixed crank is thus 
dispensed with, and the parts accommoilate them- 
selves to conditions incident to expansion and con- 
traction from changes of temperature. The heads of 
the revolving cylinder work in recesses in the case 
of the engine, so as to prevent fiiction and wear 
upon the pistons. See Spirit, Gas, Water M eteu. 

Rotary Oven, 

duced and removed, when baked, through the door 
g. h h are the furnaces, from which the products 
of combustion pass to the chimney i through circu- 
lating flues. 

Fig. 4463. 

Tintntin^-Sknrf P'ow. 




Ro'ta-ry Plo'W. {Husbandnj.) A plow witli 
rotary share. In Fig. 4-16S, it i.s in the rear of the 
frame and is tlriveu by gearing iVom the driving- 
wheel axle. 

In Fig. 4464, the segmental driving cog-wheels 
connect with snpplrnieiitary Yielding cogs attached 
^vith springs. The segnienlal wheels rotate the 

Fig. 4464. 

Rotary Plow. 

earth augers only when in contact with the earth. 
The yielding cogs insure the meshing of the auger 
pinions with the rigid cogs of the segmental gears. 
See also pages 703, 1068. 

Ho'ta-ry Pud'dler. (Metallurgy.) An appa- 
ratus in whii'h iron is puddled by rotary mechanism 
instead of by hand labor. The iilea is believed to 
liiive occurretl to Henry Cort, but the first practical 
attempt to execute it appears to have been made by 
Yates and Tooth, who constructed a furnace having 
a rotating ti'ough, with fixed rabbles through wliicli 
a current of water was conducted to prevent them 
from melting, which, however, it did not eH'ect. The 
Bromhall puddler was arranged with four rabbles, 
which were caused to assume difi'erent angles, as 
they were drawn over the bed of the furnace. Sub- 
sequently, Mr. Menelaus, manager of the Dowlais 
Works, contrived a cylindrical rotary fuj-nace, in 
which the pudilling was effected by the rotation of 
the furnace alone. This was not successful in prac- 
tice, owing to the great expansion and contraction 
and the rapid destruction of the lining. 

About 1867, Mr. Danks of Cincinnati developed 
the first practical rotary puddling-fnrnace. This has 
since been greatly improved, and has been, to some 
extent, introduced into Great Britain and the Conti- 
nent of Europe. See Puddling-fuuxace. 

Ro'ta-ry Pump. One whose motion is circular. 
The kinds are various ; in some the cylinder revolves 
or rotates, as the case may be, moving in a circular 
path or rotating on its own proper axis. Some of 
these are considered under CENTniFUGAL Pump (see 
pages 514-516). The more common form of rotary 
])ump is that in which the piston or pistons rotate 
on an axis, as seen in the illustrations, Fig. 4465. 

o is a double-wheel pump from the old coller.Mon of S^rviere. 
The coi^-wheeta rotate in contact with each other, the teeth of 
each filling the interdental spaces of the opposite. Serviere 
was born at Lyons, 1593. See also Ramelli's book, sixteenth 

6 is Eve's rotary pump, 1S25, It has three pistons on a hub, 
and a rotating abutment, which offers a depression to enable 
♦.he pistons to pnss as they are suceessively presented 

chasa hub with one piston, and a curved tlap which turns 
on a hinge. 

In d the pistons are cam-shaped, and the vertical v.alve which 
forms the abutment rises on the cam, and then shuts down be- 
hind it, to rise again on the next cam. 

e has a sliding valve which is operated by exterior devices and 
recedes to allow the piston to pass. 

/has two concentric drums, the annular space for the water 
being traversed by a piston which consists of a rectangular piece 
of brass driven by a revolving eccentric cylinder, which at the 
same time forms an abutmonti 

^ has three pistons, which move radially in a circular shell, 
which rotates iu contact with the segment on the case, forming 
the abutment. A D-cum actuates the pistons. 

h has a rotary hub eccentric with the case, and two pairs of 
pistons acting in diametric slots. 

In I the hub is similarly placed, but has one pair of spring 
pistons, in a single diametric slot. 

Fig. 4465. 

Rotary Pumps. 

In j (Fig. 4466) the annular pi?ton is moved eccentrically 
around inside the cylinder. The convex-faced valve is sup)iort(;d 
on a spring arm and follows the movement of the cylinder, .^o 
as to form a continued separation between the induction and 
eduction passages. 

jt, Leuchtweiss'.f pump, has four pistons and an abutment- 
wheel with four depressions, traversed by the pistons in turn. 

/ is Andrew's pump, having a pair of segment-cams, each of 
which is a driver, and forms an abutment for the other. 

m, Hiirdy's pump, is an amplification of the same idea, the 
double-headed pistons revolving in two communicating seg- 
ments of cylinders, and being geared together to secure uni- 
formity of rotation. 

n is Bazin's three-headed pistons, working in pairs, the bead 
of one tilling the depression of the other alternately. 

is Behren's pump. It has a pair of segments, working on 
the same principle as /, 

;>is Vialon's centripetal pump. The converse of the Barker 
mill. See Fig 562, page 231 

9 is a form shown in an old French work. It has four pistons 
which slip in and out radially, as they pass the abutment be- 
tween the induction and eduction ports. The stationary eccen- 
tric allows them to be pressed in as they come against the in- 
cline, and again forces them out after passing the abutment. 

r has a number of hinged pistons arranged on the periphery 
of the hub. As each one approaches the double inclined plane 
forming the abutment, it is pushed in against the hub, and 
when it has passed the crest of the rise is opened again by a 
spring beneath it 

s t are two views of the Appold rotary pump, which has a 
series of wing* on a horizontal shaft revolving in the water. 
The views are vertical -ections taken in planes at right angles 
to each other. This pump has been largely used in England in 
wrecking and drainage. 

With a hollow cylinder 12 inches in diameter by 3 inches 
deep, to which a rotation of 800 tinies a n.inute is given by a 
steam-engine, this m.ichine can raise 1,800 gallons of water per 
minute to a bight of 111 feet. In November, 1851, one of these 
pumps was settoworkto assist in draining Whittlesea Mere. 
The cylinder was 41 feet in diameter, and was immerf^ed in one 
of the ch' nnels or cuts by which the Bedford level is inter- 
sected. The average vt-locity is 9U revolutions or 1 ,251' feet per 
minute. A double-cylinder steam-entrine was erected upon the 
spot, and its power was applied to drive the pump The steam 
pressure was 40 pounds per square inch, and the vacuum 13^ 
pound-f ; the lift, 5 feet. An immense volume of water, no less 
than 16,000 gallons per minute, was raised by this means, all 
of which passed through the cylinder of the machine, and wa3 




Fig. 4466. 



i N 

Van Haagen & Co.'s has a Tig- 4*67. 

table a at liont, which is 
caused to move vertically hy 
nicalis ol' an uinightscrew re- 
ceiving motion by gear con- 
nection with a horizontal 
shall provided with a crank 
b, so that it may be oper- 
ated by hand when desired. 

Thetool-spiLidle c may be 
moved both transversely and 
longitudinally by means of 
the head-stock d and slide e. 
The latter is operated by the 
feed-screw /, wliich derives 
its motion, througli concealed 
gearing, Ironi the shalt g. 
By means ol' a shifter A, the 
n.otioii of the gearing may 
be changed so as to re\'erse 
the diiection, both of tlie 
.^lide and table, either or 
both of wliich can be throwa 
out of connection with the 
shatter and worked by hand. 
For reversing the movement 
of the slide c in planing, ad- Romnj Pump. 

jiistable Ing.s are attached 

to the inner jiart of the shaft, which are struck al- 
ternatelv l>y the slide c. thiowingover the shifter A ; 
a .seini-iolaiion is automatically imparted to the tool- 
'lohler at the .same thne. 

For horii.oiital drilling, the liead-.stock alone is 
advanced touard the work, cither automatically or 
by hand. 

In slotting and in cutting the teeth of wheels, a 
rotary tool is used, the table and head-stock being 

Fig. 4468. 

carried ofT bv a channel prepnred for it. One of Bessemer's 
pun>v*. wirh a cylinder 9 feet in dianictor, has rii?ed aa much ; 
a.c 201 ton* of water per minute hy the aid of a 30 horse-power 
en;:ine This pump is shown at e, Fig;. 4466 

Tile Mu^^nrhmftt^ ffntrifuaal f<»t/ip (lO, shown at the Lon- 
don WorM's Exposition, has a short horizontal shaft. carr\ing 
a sqn 're hoss with 4 tans;ential blade.*', which rotate within a 
metilliccase bavins: axial induction and a tangential eduction. 
Tile pump is submerged, and is driven by gearing and shafting. 

Gevicke's rotary pump is shown at to. Tlie vertical shaft 
carr\i')g the wheel is driven by a band on a pulley above. 
Aliove tlie wheel are a series of curved guides ** to direct 
the water to the center of the chamber at the foot of the 
vertical stand-pipe. A fixed plate is placed above the wheel, 
and forms the Hoor of the a.«cension chamber, the water being 
driven around its margin by the centrifugal powerof the wheel. 

For early inventions in this line, see, — 

I Wbitelaw 1841 and l'>4« 

Gvnne 1R44 

1 Bessemer lS46and IWl 

1 Andrew 1846 and lR,">n 

Van Schmidt 1S46 

Appold 1848 

1-e Deinour 1732 

Inver'ed Barker's mill . 

.lorge- ^Vest 1S16 

Ma.<.s;ichusett8 centrifu- 
gal 1818 and 1«?0 

Blake 1R31 

Andrews 1839 

See also Centripdo-U- Ptjup. 

Fig. 4467 is a (so-called) rot.iry pump. All that 
is rotary about it is the wheel, on which are the 
liaml -crank and the wrist to which the pitman is 

Ro'ta-ry Shap'er. A machine for planing, 
turning, and slotting. 

Rotary Shaper. 

moved to suit the character of the work by hand or 
by the .self-acting devices. 

' By the employment of suitable tools, the interior 
of steam-cylinders, pulleys, and similar work may 
Vie turned out. and key-.seats cut 
in inilleys without moving the 
work after turning. 

Ro'ta-ry Shears. (.AfcUil- 
wnrting.) A shears for cuftiii!: 
metal, having rotating instead 
of reciprocating blades. In n 
(F;g. 4469\ the face of each I 
blade has two steps ; the metal Wi 
is sheared between the angles of p' 
the prominent faces of the two 
disks. Rotary ShtarK. 




b is better adapted for thin sheets. 

c eoiisists of two rollers, eacli hiiving reetaiigiilar 
aiintilrir )>rojeetii>!is which fit conesimiidiiig fjrooves 
in the other, eiial)ling a number of strips to be cut 
from a sheet at once. 

I n Fif,'. 4470, the shafts carrying the cutters a b lire 
geared togetlier and turned by tlie handle c. The 
cylindrical portions, shown at d d on an enlarged 

Fig. 4470. 

]iiston rotates in the cylinder or the cylinder upon 
the piston. 

The varieties are numerous. Examples will Iif 
given of engines with one, two, three, and four pis- 
Fig 4472. 

Rotary Shears. 

scale, serve to guide and hold the plate to the 
shears. The di.'itance between the two cutters is 
ri'giilated by raising or lowering the upper shaft. 
The machine is designed for cutting plates too thick 
to be conveniently severed by the ordinary bench- 

Ro'ta-ry Sift'er. A cylindrical sieve. It has 
a segmental opening for the introduction of meal. 
The hand-crank has a projection which runs on in- 

Fi^. 4471. 

Rotary Sifter. 

clined abruptly-terminating cams u]ion a circular 
disk, which serve, in combination with a spiral 
spring, to shake the .sifter longitudinally. See AsH- 

SlF-IT.Il: SiKVK. ; .'^(■REEN ; RiDDLE, etc. 

Ro'ta-ry Spad'er. A digger having on a drum 
or frame a series of siiades brought successively to 
the ground. In Fig. 4472, when the spades are ready 
to enter the ground, by the rotation of the cylinders, 
they are in nearly a vertical position, and are hold 
down by one of the latches, remaining in the .saeie 
position until the cylinder has pa.s.sed over them, 
causing the eartli to be broken up and overturned! 
See also puces 70:5, lOfiS. 

Ro'ta-ry Steam-en'gine. One in which the 

Rotary Spading-Machine. 

tons on single axes ; of pistons working in pairs on 
several axes ; of wheels driven by steam injecteil 
against them, or working by reaction, emitting steam 
tangentially. For another kind, .see Disk Steam- 
engine. See also Steam-engine ; 
Reaction Steam-engine. 

Rotary engines were suggested or made by the iii- 
ventoi-s of the last century and the early portion of 
the present. The names of Watt, Cartwright, Gal- 
loway, and others may be mentioned. 

The illustrations will be readily understood by 
reference to Plate LIII., with but slight verbal ex- 

a hasi a siij^Ie piston keyed to the hub and rotating in an an- 
nular chamber, which ha.s the function of a cylinder. Tn the 
middle, on the right, lA the abutment which slides radially ta 
allow the piston to Above and below the abutmenti re- 
spectively, are the induction and eduction ports. 

6 has a single piston which passes a crescent shaped rocking 
abutment situated between the induction and eduction ports. 

c The piston revokes on a hub concentric with the cvh'ndcr, 
and the annular steam space between the hub and the cyliniler 
side is traversed on each side alternately bv sliding abutments, 
connected together «nd operated by a setrmental cam on the 
piston-shafl , which impinges against anti-friction rollers of tile 

il. The steam issues from the piston at *,and is edi'cted at *, 
pa-ssages being provided through the tubular shaft. The abut' 
nients swing out of the way for the pa.ssage of the pishm. hci'-<' 
actuated by connecting rods and levers operated by a cam oi^ 
the main shaft. 

e The piston-wheel is arranged eccentrically within the cyl- 
inder, and ha,s two buckets, which are expanded radialh by 
springs, and withdrawn to pass the abutment by contact \\irii 
the cylinder. Packing segments on the piston-wheel and the 
edges of the buckets confine the steam. 

/ has an elliptical piston, the working faces of which are ex- 
pansible by screws to pack it against tlie inside ^if the annuliir 
chamber in which it revolves. It has a rocking abutment which 
oscillates in a chamber. 

R has two pistons with vibrating abutments, which retract 
Into recesses to allow the pistons lo pass. 

h. The pistons are situated upon the extremities of the hol- 
low arms ; the steam ports in the hub of the main shaft serve 
a-s induction passages for the steam, the eduction ports being 
located upon the periphery of the inclosing east; of the engine. 
The steam is admitted to a chamber in the shaft through a pipe 
which revolves therewith. 

j has three pistons, which haTe a certain fl-eedom of motion 
m seats in the inner cylinder, which rotates in an eccentric 

k has three pistons on a wheel keved to the main shad In- 
clines on the advancing ISces of the pistons push back the 
swinging abutments, whicn then close the eduction The in- 
duction ports are above and below. 

t has three pistons, two valve-abutments, and two induction 
and eiluction ports respectively. 

m has thrw pistons on one shaft, set at angles of 120o.: 
Steam admitted at one side of the casing and deparMu" at the 
other presses against a fleiiblc band which drives the" oistoua 
before It. *^ 


Plate LIU. 


See paga 1900. ISOi. 




n. The eccentric hub revolvea in the anuulur cylinili^r, and 

has p jitoiis arniugtjd on yokes, traversing at right uugles to 
each other, anU provided ut their ends with spring pueking- 
plites, which ttcconmiodiite themselves to the iut**rior surface 
of the cylinder. The induction upeuiugs ure also covered with 
flexible platen, which accoumiodute themselves to the surface of 
the huh, and permit the passage of the piston. The engine 
runs in cither direction and exhausts at the bottom. 

has also diutnctric pistons, which are equal to the diameter 
nf the ca-iiug, and slip to and fro in slots in the eccentric hub. 

p h;i-< four distinct pistons, which slip in and out iu radial 
si" -i i.i the ciR'unifcrence of the eccentric hub. Steam is ad- 
iiiittei and eductcd by flexible pipes. The abutment, as in 
tile last two mentioned, is formed by the contact of the hub with 
the inside of the cj-linder. 

913 the Scheutz engine (Swedish), shown at the French Ex- 
position, n't liub aud cyhnder are concentric, and tlie abut- 
nient.i arc formed by double iuclines, which force in the pistons 
as they come in contact therewith. Steam is introduced and 
dischnr^d at ports leading through the inclines on the respec- 
tive sides of the abutments. 

r r' are two views of another Rxposition engine, by Thompson, 
of Ediiibiirgli. There are two pairs of pistouf, each attiched to 
a core which occupies but half the length of the cylinder in the 
direction of its axis Each pair of pistoue is thus attached to 
its own core only for half the piston length, while the other 
half projects over the core belonging to the other pair. Neither 
pair of pistons can therefore pass the other, though they may 
come into contact. Each pair of pistons has its independent 
shaft, and externally to the cylinder each of these shafts carries 
an elliptical gear-wheel, which works into an equal aud similar 
wheel upon a shaft parallel to the piston-shaft. This hecoud 
shaft, which is the working shaft, has a fly-wheel regulator. 
Steam is admitted between the sector-shaped piston^, and the 
motion is produced by the preponderance of leverage at the 
time. See Dr. Barnard's Report, pages 87 -93 

.< s' .<*' are three views of Behren's Exposition engine, Amer- 
ican. The views show three positionsof the pistons which work 
in apposition. It has two cylinders, whose spaces overlap each 
other, and in the center of each is a solid cylindrical core. Each 
piston is firmly attached to an axis, and is part of a solid ring 
fitting to the core and to the interior of the cylinder. The axes 
are externally connected to gear-wheels to insure siuiuituneous 
and equal action. A portion of each core is removed to enable 
the opposite piston to pass Steam enters above aud dit^cUarges 
below. The pistons are alternately motors and abutments. In 
.« the steam is just commencing to act on the left-hand piston. 
At s' the steam is acting on the right-hand piston, s" shows 
the pasitiou of the pistons when changing duty. 

t is the Pillner and Hill engine, English, also shown at the 
French Exposition. It has two cylindrical overlapping cham- 
bers, and two systems of rotary pistons, which may be com- 
p.ircd to cog-wheels. These wliocis, by the close contact of 
their cogs, prevent the passage of steam between them, and they 

are adapted steam 
Fig. 4473. tight to the in- 
terior of their cyl- 
inders by metallic , 
packing; in the 
tips of their teeth 
Practically, it is 
found to be suffi- 
cient to pack two 
teeth diametri- 
cally opposite to 
each other in each 

w is a somewhat 
similar form, in 
which the two 
packing-teeth are 
alone prolonged to 
touch the interior 
of the cylinder; 
deep depression s i n 
the opposite wheel 
allow these pro- 
longed teeth to 
pass At inter- 
mediate points, 
shorter teeth gear 
into each other to 
prevent passai^- of 
steam at this 

In t' a jet of 
steam is forced 
against the vanes 
of a wheel as they 
are presented in 
turn in a steam- 

Fig 4473 show.'i 
two views of the 
Harris engine, in 
which the por- 

tions are attached to two hubs and run in different directionn. 
One axis with hollow trunnious carries the two radial arms 
which emit steam at their ends, tangentially, and so run by re- 
action ; the steam emitted acts against vaues on the other por- 
tion and drives it directly. By gearing, the two motions ar« 
utilized upon a single shaft. 

In X, Plate LIII., the common shaft of the two cylinders 
carries a tty-whcel between them. This fly-wheel haa cam 
grooves on its sides by which the piston abutment is worked. 
The pi-stous are so coupled together that one portion shall carry 
the other over the dead-ceuters. A slide-valve worked by a 
hand-lever enables reversion of the engine. The steam passes 
through the chambered piston-journals and drum. 

In Fig. 4474, the steam admitted from the pipe a passea 

Fig. 4474, 

Rotary Steam- Engine. 

through the curved£re 6 (shown in dotted lines) in the ro- 
tary disk c to the steam spaces '/ in rear of the pistons e e, for- 
cing each radially outward until its reces.ted portion passes 
partly beyond the periphery of the disk and its outer end rests 
against the surrounding cylinder, when the pressure is exerted 
circumfcrentially, causing rotation of the disk. As the disk 

Fig. 4475. 

Harris's Rotary Stfam-En^ne. 

Krughfs Noiselrss Gearing. 

npproaohes the upper part of its rotation, the piston \n forced 

in and the exhaust takes place, steam beiuR cut off fVom this 
piston at tlie same time that the second piston reaches the ia- 
ductdou port to receive its supply. 




Knight's noiseless gearing (Fig 4475) is adapted for rotary 1 
engioeJ* employing paired shafts, for paired rollers, and in other 
cases vvhere the co-rotation of two objects is desired, avoiding 
the friction and clattering of the usual modes of gearing. 

In the illustration, a a' are the piston-shafts of a double-cyl- 
inder rotary engine ; these have equally eccentric WTists 6 6' at 
their extremities, c c' are two equal arms hinged to brackets or 
other fi.\ed objects, and having their other ends pivoted to a 
link rf, which is pivoted to the two pitmen e f' connected to 
the extremities of the wrists 6 6'. To insure aecumcy of move- 
ment, a second pair of wrists//' at ri^^ht angles to the first are 
formed on the shafts a a' and connected to each other by a 
precisely similar arrangement. The rotation of one shaft thus 
causes the other to rotate with equal velocity in the opposite 
direction. Other modifications are shown in George H. Knight's 
patent of September 10, 1S37. 

Ro'ta-ry Swing. 

Fig. 1176. 

Rotary Swin, 

The horizontal shafts with 
which the ra- 
dial arms re- 
volve have 
bevel pillions 
engaging the 
bevel-wheel on 
a pivot post, by 
whii-h a hori- 
zontal revolu- 
tion of the 
whole frame is 
rtjii^jj Valve. A 

' f f] valve which 

acts by a partial 
rotation, such 
as the four-way 
cock or the fau- 
cets used in the 
Worcester, Sa- 
vary, and early 
N c w e in e n 
The trunnion-vah-es of the oscillating-cylinder steam- 
engines have a re- 
Fig 4177 ciprocating jiar- 
tial rotation. The 
valve has a pas- 
sage C, which, 
when brought in 
line with the 
steam-pipe A A, 
connects the 
two parts of the 
same, and is ad- 
justable, so that 
the pass.nge may 
be completely or 
partially inter- 
rupted, as desired. 
When the pasi.'iage 
is iiitermpted, the steam is made to press the valve 
upon the seat and thus prevent all esca[)e, and makes 
a steam-tight joint witliout the use of packing. 
lu Fig. 4478, the valves A' L have each three 

Fig. 1178. 

wings ; they oscillate in and coincide in form with 
the frustal chambers, whose ports connect with the 
steam-cylinder. The pressure on each valve is nearly 
balanced, and it is kept to its seat by a coil spring 
acting longitudinally on its stem. 

Ho'ta-scope. An instrument on the principle 
of the gyroscope, invented by Professor W. 1!. John- 
ston of iPhiladclphia, about iS32. See Gyroscope. 

Rot'ten-stone. A soft, brown mineral, found 
in Derbyshire, England, and used as a polishing ma- 

It is composed of alumina, 86 ; carbon, 10 ; silex, 
4. It is sometimes called a variety of tripoli, but 
the latter is principally silex. Eottenstone is more 
nearly allied to emery, but has a portion of carbon 
and no iron. Iron is present in all the emeries. 

Rot'ting. The steeping of Hax-stalks to soften 
the gum and looseu the liber from the woody por- 
tions. See Kettixr. 

Ro-tun'da. {Architecture.) A circular l>uilding 
or apartment covered by a dome, as the Pantheon at 
Rome, the large central apartment in the Capitol at 
Washington, etc. See also Dome. 

Rouge. 1. A peroxide of iron of a light red color, 
used for polishing gold, silver, and speculum metal. 

Sulphate of iron is puritied of sile.x and calcined 
in a crucible. By restricting the heat to a dull red, 
the result is light-colored and forms rouge. If pro- 
longed, black oxide is foriueil which gives it a cut- 
ting ijuality, and it becomes crocus. 

2. The cosmetic is the result of an elaborate treat- 
ment of safflower, etc. 

Rough-cast. (Plaslcring.) A mode of finishing 
outside work by dashing over the second coat of 
plastering while quite wet a layer of washed line 
gravel mingled with lime and water. 

Rough-coat. (Plastering.) The first coat on 
lath. On brick it is termeil Imjiiuj or pricking up ; 
on masonry, rendering or roughing. 

Rough-file. A file with heavy, deep cuts. The 
angle of the chisel in cutting is about \'2' from the 

The grades are as follows, beginning with the coarsest quality: 

Rough. Second cut. 

Middle cut. Smooth. 

Bastard. Dead smooth. 

The number of teeth to the inch of a rough JUe are according 
to the length of tbe file in inches 

Rotary Steam- Valve^ 
















Roitrry Vaive/or Sieam-En^ines, 

They are commonly termed ru^s, in the trade. 

Rough'ing. (ITat-making.) The hardening of 
a felted hat-body by pressure, motion, heat, and 
moi^ture. See HAi'.nEMNO. 

Rough'tag-down Rolls. See Roughino-rolls. 

Rough'iag-in. (Plastering.) The fii'st coat of 
three-coat plastering when e.\ecuted on brick. See 

Rough'ing-miU. A lapidarj-'s wheel, used in 
roughing down the .surfaces of gems to make facets. 
It is of iron, mounted on a vertical axis, and its up- 
per disk is touched witli diamond-dust lor the harder 
gems. It is followed by the gi-incliru) and polishing 

A grinding-mill useil by lapidaries, con.sisting of a 
small copper disk, with a face turned true and flat 
and furnished with spicules of diamond imbedded 
by hammering into the copper. 

A similar disk with fine diamond-dust is used for 
polishing. See L.\piu.m;y's JIill. 




Rough'ing-rollB. {Mdal-workuig.) The first 
set 111 ]o!l,s ill a roUiiig-niill, wliicli opeiate upon the 
bloom tioiii the tilt or shingling huniniei- or the 
8i[U0i'Zcr, as the ease may be, ami leduee it to the 
bar form. It is tlieii eiit up by the shears, maile 
into pill's or faf/ols, i-eheatcJ in a icverberatory fur- 
nace, and passed between iUe finish iiiij rolls. 

The ronghing-rolls revolve at about 70 revolutions 
per miiiuto, the liiiishiiig one of medium size at 140, 
and small ones at 220 or over. See Kui.lino-mill. 

Rough-string. (Carjiculri/.) One of the slant- 
ing pieies supporting the steps of a wooden stairs. 
A carriiiife-picce. The upper end rests against an 
apron-j}iiLr nv pitchimj-piccc. 

Rough-tree. (Nautical.) a. A rough or unfin- 
ished spur or mast. 

/'. Tile pen tioii of a mast above the deck. 

Rough-tree Rail. (ShiphiUldinrj.) A timber 
forming the top of the bulwark. It rests upon the 
top-limbcis, and caps the external and internal plank- 

Rou-lette'. An instrument used in engraving, 
mejhaiiieal diawing, and plotting, for making dotted 
lines. It has a wheel with points, whicdi, for use on 
paper, is dipped into india-ink, so that the points 

Fig. 4479. 


impress a series of black dots or marks as the instru- 
ment passes over the paper. Dilferent patterns of 
(lots are used for national, state, county, and town- 
ship lilies, canals, roads, railway,?, etc. 

Those illustrated are engravers' roulettes, princi- 
pally used in mezzotinting to raise the burr when 
tlie original f/rouiid produced by the cradle has been 
too much scraped or burnished away. 

Rounce. (Prinlitig.) A winch with roller and 
.strap by whiidi the carriage or bed of a press is run 
in and out under the platen. See Puinting-press. 

Round. 1. (Joinery.) a. The t-imii/ or ri'jju; of a 
ladder wliieli forms a step, uniting the side pieces. 
Itonnd is the preferable term. It is maile out of 

rived timber, — not sawn, for fear of cross grain, 

and dressed by the drawing-knife and spokeshave so 
as to bulge in the middle, tl'ie point of greatest strain. 
Wedges, driven into their outer ends, secure them 
to the side pieces. If the round does not go tlirnugh 
the side pieces the ends are secured by fox-tail wedg- 

b. The round rail joining the legs of a chair ; also 
known as a stretchier, 

2. (Brewing.) A vessel in which the fermenta- 
tion of beer is concluded. The rounds receive the 
beer from the fermenting tun, and discharge the 
yeast at their bunghoh^s into a discliarging-trongh. 

3. (Ordnance.) A projectile with its carti'idge, 
prepared for service. 

Round Bud'dle. (Meta'lureiij.) A circular 
fvariK' for working on metalliferous slimes. 

Round Chis'el. An engraver's tool having a 
rounded belly. 

Round-edge Pile. A file with a convex edge ; 
for filing out or dressing the interdental spaces of 

Roun'del. (Ordnance.) A disk of iron having 
a central aperture, through which an assombling- 

bolt passes. It serves to separate the stock and 
cheeks, llondetle. 

Roun'der. 1. A rock-boring tool having a cyl- 
indrical form and indented face. 

2. A plane used by wheelwrights for rounding off 

Round File. A file circular in its cross-section. 

Small, taper files of this description are known as 
rat-tail files. 

Small, round files, without taper, are known as 
joint files, being used for filing out apertures for 
joint wires and pintles of hinges. 

These files are used for (julletinrj saws. 

Round-house. '[.(Shipbuilding.) A small deck 
above the level of the ([uarter-deck or spar-deck, as 
the may be, at the after end of the vessel. A 
poop. Sometimes termed the coach. 

2. (Railway.) A circular house with stalls for 
locomotives around a turn-table. 

Round'ing. 1. (Bookbinding.) The process of 
giving a convex shape to the back of a book, hollow- 
ing the front edge at the same time. 

After the sheet? have been foljed and FeweJ together, a strip 
of paiier or thin canvas i.-i glued to the back, and, the book being 
placed on one of its sides, the back is drawn a little to one side, 
gently tjippiug it at the same time with a broad-faced tiammer. 
It is then turned over on the other side and similarly treated, 
imparting a convex form to the back, which is comlileted by 
placing the book in a press between two boards, with the back 
projecting, and hammering it on each side until the exact de- 
gree of curvature desired is obtained. This operation also pro- 
duces a depression along each edge of the back, into which the 
Hide covers of the book lie, so as to present an even surface 
when attached. This part of the work is also effected by ma- 
chinery, the book being placed between rollers, which comprtJss 
it and at the same time draw it up against a former of such a 
shape as to give the proper convexity to the back. 

2. (Nautical.) A wrapping on a rope. See Skkv- 


Round'ing-adze. A kind of adze with a curved 


Round'ing-gage. (Hal-making.) A tool (d. 
Fig. 44S1) for cutting hat-brims. The euived por- 
tion is ke))t against the side of the hat, and, as the 
projecting arm is .swept around, a knife held in one 
of the notches cuts the eilge of the brim to an equal 
width all round. A number of notches are provided, 
so that the brim may be made of a width to suit the 
taste or the cajuiee of fashion. 

Round'ing-jack. A stand on whicli a hat is 
fixed to have its brim trimmed to shape and size. 

Round'ing-ma-chine'. (Coopering.) One for 
giving circular form to the heads of casks. The 
pieces to form the head are clamped between the 

Rauniin^-Maclunt /or Barrtl-Heath. 




disks c &, and the protruding portion is trimmed off 
by the ciri-ular saw. 

Round'iiig-plane. A tool which is a connect- 
ing link between the tools of the carjienterand those 
of the turner. It has a plane-bit which is presented 
tan^entially to the circumference of the circular hole, 
so that the wood enters in a rough octagonal form 
and leaves it rounded, being rotated as it passes 
therethrough. By this, or similar means, the lian- 
dles of umlirellas, hoes, rakes, pitchforks, and brooms 
are made ; as well as round office-rulers, chair and 

Fig. 4481. 

Kounding- Tools. 
a, Roundittg-Plane. 6, Ruuler-Piane, c, Rfglet-Plane. 

ladder rounds, and many articles of similar shape. 
It is substantially the same as the hollow auger (see 
Auoer), and is sometimes termed a wilchet. 

Round'ing-tool. 1. (Forging.) A top or bot- 
tom tool (f. Fig. 44S1) with a semi-cylindrical groove 
forming a swage for rounding a rod, the stem of a 
bolt, etc. 

2. {Saddlery.) A tool (/, Fig. 4481) consisting 
of a pair of jaws with corresponding, semi-cylindri- 
cal notches, which form, when closed, a series of 
circular openings of varying sizes, through which 
leathern straps are passed to he rounded. 

Round-joint Pile. A kind of clockraaker's 

Round-knife. 1. (Leather.) A currier's circu- 
lar knife. An annular disk with the edge a little 
turned over. It is used in scraping skins. (Fr. 
Lunelle.) See CuRiiiEii's Tools. 

2. (Saddlery.) The ordinary cutting-tool (jf, Fig. 
4481) of the saddler, sharp on its convex edge. 

Round-nose Chis'el. A tool used by marble- 
workers for sinking the surface of marble and level- 
ing the cavities. It has at the end a bent portion 
with serrations, and is a kind of file. See RiF- 

Round-nose Plane, (./oinery.) A coarse-work 
bench-]jlane, the .sole of which is rounding. 

Round-off File. A small, jwrallel, half-round 
file, whose convex side is safe, and having a pivot 
at the end opposite the tang. 

It is used for rounding or pointing the teeth of 
wheels made originally with srpiare notches. The 
pivot enables it to be readily twisteil in the fingers, 
to allow it to sweep round the curve of the tooth 
under treatment. 

Round-plane. (Joiner;/,) A plane with a 
round sole for making rounded work, such as stair- 

rails, beads, etc. A round-sole plane ; a rounding 

Round-ssam. (Naulieal.) When the edges of 
canvas are sewed together without lapping. 

Round-shot. (Ordnance.) Spherical balls of 
iron or steel, usually cast. They ai'e solid, v bile erse 
and shell are hollow. The term is now little used. 

Round-splice. (Nautical.) When the splicing 
is so caiefuUy done that the shape of the rope is 
scaicely altered. A himj-spliee. 

Round-tool. (IVood-tuming.) A round-nosa 
chi.sel (A, Fig. 4481) for making concave moldings. 

Round-turn. (Nautical.) One turn of a rope 
around a timber ; or of one cable around another, 
caused by the swinging of the shi]> when at anchor. 

Rotind-up. (Shiijindlding.) The convexity or 
arch of a deck. 

Rouse-a-bout' Block. (Nautical.) A snatch- 
block of large size. See S.naich-dlock. 

Rous'er. A stirrer iu the hop-copper of a brew- 

Rout'er. (Joinery.) A sash-plane- made like a 
spokeshave, to work on circular sash. It may be an 
ovolo router or a lamV s-tong ue router, according to 
the nature of the molding. 

Rout'er-gage. A gage (i. Fig. 4481, with a stem 
and adjustable fence, and provided with a tooth like 
a narrow chisel, adapted to cut a groove in wood or 
brass, for the ))nrpose of inlaying. 

Rout'er-plane. It has a broad surface, carrying 
in its center one of the cutters belonging to the 
]dow. It is used for leveling the bottoms of cavities. 
The stock must be more than twice the width of the 
recess, and the jirojection of the iron determines the 
depth. The sides of the cavity are prepared belore- 
hand by the chisel and mallet, the saw, or the cut- 
ling-gacje. See h. Fig. 4481. 

Rout'er-saw. A saw having a cutting point on 
each side of the blade, adapted to cut into the wood, 
and a less prominent router tooth to remove the chip 
between the marks or kerfs made by the cutters. 

Rout'ing-ma-chine'. A sluiping-^ichine which 

works by means of a vouter-cutter, adjustable itself, 

Fig. 4482. 

Routing, Slotting, and Shaping Machine. 




and revolving above a bed with miiveisal hoii/ontal 
ailJHstmeiit, su as to permit tlic cutter to follow along 
a traced Hue, and thus cut to a shape, or groove to a 
depth, the work upon the table. 

It is adapted for work in metal or stone; in the 
hitter ease, black diamonds are used. Paneling in 
relief or intaglio, raised or sunken lettering, circular 
slotting, slotting, key-seating, beveling, bordering, 
may be done upon it. 

The catter-spindle is fixed in a head-bloclc which traverses to 
the riftiit or left, and may be inclined to any required angle. 
By means of a liand-wtiecl and suitable mechanism, the spindle 
may be raised instantly to clear any obstruction without stop- 
ping the machine. The .spindle and the feed motions are driven 
by beltinjr from pulleys not shown in the engraving. 

The bed of the machine traverses backward or forward. By 
means of a screw working iu a sniveled nut, the bed may be 
inclined to any required angle from the horizontal plane. In 
the center of the bed is a rotating face-plate with automatic 
feed. Bv a combination of the backward and forward move- 
ments of the bed and the rotating face-plate wliich carries the 
piece to be worked, oviUs may be cut The feed-motious are 
all connected, disconnected, or reversed by simple devices, with- 
out interfering with any other motion of the machine. Tliere 
are four feed-motions : one raises or lowers the spindle, a second 
t averse- the head-block to the right or left, a third 
the bed-plate backward or forward, a fourth causes the circular 
f ice-pIate to rotate to the right or left. The inclination of the 
spindle or the bed docs not interfere in the least with the auto- 
matic action of these several feed-motions. 

Rout'iug-tool. (^Melal-vmrking.) A revolving 
tool used for seorping out metal. Such are used in 
digi;ing out the spaces between and around block- 
letters and bookbinders' stamps. Also in deepening 
the "white" spaces iu stereotype and zincographic 
plates, etc. Also for deepening broad spaces in the 
lettering of door-plates. See'e. 

Rove. 1. (Boat-building.) A small copper ring 
or washer, upon which the end of a nail is clinched 
on the inside of a boat. 

2. (S'jjinuiiig.) A sKticr of wool or cotton, slightly 
compacted by twisting, ready for the hirther pro- 
cess:-s, which vary somewhat with the respective 
materials. See Roving. 

Rov'ing. potion- manufacture.) 1. A slightly 
twisted divcr^ cotton or other carded liber. 

2. A process intervening between carding and 
spinning, in which a number of «/ti'c/\< from thecard- 
ing-maciiine, contained in separate can.s, are asso- 
ciated by being conducted between pairs of rollers 
(see Doubling), and then between other successive 
pairs, by which the combined sliver is reduced and 
elongated (see Dr.wving-fuame) ; the sliver, as it 
issues from the last pair of rollers, bidiig brought to the 
condition of a rove, rovinri, or slab by being slightly 
twisted by mechanical means, which may consist of 
one of the three following : — 

o. Arkwrigit's plan was to conduct the slivers from the sepa^ 
rate cans to a pair of rollers where 
Fig. 448d. they were codesced [rlnitUin:;), then 

between a pair more rapidly revolving, 
by which they were attenuated {ilrnw- 
in?), and from thence the combined 
ami lengthened 'lii'/r was conducted 
to a rapidly revolving can, which gave 
it a twist and brought it to the condi- 
tion of a rnvins: or stitb- 

b. Another plan v/nn the jark./rnmf 
or jack in-a-box. in which the twist was 
given by the revolution of the can as 
before, but instead of being coiled up 
within the can. the roving was wound 
upon a bobbin Inside the can, the bob- 
bin being rotated by wheel-work with 
a surface velocity corresponding to 
that of the delivery drawing-rollers. 
See Jaok-fr.\m ■: 
Rovin'-MaMne. e. A thlnl plan, which Is later and 

prcfi-rred to the hefore-mentloned, be- 
longs to the domain of spinning, its functions being similar and 
dilTering only in the degree to which the twist Is carrieil. 

The machine Is called the Horuin and Ki.v Frame (which seel. 
The slivers are wound on bobbins, and the latter are arranged 

Fig. «St. 

upon a, crtfl. The slivers pass from the bobbins through a set 
of drawing-rollers, and thence to the spindles on which they are 

The .'itiver passes through the axial opening of the flyer, and 
thence down the hollow arm of the flyer, from whose end it is 
wound upon the bobbin^ which has an up-aod-ilown motion by 
means of the copping ratt, so as to wind the yarn into a regular 
form, called a co;). tee Cop. 

The spindle and flyer revolve together, and give the twist to 
the sliver, but the degree of twist depends upon the ratio of the 
surface speed of the delivery-roller and the rate of the spindle. 

The spindle and the bobbin are revolved by ditfercnt means 
and at different rates, in order to wind the thread upon the bob- 
bin ; the difference between the motions of the bobbin surface 
and the delivery arm of the flyer being equal to the mo- ' 
tion of the delivery -roller, the thread is wound iis fast as it is 
p.iid.out, receivinga twist in transitit. See Ejuviio.nal Box. 

Bobbin and Jly frames are (^f two kinds, coarse and _/ine, or 
first and second. The former is fed with .^livers from cans, and 
the 1 itter with slivers wound on cops made in the course roving- 
ftame. i^ee BoBuiM AND Fly Frame. 

Rov'ing-frame. The roving-frame for worsted 
is similar to that for cotton. It takes in two slivers 
fjom the cans of the clra wing-frame and elongates 
them four times, giving them a slight twist to impart 
coherence. See previous article. 

Rov'ing-head. A roving-frame usediu the wors- 
ted niamifacturc. 

Rov'ing-plate. A piece of iron or steel plate 
simihir to a joiner's scraper, which is held to the 
top of a grindstone with its edge inclined at a small 
angle, for the |iurpose of smoothing its surface. 

Rov'ing-reel. A device for ineasuiing the length 
of a roving, sliver, or hank of 
yarn. It has a drum and a 
small presser-roUer, between 
wliicli the roving is drawn by 
turning a crank on the axis 
of the drum ; the axis has a 
worm cut on its periphery, 
which turns a dial-wheel indi- 
cating, by means of a pointer, 
the number of yards which 
have passed between the roll- 
ers ; when the crank-liandle 
is down, the dial stands at 

Row'el. A spiked wheel, as, — 

1. (Saddlcrij.) a. The stellar wheel of a spur. 
b. The flat ring in a horse's bit. 

2. {Agricultural.) The spiked wheel of the Nor- 
wegian harrow and other soil pulverizers. See 

Row'el-ing-nee'dle. (.Farriery.) An instru- 
ment used in farriery to insert a rowel through the 
skin of a horse. A rowel consists of hair or silk, or 
is even a roll of leather, and corresponds to a scion 
in surgery. 

It is sometimes inserted in a gash, in the manner 
of a tent. 

Row'el-ing-scis'sors, An instrument used in 
inserting rowels in the ilesh of horses. 

Rcwl. (Nautical.) The sheave of a whiii-tnckle. 

Rowle. (Nautical.) A light crane, formerly 
used in discharging cargo. 

Ro'w'lock. (Nautical.) A crotch or notch on 

Fig. 4486. 


Norcross^s Oar-Lock. 




the gunwale of a boat, against which the oar works 
in rowing. 

Various devices are used : — 
1. Two sliort pegs or posts rising from the gun- 
Fig44S6. ^^ 2. An iron stirnip 

pivoted in the gunwale. 

3. An iron pin in the I 
gunwale, and the oar ! 
fastened to it by a 

4. A pin in the gun- 
wale passing through a 
hole in the oar. 

5. A notch in the 

Fig. 4485 is a hook C 
swiveled on a post D 
which is fastened to the 
gunwale by a flanged 
plate, staple, and latcli, 
so as to be unshipped 
when required. 

Fig. 4486 is a fork swiveled in a socket inserted 
into the gunwale. 

In Fig. 44S7, the pin of the rowlock enters and 

Fig. 4487. 



works in a roller, which is pivoted to two ears at- 
tached to the gunwale. See also 0.\r-lock. 

Roto dry. An order given to the oarsmen to row in such a 
manner as not to splash the water. 

Rowed of all. An order to cease pulling and lay in the air? 

Ro-w-port. (N^auticjl.) Suiall ports lu'ar tlie 
water's edge for the sweeps or large oars, whereby a 
ve.ssel is rowed during a calm. 

Roy'al. 1. (Xaidical.) A mast and sail ne.xt 
above the top-gallant. 

2. {Paper.) A size of drawing and writing paper, 
measuring 23J x 19 inches and weighing according 
to (juality. 

3. (Ordnance.) A small mortar. 
Eub'ber. A polisher. 

1. .\ grinding agent, as emery or glass paper. 

2. a. Caoutchouc. See India-rubbei! ; Caout- 

b. A block of caoutchouc for erasing pencil-marks. 

3. A coarse file. 

4. A whetstone. 

5. (Fabric.) a. A coarse, unbleached flax towel- 
ing for rubbing the body after batliing. 

0. A coarse towel used for drying horses. 

6. (.l/rMOH.n/.) Aboard 
or block used in grinding 
or polishing. In the 
moldings of stone, an 
iron rubber mounted on 
a wooden stock is em- 
ployed for fillets, beads, 
and astragals. These 
rubbers have convex or 
concave faces, according 

to the required contour of the work. A stone or 
wooden block covered with thick felt is used for pol- 
ishing stone and marble. 

7. (Elcctricitij.) a. That part of an electrical 
machine which rubs .against the cylinder or disk. 

b. The moving pad or piston of an electrophorus. 

8. (Nautical.) A tool for flattening down the 
seams in sail-making. 

9. A roll of cloth charged with emery, rottenstone, 
or other abradant or polishing material, for surlacing 

10. (Vehicle.) The part of the wagon-lock which 
presses against the wheels. 

Rub'ber Cem'ent. 1. Caoutchouc cleaned, trit- 
urated with a small quantitj' (say 3 per cent) of sul- 
phur, and then dissolved in benzine or other hydro- 

In this condition it is ready for spreading on cloth 
to be cut into shapes to form various articles, such 
as boots, shoes, coats, buckets, belting, and many 
other things. 

2. For fastening rubber plates or rings to metal 
or wood. A solurion of shellac in ten times its 
weight of strong ammonia. Leit to soften for weeks 
without heat. 

Rub'ber-cloth. 1. Fabric covered with caout- 

2. Caoutchouc in sheets. See Caoutchouc ; In- 


Rub'ber-cut'ting Ma-chine'. A machine for 
making threads of caoutchouc for nhiirs. 

Jacques' machine is shown in Fig. 4489 by longi- 
tudinal and transverse vertical sections. It has a 

Fig. 4489. 

( tuth Rubier. 

Jacques' Rubber-Cutting Machine. 

series of disks with sqtiare cutting-edges and motinted 
upon spindles, arranged in such proximity to each 
other as to allow the disks of one spindle to mesh 
with the disks of the other. The disks on each 
spindle are prevented from revolving thereon by 
means of a spline or feather, and are separated by 
gage-plates of a thickness equal to the thickness of 
the cutters, and of a diameter sufficient to support 
the sides of the disks during the cutting operation, 
so that they shall not deviate laterally. 

Rub'ber-file. A heavy, fish-bellied file, desig- 
nated by weight, which \'aries from four to fifteen 




pounds. They aie of squarB or triangular section, 
and used foi* coai'se worlc. 

Wliun tliey liave tliref Hat faces and one rounded, 
they arc known its luilf-tliick hies. 

Rub'ber-gage. A device for ascertaining the 
ijuantity of inilia-ruliber rec|uircd 
Fig M90. to nuke a given article, Tlic ves- 

sel (Fi^'. 44110) is parlially lilled 
with water, and tlic lower inde.\ 
set at the hight of its level. The 
model of the object is then im- 
mersed in the water and the upper 
inde.\ set at the point to whicli tlie 
water rises. The model being re- 
moved, the vessel is again lilled to 
the iiight of the lower indc.< ; rub- 
ber is aildeJ until it rises to the 
RtMer- Gngt. upper ini|.'.\. The a! rei[iiire.l 
to make it do this is that vvliich 
the article requires for its mmufacture, to whicii an 
additi'in ni ly be mide for loss or wastage. 

Rab'ber-kalfe. A circular b'ade rotate I at hi ;li 
speed and kept constantly wet by a jet m spray of 
water. It is techiiically known as a rabb-r-si, o. 

Rub'ber-mDld. 1.' A U.isk or former lor shap- 
ing phistic rubber. 

Z. A vulcmite mr>ld for shaping plates for artili- 
cial dentures, etc. 

Rub'ber - mount'ins. (Sxddlcry.) Harness 
mounting in which the metal is covere.I with vul- 
canized india-rubber iu imitation of leather-covered 

Rub'ber-saw. A tool used in cutting india- 
rubber, — caoutehouc. It is not properly a saw, but 
is so term -d in the trad.'. It is a circular knife, 
driven at high speed, ami kept constantly wet by a 
ji^t or spray of water. 

Rub'bing. Tlie process of straigliteningthe wires 
for needles. The wire is furnished in coils, fi'om 
which the blanks are cut in double lengths. The 
bend is taken out of them by a process called rab- 
biiij. Several thousands of the pieces of wire are col- 
lected within two broad and heavy rings placed on 
a shelf in the furnace, and heated to redness. A 
slotted bar, called a smooth file, is then pressed upon 
the needles in the pack, the rings piojecting inti 
slots in the bar, which is reciprocated endways, so 
as to rub the wires against each other as the jia^if 
rolls back an 1 forth until, by mutual attrition, the 
beml is .all taken out. 

Rub'bins-paunoh. (Xcaticil.) A piece of 
wool nailed on the forcside of a mast to prevent in- 
jury to the latter by yarils or spars in raising or 

Rub'bias-stoae. (Brlcklnying.) A grit-stone, 
which is placed upon the banker or bricklayer's 
bench, and upon which sto.ies are rubbed smooth 
after being dressed by au axe to a shape suitable for 
giged arc'ies, dimes, nicli's, or similar work. 

Rub'ble. (Afawfi.7-11.) Broken stone, brickbats, 
small stones U5e J in tilling behind the face courses 
of walls. 

Rub'ble-ma'son-ry. Differshom coui-scdrubble 
in not being built in courses. 

A.i'itarant RiiMe ; Ashlar Faring. 

Coursed and riMlc masonry are sometimes com- 
bined, and produce a rusticated etlect, as iu the il- 
lustration, where the coping a b, the piers a c, the 
plinth cd, and the quoins bdaw of coursed masonry, 
giving soiiility to the wall and adding to its appear- 
ance. With thick walls, the facing may be of ash- 
/.(cr, lilled in with rubble. Occasional bond or liend- 
iiuj stones a keep the facings from settling apai't. 

Rub'ble-work. (MusuHnj.) Masonry in which 
stones are used iu the rough without being dressed 
to size, unless on their exposed faces (c. Fig. 4491). 

It is regular coursed when the courses are of the 
same hight ; irregular coursed when the courses are of 
dillerent bights ; random or uncourscd when stones 
of different bights are used in the same course. 

Ru-belle'. 1. (Emiineling.) Probably from the 
red tourmaline. (Ger. ItubcUan.) A red color in 

2. (Mctalhirgy.) (Ger. Rubclle, from reihen, to 
rub.) An iron plate on which ores are ground to 
test tbi'm or prepare for test by assay. 

Rub-ir'on. A plate on a carriage or wagon-bed 
against which tlie lore-wheel rubs when turning 

Called wheel-guard plate in a field-artillery car- 
riage ; one is placed on each side of the stock. 

Rub-stone. The Hat stone on which the curri- 
er's knife is ground to an edge. The clearing-stone 
is one of liner grain, on which the knife receives a 
more perfect edge, which is then turned over by a 

Ru'by. 1. {Printing.) The name given in Eng- 
land to a type eonvsiionding to that called Agate 
in the United States. See Agate. 


Agate or Ruby. 

2. (Horology.) The jewel of a watch. The end- 
stone is usually a ruby in first-class work. 

Rud'der. 1. {Nautical.) A Hat frame hung to 
the stern-post of a vessel and affording a means of 

The pintles of the rudder are booked upon the eye- 
bolts of the stern-post, which afford an axis of oscilla- 
tion as the rudder is moved to and fro liy the tiller. 

Rudders are not as old as boats by any means. 
The first, rudder was a ]iaddle or oar held over the 
stern. One is shown in the .sculptuies of Nimroi.d. 

The Kile boats of ancient Egypt had rudders, one, 
two, or three in number; sometinies the oar trav- 
ersed on a beam at the stern, or it was slung from a 
post on which it was pivoted. 

The rudder is shown in two forms in the nneient 
paintings of Edfou ; projecting at the stern like an 
oar, and pivoted vertically. The latter form has 
the tiller. 

Hesiod recommends to hang up the rudder in the 
smoke of the chimney when out of service. 

The rudders of the ancients were paddle,'' which protruded 
througli ports in the j*tern, or re-'-ted in rowlork,s on the ttilTrai! 
of the ship or boat. In the tempestuous voyage of I'nul, when 
they liad " di -covered a certain creel* with a shoi-e, into which 
they were niinrled, if i^ were possible, to thrust the J-hip,*' tliey 
to(iI{ '-up theaneliora," " eonimitfed themselves unto the sci," 
loosened the fisfenines of the rudders, " hoisted the ninirtSHil 
to tile wind, and made towards shore," Paul wrote well on every 
subject he undertook, and the account of his voyafre pives us a 
better idea of the mode of navigation 2,01 years Hgo thnn any 
other work which his come down to our time. The rudders, 
where more than one used, were on each quarter, protrud- 
InfT thrnuph holes in tltc counter. 

The f'lremost p:trt of t'le frnme of a rudder is the luitilf-Mock. 
Its slope Is termed the rnXv of the rudder ; this depends on the 
rake of the stern-post. Its upper cylindrical end i.^ the ntdittr- 
It'nl, It rises throuflh the ri/r/i/z-r-^/nr/ in the stern. Its lower 
end in the lieH. and rests on the step. It turns on pittites, flt- 
tini into eves called brnres. on t!ie stent-pnst or nnl./er.pnst. 

T,ie front edire of the rudder is henrdetl or beveled, to allow it 
to be put I ver eit aer w.iy to a greater angle. 




Ru lUers are shecuhed with copper or mixed-metal sheets. ) 

T.ieruaJer, waen hung, is guarded against bt-iag unsliipped ' 

by a movable piece called a wood-lock, which is screwed upou ; 

Fig. 4492. 

Ancient Ship {Jrom a Painting at Pompeii). 

the stem-po5t or ru Ider, and fits into a score a little above the 
upperiuo«t pintle. 

Lumley'.^ two leived rudder (Enfjlish) has a body hinged to 
the stern-pD-t hi t le usual way, and a tail hinged to the body. 
The part.* ;ire also connected by a i/oke, which causes the tail 
to assume t'.xe same angle relatively to the body that the body 
doesrelitivL'ly to the snip 

Hitider-chaiTis Oind pen fanis &Te chains securing the iradder 
to the st«rn. See Rudder-ceivin. 

The ntddfT is moved by the kelm. This may be a mere lever, 
called a tiller, moving in a horizontal plane. Such was the 
original device, still used in boits and by Chinese navigators. 

Another form is the yoke ; a horizontal bar on the rudder- 
head, athwartship, and having ropei from its respective ends, 
whioh are used by the coxswai^i or steersman io moving the 
rudder. This is common in boats. 

The usual form in ships consist of a wheel (see Steering- 
wheel) with ropes or chains winding on the axis of the wheel 
and passing through sheaves to the tiller or yoke on the rudder- 

On the steamboats of our Western and Southern rivers, a j 
tiller is dispensed with, the rulJer being operated by wire cords , 
or chains which proceel from the steering apparatus in the 
pilot-house or " Texa''," on the hurricane deck. The chains 
are made fast to the outer extremity of the raider. Hempen 
curds were formerly used, but several accidents having been 
made'much more fatil from the cords burning off, rendering 
the vessel unmanageable^ wires and chains have been generally 

2. (A^friaiJticre.) A sieve for separating the chaff 
from tlie ^ain. Probably a corruption of Riddle. 

Rud'der-band. (XmUicil.) That member of a 
rudiler-hinge which has bands to brace tlie rudder 
and an eye for the pintle on tlie part attached to the 

Rud'der-bresch'ing, (N'nUicftl.) A rope for 
lifting the rudder to ease the motion of the pintles 
in their fjudgeons. 

Rud'der-case. {N'aiUical.) The well in the 
stern occupied by the rudder-stock. The ricdcUr- 

Rud'der-chain. {Nautical.) One of the chains 
whereby the rudder is fastened to the stern quarters. 

They are shackled to the rudder by holts just 
above the water-line, and hang slack enough to per- 
mit the free motion of the rudder. Their use is to 
prevent the rudder being lost in the event of its 
becoming unshipped. They also sometimes led in- 
board, to be used in steering should the rudder-head 
or tiller give way. 

Rud'dsr-coat. (yaufical.) A canvas clothing 
to the rudder-stock, which keeps the sea from pass- 
ing throu','h the trunk in the counter. 

Rud'der - pen'dant. (Xaiifical.) A continua- 
tion of the rudtler-cliain, secured by a staple around 
the quarter, under the molding. In the en<l of the 
pendant a thimble is spliced, to which may be hooked 
a tackle, in the tiller or head of the rudder is 
carried away. 

Rud'der-port. (Shipbuilding.) The hole in a 
shiit's counter for the passage of the rudder-liead. 

Rud'der-tack'le. A tackle employed for oper- 
ating the rudder in case its head is carried away or 
fur working a make-shift rudder. 

Ru-den'ttire. {Architecture.) The figure of a 
rope or start", sometimes plain, sometimes carved, 
with which the third part of the flutings of column* 
is fretpientiy filled up. 

Ru'der-a'tiou. A term used by Vitnivius for 
laying of pavement with pebbles. 

Ruffle. A strip gathered and sewn on one edge 
and the full edge hemmed. A double ruffle is full on 
both edges and gathered in the middle. A puff is 
gathered on both edges and full in the middle. 

Ruf'fler. 1. A sewing-machine attachment for 
foiming ruffles in goods. That illustrated at A^ Fig. 
4493, is Toofs, particularly designed for the Singer 
machine, but its mode of attachment may be varied 
to suit other machines. 

The arm a is connected by s screw at 6 to the preBSer-foot bar 
of the sewing - ma- 
chine, and to it is con- Fig. 4493. 
nected by a rivet c the 
lever rf, which is 
forked at f \o receive 
the nut securing the 
needle, from which 
nut it derives motion. 

The lever d carries 
a set-screw e' for ad- 
justing the amount 
of movement given to 
the feed plate / at 
each reciprocation of 
the needle, which 
passes through a slot 
at the rear ol the feed- 

The goods are 
placed between the 
feed-plate and the 
presser-foot of the 
machine, and as the 
needle passes upward 
and down ward, carry- 
ing the long arm of 
the lever^/withit, the 
arm g of the index 
device h reciprocates 
the feed-plate to an 
amount previously "^ 

regulated by the ad- 
justment of the screw e' \ at each forward movement the feed- 
plate acts on the presser-arni.rarrjinp forward and folding the 
cloth, which is penetrated by the needle as the latrer destends 
and causes the backward n oven ent of the fei d-pl:ile. 

In the Johnston riiffler( H, Hg. 4413), a fliding-plate a is re- 
cured to the bed-plate b cf the n.achine by rivets or screws j»afs- 
tng through slots in the plate, fo as to permit the necessary 
motion. The plate n is re» iprocated by the forked lever c op» r- 
ated from the rcedle-bar. The moven.ent of the plate a and the 
depth of the gather or ruffling are regulated by a 1 ent lever d 
pivoted on the sliding-plate. One htui of this lever pas-^es un- 
der a slotted piece e attached to the slidirg-platc, and the other 
has a projection at it« end for holding it in either of a scries of 
notches/ The cloth is held bct^'cen a spring s a^tiched to an 
arm It on the bed plate, and a spring / connct ted by an arm to 
the sliding-plate. which is reciprocated at eacli n ovi'n.ent of 
the needle to a distance determined by the previous adjustment 
of the lever d. 

2. A sort of heckle for flax. 

Ruff-^vheel. {Mrtallurgij.) An ore-crushing 
mill for the pieces whiih will not feed iuto the usual 

Rug. {Fabric.) A nappy fabric made for a wrap- 
per, cover, or protection. 
1 A rnihcay-ritf/ is a coarse shawl for wrapping the 
legs or for use as a blanket. 
I A bed-rug is a nappy, woolen, colored blanket. 

A hearth-rug is a tufted fabric on a backing con- 
j sisting of a hempen, linen, or cotton web. It is 
j made in the manner of a Turkey carpet. The verti- 
I cal chain of the web is stretched between the yam- 
\ bkam above and the cloth-beam below. A number of 




colored \voi-.sti'J yarns are luiiig over a bjir to the 
right i>f tlie weaver, who, taking the end of one yarn, 
attaelies it tu the chain, cuts it off to the proper 
lengtli, then twists in anotlier, wliich he severs in 
tlie same manner, and in tliis way forms a row of 
tufts across the warp. He ne.\t passes a shoot or 
two of weft, and drives tlie weft against the web 
with consideralile force to compact the fabric. 

Rug^ging. 1. (Fabric.) Coarse woolen wrapping 
or lilanket eloth, 

2. (Siiddleri/.) A coarse cloth used for the body 
of knee and otlier horse hoots. 

Ruhm'korff Bat'ter-y. Fig. 4494 shows Tie- 
mann's KuhiukorU' battery for medical purposes, b b 

urements. It is divided into inches and fractions, 
and is usually jointed, so that it may be folded 
up and carried in the pocket. Those used by some 
classes of artificers are, however, made in a single 

Fig, 4496 is denominated a clinometer rule. A 
small spirit-level is set into one of the legs, and be- 
ing provided with a pivoted branch folding into a 
cavity in the other leg, the rule may be used as a 
clinometer or slope level ; a plumb, sijuare, bevel, 
protractor, or T square ; in combination with a 
stiaight edge, as a parallel ruler, and also for ap- 
proximately deterudning bights and distances trig- 

" Abroad to find out one to en- 
gnve my tables upon my new 
sliding rule with silver plates, it 
being so small, that Browne, that 
made it, cannot get one to do it. 
So I got Cocker [the celebrated 
arithmetician, Ob. 1679], the fa- 
mous writing muster, to do it, and 
I set an hour by him, to see him 
design it all.'" — Pepys's Diary ^ 

Fig. 4496. 

Ttemann^s Ruhmkorff' Battery. 

are the cells, and a a elements of the piles. In the 
middle compartment is shown the induction-coil, and 
on the partition are holes A B C D forming a kind 
of |)eg-switch. The two connectors are placed in one 
or other of the holes, according to the re<[uired extent 
of the length of coil desired to be embraced in the 

Ruhm'korff Coil. A form of coil devised l)y 
Ruhmkortl', for causing intense electro-magnetic cur- 

Fig. 4495. 

•.ihinkorff I 

rents by induction. It consists of an inner primary 
coil, made of wires about No. 1.5, wire gage, in ilianie- 
ter, I'orniiijg part of the circuit of a battery, and having 
an axial bundle of straight wires of soft iron, united 
at each end to a disk of similar metal. The outer, 
secondary coil is of much smaller wire, about No. 
32. wire gage, in diameter, and very much greater 
length. In a large api)aratus, the former might be 
about 90 yards, and the latter 90 miles long. The 
convolutions of the secondary coil are carefully i'l- 
sul ited from each other and from the primary coil, 
ami its ends are secured by binding-screws n h sup- 
ported by glass jiillars. See Induction-coil ; In- 

Ru-ille'. (Fr. ruillie.) {Bui'dinrt.) A pointing 
of ninrtar at the junction of a roof with a wall higher 
tlnn itself. A tillet of niort;tr to shed the water. 

Rule. An instrument for making linear meas- 


Some rules have a slider in one leg ; in Ounter's 
scale this is graduated and engraved with figures, 
enabling various simple computations to l)e made 

When Dalton (who died in 1844, tet. 78) made 
known his discovery of the theory nf clnunical 
j equivalents. Dr. Wollaston invented a sliding rule, 
j on the ])rinciple of Gunter's, for facilitating clienacal 
calculations ; it was employed for determining the 
chemical equivalence of compound bodies, and the 
proportion of one substance necessary to decompose 

Pattern-makers use a rule whose divisions are 
made a certain per cent huiger than .standard meas- 
ure. Iron castings shrink in cooling about 1 per 
cent, or J of an inch to a foot. The patterns there- 
fore require to be made proportionately larger. By 
u-ing a rule J inch in a foot longer than the st.ind- 
anl, every measurement of the pattern is made 
proportiouately larger without the trouble of calcu- 




\Vhcn a wooden pattern is made, from which an 
iron pattern is to be east, the hitter being intended 
to serve as the permanent, foundry pattern, as there 
are t«o shrinkages to allow for, a double-contraction 
nth is employed, or one in which the measurenieuts 
are in excess ^ inch in every foot, for iron. 

The shrinkage of brass is about i\- of an inch to 
the foot. Iron castings weigh about 14 times as 
much as the pine patterns. 

2. (Prinling.) a. A thin plate of metal, used for 
separating headings, titles, the eoluniiis of type in a 
book, or columns of figures in tabular work. 

Rules are of the same hight as the type, and some 
have a guttered face so as to print a douUe line. 

b. A slip of metal laid above the last line set, to 
facilitate placing type in the stick. 

3. {Plastering.) A strip or screed of wood or 
plaster, placed on the face of a wall as a guide to 
assist in keeping the plane surface. 

Rule-joiat A movable joint in which a tongue 
on one piece enters a slot in the other, and is se- 
cured by a pin or rivet. When the two pieces are 
in line, their emls abut, so that movement is only 
possible in one direction. This arrangement is used 
for carpenter's rules and tabledeaves. 

Rul'er. An instrument with straight .sides, for 
guiding a pen, pencil, or seriher in drawing straight 
lines. The fiducial edge, when divided, enables 
linear measurements to be laid down therefrom. 

The rcgula (ruler) of the ancient Romans was thus 
divideil, as are the ndes of carpentei-s and other 
artisans at present. 

Desk-rulers ai'e either flat or round ; the first have 
a beveled edge to prevent ink flowing from the sides 
of the pen on to the pa]ier. The round fonn is very 
convenient for ruling parallel lines by one accus- 
tomed to its use. 

The 'common parallel ruler is composed of two 
straight-edged arms, which are kept parallel by 
means of two pieces pivoted to each. Sometimes 
an intermediate parallel piece is inteqiosed, or a 
single straight-edge, having a roller near each end, 
is employed. 

The universil adjustable ruler (a, Fig. 4497) comprises a 
graduated straight-edge and a protractor, euabiiog aogular 

Fig. 4197. 

b. DoltoQd's ruler ; has a roller near each end. 

c. Three-part ruler, 
rf. Cross-brace ruler. 

The draftsman's table is provided with two triangles : one 
having the angles of 45' and 90% and the other, 30°, 60°, and 

Fig. 4498. 





- .-^5j 



^ -=^61 


measurements to be made or parallel line" to be drawn at any 
anffle with the edjje of the table or drawins-board. 

Theriiler6is also adapted for drawing parallel equidistant 
linps: the protractor bein^ dispensed witli. 

There are several varieties u?ed for drawing parallel lines. 

a. Two-part ruler ; the most usual kind. 

Parallel Rulers. 

90°. By holding the former of these steady with the left band, 
at sueh an ailjustnient that the edge of the trianaile shall be 
coincident with the snven line, a line parallel with the said line 
may be obtained either above or below it, by slipping the tri- 
angle 6 on the triangle a. 

e has a metallic straight-edge imbedded in the face. 

Other rulers have parallel hinged slats , or consist of an elastic 
stnigbt-edge, which will yield to the bent pages of a record or 
.".rrr.unt-bo'^k ; a straight-edge considerably elevated from the 
paper to prevent ink soiling the latter: one provided with 
clamps to secure it to the edges of a book ; containing recess 
for holding pencil or pen, made of folded sheet nietiil or both ; 
T-shaped for ruling lines parallel or at right angles to edge of 

Rule-staff. (Sfitpbuihlincf.) A lathe about 4 
iiK-lifs ill ln't-adth. nseil for laying off ciirvps. 

Rul'ing-ina-chine'. An arrantrtMnent for ruling 
sheets of paper for blanks or for writing. 

Tlie Muiplest ruling-mnehine, perliaps, is a pen 
and straiglit-edge. A cylindrical ruler with a guide 
for the ruling-pen is a common device. 

In ruling paper with farnf. lines for writing, the 
sheets are passed singly under a series of ruling-]ieiis, 
ari-anged at proper distances apart to give the lines. 

The pen is a bent strip of thin sheet-metal, form- 
ing a trough, downjjOnch the ink or dye runs from 
a bit of cloth or sponge, which is saturatetl witli the 
fluid. Two or more coloi-s may be ruled in parallel 
lines by employing a set of pens for each color. 

Blank-books and blanks with printed headings are preferably 
ruled of late years by the ruling-machine, instead of on the 
letter-press, the rules in the latter ca-se makiug an impression 
in the paper which is liable to catch the pen. 

Perpendicular rules are sometimes drawn from different points 
at the top of the page, when heads and sub-heads are printed on 
the paper. This is accomplished in a ruling machine by raiding 
some of the pens until the sheet has passed to the point from 
which the lines are drawn, when the pens are lowered to the 
paper. This is accomplished by hand, or by a cam movement 
operating a striker. 

All the pens are lifted at once at the foot of the sheet, gen- 
erally by a cam mechanism. 

Blanks and blank-books are generally printed before ruling. 

The ruling of note and letter paper on three pages is accom- 
plished by a cam nmvemcnt which raises the pens when half- 
way across the outside of the sheet. The expense of ruling on 
three pages is therefore greater than where the paper is ruled 
entirely across. 

Compound lines, as the heavy lines in account-books, when 
of two colors, are ruled by pens of different length, one pea 
extending forward on the machine beyond its neighbors. The 
lines are thus brought close together without crowding the pens, 
and the dye first run upon the paper has an instant of time to 
sft before the second color is reached. 

Zigzag, wavy, and cross lines are ruled on bank-notes, checks, 
etc., by giving the papera double motion while under the pens. 
Very neat designs and tints are sometimes secure»i in this way. 

In Hickock's machine, the sheets from tlie feel-table are re- 
ceived by the roller a and carried, by an endle.>*s belt and cords, 
beneath the row of pens 6, from which they arc conveyed by 
the cords c to the other end of the machine, and after passing 




around the roller c', travel upon the cords il to #, where they 
are tnuist'LTred to the eonls /, by which t.n.'y are conducted tu 
the diiiivt'ry -board a, having; tlirii-e traver.-^ed the whole leugth 
of the muchiue. Thw is Uouu iu order to dry tue iuk. 

The pen-holder for ruling-machines (Fig. 4500) consists of an 
arm a ?erured to the rulev-bar in such <i, way that the distance 
between tlie hold<'r,s coni[>i)»iiig the set may be varied. The other 
end haa a pair uf jaws, between whieh a double pen 6 is secured 

Fig. 4499. 

H'tckock's Ruling-Machine. 

by a set-screw. Above, and hinged to the arm a, is a second sUd- 
ing-holder c, which may be held fast by the set-screw d. This 

Fig. 4500. 

Ruling- Machine Pen. 

receives a single pen e. The distance between the pi'ns 6 e is 
varied by means of a set-screw/. 

2. (Enffrdvimf.) Tin- invention of Wilson Lowry. 
This consists of a carriage traveling in a groove or 
on a bar, and carrying a diatnonil-pointed stylus, 
which makes a line through the ffromtd covering the 
plate. The line bring drawn, a thumb-piece" lifts 
the stylu.s, and the carriage is retractcHl. Then, by 
a lever arrangement, the oairiage track is shifted 
laterally the distance between two lines. This dis- 
tance is regulated acconling to requirements for wide 
or narrow ruling, and when set, the distance is pre- 
served until the job is finished, unless by a grailual 
inci-ease or <Iecrease in the sweeji of the dikance-Ievrr, 
the nding is grailually luatle more or less open. In 
line engraving, tlie .sky antl still water are usually 
ruled in by the machine. In the commoner class of 
line engravings it is also much usi-d for throwing an 
even tint, either light or dark, over an object. It 
is considered by the profession to be unworthy of the 
artist, as cheapening tin; jirocess and degrading 
the purity of the art. Tlie ell'ect of ruling in tliesy 
latter cases gives a smooth nuv/otint eflert, is easily 
accomplished, and is pleasing to those who do not 
care for the conventionalities of the ait. 

Rul'ing-pen. (Vrawing.) A pen used for draw- 

ing lines of equable thicknes.s. For this purpose, 
the nibs or the ink-channels, as the case may be, are 
adjusted for a given width of line, in-espective of 
pressure ; in this respect dilfering from the writing- 
pen, which gives a line of varying tliickness, accord- 
ing to pressure. 

Ruling-pens are for hand or machine. The ordinary rnl- 
jng-pen a has a pair of steel birides attached to tiie end of a 
holder and having even, sliarp, elliptical ends, which may be 
regulated as to relative distance, nccording to the width of the 
line required. The pellicle of ink is contained between the 
blades. A second form 

of ruling-pei'ft wasin- Fig. 4501. 

troduccd from France 
perhaps forty years 
since. The instru- 
ment has a pair of 
jaws which shut per- 
fectly together, in- 
closing an ink reser- 
voir. At tlie tip of 
the pen i-; a small 
aperture, nut of which 
the ink flows. 

Christie's ruling- 
pen f has a triangular 
arrangement of con- 
verging points, which 
hold a drop of ink ; 
the small triangular 
hole between the 
need le-poi n ts forma 
the ink-duct. 

Sucli pens are com- 
mo'ily made of glass 
of late years, and are 
hawked about the 

The ruling-pen for 
machines, by which 
letter and account- 
book pajier are ruled, 
is miide by doubling 
a piece of tliin sheet- 
bnuss, forming a small trough 
trough i.s cut obliquely, so fhiit it rests on the paper, — the width 
of the line de|)ending on tlie width of the pen; the depth of 
color partly on the composition of the ink, and partly on the 

for the ink. The end of the 




ispeed of the tool over the paper or of the paper under the tool, 
the latter being usual in rulinfr-machines 

The ink is furnished by a wetted strip of flaupel, which is laid 
above the gans; of pens. (See Ruling-mvchixe.) The muMC- 
pen is similarly constructed. See .Music-pen. 

Rum'ble. 1. A rotating cyliiuler or bo.x in wliiuh 
artii;les are placed to be fjiound, cleaned, or [lolislieil 
by mutual attrition. Grinding or polishing material 
or merely .sawdust or bran may lie added, according 
to the need of the subject. Chains are cleaned oC 
rust, castings of sand and scale. Small articles are 
polished by means of the rumble. 

The machine is extensively u.sed in various trades, sometimes 
being called a lumhUui^-boxoT a shakim^-inaclnn^. It is used. — 

For polishing needles, plus, and steel-peua with sawdust aud 

For polishing bone buttons with sand. 

For polishing lead-shot with graphite. 

For .scouring small castings to remove the sand coat. 

For brightening tacks in water before tinning. 

For cleaning the rust off cannon-balls. 

For drying coin blanks, etc., in .sawdust. 

For dissolving gums in spirits of wine for making lacquers 
and varnishes. 

2. {Fchic/e.) An elevated .seat behind the body 
of a carriage. 

Rum'bo-w-line. (IfauCical.) Condemned can- 
vas, rope, etc. ■ 

Rum'swiz-zle. An Irish fabric made of niidyed 
foreign wool. 

Run. 1. {Miiiin/j.) The direction or had of a 
vein of ore, or a seam or stratum of other mineral, 
as of coal or marble. 

2. {Founding.) A mold is said to run if the metal 
makes its way along the parting, or in any other 
way appears on the outside edges of the llask. It is 
avoided by weighting the llask. 

3. A plank laid down to support rollers in moving 
buildings and otlier heavy objects. Also as a ti'ack 
for wheelbarrows. 

4. {Nautical.) a. The aftermost part of a ship's 
bottom, which becomes gradually narrower from the 
floor-timbers to the stern-post. 

b. The course or distance sailed by a vessel. 

c. To run out a tcarp, hawser, or cibfe is to carry 
out its end to an)' object, for the purpose of moor- 
ing, warping, etc. 

To run out the guns. To force their muzzles out 
of the port by means of the side tackles. 

To undcrrun a cable or haw.ser. To pass along it 
in a boat, the cable being lifted from the bottom at 
the bow of the boat and passed out over the stern as 
she proceeds, in order to e.vamine it or for the pur- 
pose of weighing the anchor. 

To let run a rope. To it. 

Ruu'dle. 1. The step or round of a ladder. A 

2. {NauticnI.) The drum of a capstan. 

3. One of the bars in a L.\ntern-wheel (which 

Rung. 1. The round stick forming a .step of a 

2. Tlie spoke of a wallower or /rtJi^crH-wheel, or 
one of the radial handles projecting from the rim of 
a steering-wheel. 

3. (SlUpbuilding.) A floor or ground timber of a 
ship's frame. The spaces l)etween the rungs are spir- 

i. One of the bars of a windmill sail. 

Rung-head. (Shipwrighting.) The upper end 
of a slii|i's tloor-timher. 

Run'ner. 1. (Milling.) The revolving mill- 
stone of a grinding-niill. It is usOally the upper 
stone, but not always. Sometimes both stones (F, 
Plate XXII.) are driven, and thus become the upper 
and lower runner, respectively. See 

2. (.Sadd/i'ri/.) A loop, usuitlly of metal, used in 
harness-making to recei\'e a running sti'ap or I'eiii. 
Tile gag-rein passes through rnniiers suspended from 
the throat-latch on each side of the throat. 

3. (Vcliitlc.) The curved pieces of a sled or sleigh 
which run or .slide- upon the ground and sujiport 
the bed. The best are made from a natural liend or 
crook, and best of all is to dig up a tree and use the 
natural bend where the bole of a tree Sjireads out to 
form a root. Tliis portion is very tough, and holds 
the roller well without splitting. (See Si.Kii; 
Sleigh.) In factories, where the same amonnt of 
care in selec'tion cannot be (exercised, runners are 
made of bent stulf. Farmers pri-fei- a natural crook. 
The material depends on the part of the country. 
In Ohio, blue-ash is admired, oak is much used. Ked 

Fig. 4502. 


beech is lasting, and wears very smooth, c. Fig. 4502, 
shows a runner attached to a wheel to be used, when 
permitted by the condition of the roads, for 

4. (Founding.) Specifically, the horizontal chan- 
nel — one or more — cut in the sand fium the bot- 
tom of the gate to the space left by the removal of 
the pattern, and through which the metal runs. 
This term is, however, constantly used as a synonym 
for gale or git. 

5. (Nuntical.) A thick rope (d, Fig. 4.502) rove 
through a single block, a hook attached to one end 
and the other passed avouml one of the tackle-Mocks. 

It may be applied by attaching the hook of the 
runner and also the hook of the lower tackle-block 
to the body to be moved ; or tlie lower may consti- 
tute a standing block bv being hookeil to an eye- 

A whip and runner has a single block only, at- 
tached to the fall of the runner. See Tackle. 

(i. (Optics.) A convex tool («, Fig. 4503) of cast- 
iron on which lenses 
are su]iported while Fig. 4503. 

grinding in the shell 
b. The shell is of, and is cast , 
upon a mold made 
from a wooden pat- 
tern. The pcdtern is Runner. 
shaped on the lathe 

to correspond to a templet. The templet is a piece of or glass, whose edge is curved to the 
radius required. This is the backward way of .slat- 
ing it, hut is consecutive, starting from the shell. 

7. (Slonc-u-orking.) The upper, moving slab 
(Fig. 4503) in the of grinding and polishing 
stone. The ujiper may be a smaller piece of marble 
or stone, which is ground or jiolished, as the 
may be, while it ell'ects the same upon the lower (i). 
The upper is generally the harder quality. 




Ill .some, the nmner is of iron, with a raised 
rim anuuul Uie upper siirlaee to I'unii a tray wliieh 
liolcls tlie sand and water. The liottom of the tniy 
is perlorateil and allows the al>radant to pass tlirim<;li, 
keeping a constant supply of sand and water to the 
{grinding surfaces. 

In each case, sand or other powder is the cutting 

The runner is sometimes termed the rubber, for 
olivious re:usons, and is nnjved by means of a long 
liamlle secured to it in the manner indicated. 

8. {IFcll-borinij.) A loop-shaped piece for taking 
hold of the lopit or top-piece of the tiaiu of boring- 

9. The slider of an umbrella to which the spread- 
ers are iiivotcd. 

Run'ner-ball. (Ganpowdrr.) A wooden disk 
wliich crushes tie- mill-cake through the meshes of 
the sii'\'es in granulating gunpowder. 

Run'ner-stick. {Foandiinj.) A cylindrical or 
slightly conic.d piece of wood, which acts as a [lat- 
teru to form the n[iright part of the gate. Its point 
is stuck in the sand of the lower nioldiug-l)o.\ ami 
the sand of the top part rammed around it. It is 
withdrawn belVire lifting the latter. 

Run'ner-tack'le. [Xdiitiail.) A lufl-tackle 
ajiplicd to tlic nuiniiig end of a rope passed through 
a movable pillow. See Kitn'NKH. 

Run'niug-block. (XiinlicuJ.) A hooked block 
which moves as the fall is hauled upon. In contra- 
distinction to that block of a tackle which is hookecl 
to a stationary object, anil is called the slandimj- 

Run'niiig-bo'w'liue Knot. (Xauficn!.) The 
end is taken round tie- standing part and made into 
a bowline arounil its own part. 

Ruu'niug-bud'dle. (Minini/.) See BuDTiLK. 

Rvm'ning-gear. (/'eAi'c/c.) The entire |)ortiou 
of the vehicle below' tlie bed or body. Specifically, 
the wheels, axles, perch (if any), hounds, bolsters, 
and tongue. 

Run'niiig-hand. (Pi-intin'j.) A font of typi' in 
imitation of running-hand. 

'H^df «C^ 

c^^^&e^t^^^ \::Zy'*^^eTi£<^ 

— ^e-c^e 




Run'ning-knot. .See Knot. 

Run'uiug-off. {Foaiidiiifi.) Opening the tap- 
hole of a blast-l'iiniace to allow the metal to ilow 
into the channels and thence to the molds. 

Run'ning-part (XauUval.) The hauling part 
or ./if// of a tai-kle ; as distinguished from the 
standing part. .See Tackle. 

Running-reiu. (.Uciwgr.) A driving-rein which 
runs over inillcys on the headstall to increase its 
freedom of motion. It freiiueiitly jiasses over sheavi's 
on the bit and ri'turns n|) the cheek, so ,is to piUl 
tlie bit up into the angle of the month. See the fol- 
lowing patents : — 






728.'!1. Fmv 31, 




Harris .... 

• Hi. 



f.i;,312. Ilnnchoo ... 2, 







.W.ilH.i (Miapnian ..27, 




Orahain . . . 




50.S19. Clark 20, 




Hartnmi) . . 




7.'?.S75. Clarli 28, 




H a r t 111 a n 

61,ri22. Donelioo ...29 




fi'iction ro! 


52.139 Ctirist ami 





Stcliman 23, 




Ilartinan . . 




50 823 


. 1 1 









67,837. .\ n li r e w 8 






(over-head) 20 



2,.510. Smith 23, 8, '42 

73,042 Kicc and 
l.i-ach 7, 1, 'C8 

59,937. Albright and 

Burns 27, 11, '66 

79.932. Alixamler..l4, 7, '68 

32,837. Marshall 
(vunuiug-liue hal- 
ter) 10, 7, '01 

59,310. Kenilig . . . .30, 10, '66 

Ii9.1il(). I.iiuk-nian..'24, 9, '67 

59,990. Ilabi-rbush 
aud Kufliel 27, 11, '66 

Run'ning-rig'ging. (Xuulkal.) Ropes for ar- 
ranging the yards and sails, as — 


Beans. . .. 





Ilrowii . . . 





Uarnes. .. 




Running-Reins to 




Bit to rlirrk Ha 



in ronnfrtian w 

tk Ga^ 


Chtck Hook. 


Siiiokey . . 










. '24, 




Smith (dr 



eia runs 


martingale ; does 


invulvu t 























"Vangs, etc. 


See RiRGIN'C ; also the above under their 
five heads. 

The term is in contradistinction to standing-rig- 
'jwa, which includes stays, shrouds, etc. 

Ruu'ning-ti'tle. (Printiini.) A line at the 
head of a page indicating the subject. Head- 

Run of Stones. A pair of mill-stones in work- 
ing order. Sec (.ii;i.\niNG-MiLL. 

Run Through. (^Founding.) A inold is said to 
be run /hruinjh when a quantity of metal is made to 
enter at one gate and out at another, to remove sul- 
lage, air, etc., and make the casting solid. Also 
called Flowing. 

Run-up. (Bookbinding.) A fillet-mark which 
runs from head to tail on the back, without mitering 
with the horizcuital cross fillets on the (lanels. 

Ru'pert's Drop. A tear-shaped drop of unan- 
nealed glass. On breaking a piece from the point 
or tail the whole drojis to pieces. This philosophi- 
cal toy was first brought into notice, perliaps invent- 
ed, by Prince Rupert, neplifw of Cliarles 1. of Eng- 

" Mr. Peter did show us the experiment of the rliTmicall 
gla.sses, which bn-ak all to dust by breaking off a little small 
end ; which is a great mystery to me." — PtPYS, 1662. 


ment used in ruptur- 
ingthe prepuce in eases 
of ]>himosi.s. It is in- 
troduced between the 
glans and the prepuce, 
distending the latter 
to rupture or forming 
a director for the bis- 

Ru'ral Lock. 
{Lock.'im itliing.) A 
cheap kind of lock with a 
4505, A' is tl " " ■ 

(Surgical.) An iiistru- 

Hutchinson\^ Fnrreps ftrr RuptuT' 
iyig lite Prepttve. 

wooden case. In Fig. 
key having studs which lift the spring 
tumblers ff IF out of the notches i i in the spring- 
bolt C. The spring-tninbler F is raised from the 
notch d when used as a latch. 

The illustration shows a late invention, agreeing 
in all substantial respects with the locks of Egypt, 
3,500 years ago, ami those of Syria, yet used. See 
./, Fig. -.29,80. page l:!:?9. 

Rush-light. A tallow candle with a rush wick. 
Rush-lights are made in the same manner as dip- 
candles, a peeled rush being used for a wick. One 






Rural Lock. 

narrow ribbon of the rind is left on the pith to hokl 
it to<xetl»er. Tlie rushes thus pivparoJ are bleached 
and dried. They are dipped vertically in the melt- 
ed tallow several times, as usual with dip-eandles. 
Fifteen inches of rush-light is said to burn about 30 
minutes. There are 1,600 rushes in a iiound, and 
it takes 6 pounds of fat to dip them ; the cost is 
tlius very low. So says Gilbert White. 

Rus'set. (LcoMf^r-y/i^.na/acttire.) The condition 
of leather when it is finished, excepting the opera- 
tions of coloring and polishing the surface, either 
the ^flcsk or gmia^ as the case may be, according to 
the purpose for which the skin is intended. Tliis is 
called ricssct-Jlmshy and in this comlition leather 
is stored to be completed iu//i> leather, that is, nn- 
colored, b^aek on t)ie ficsh or black on the grain, for 
harne-;s, boots or shoes, or for other purposes. 

Rus'sia-duck. {Fabric.) Fine white linen can- 

Rus'sia-leath'er. Rmsia-Ieatlier^ also known as 
juofcii, has a peculiar faculty for resisting moisture 
and the ravages of insects. As its name indicates, 
it was originally made in Russia, all kinds of hide.^ 
being employed, but it is now made in Paris, where 
only goat and sheep skins are employed for the pur- 

The foHowin? is a summary of the Rils=i vn process : — 

1. The dried skios are softeaeil hy steeping in water for from 
5 to 12 days, accordiog to temper. it ure. 

2. Unhaircd by a lime bith, S feet in diameter, "i feet deep, 
and coutaiaing 1S5 pounds of slaked lime. 

3. When the hairslip^, the epiderniisis scraped off on the beam. 
4 The tiesh side is cleanel by a fieshing-knife. 

5- Steeping and beating to remove the lime. 
* 6. The remninder of the lime neutralized and the hides 
swelled in a vat containing a fermentei menstruum of rye-meal, 
1,100 pounds; oatmeal, ^rdO pounds; salt, G pounds. Leaven 
to ferment. 

The acetic acid developed raises the hi Je and counteractsi the 
lime. An infusion of white gentian for 21 hours is sometimes 
used to geLrid of the alkali. 

7. The skins are steeped in an infusion of willow-bark. 

8- The skins are phicel in a pit, interstntified with layers of 
willow-bark and subjected to the pressure of planks and stones 
for from 1-5 to 28 days, the steep of the former process being 

9. The skins are drawn, fresh hark and solution being em- 
ployed, and the skins packed into the pit, as before. 

This is repeatej till from 3 to 6 such changes have been 
ina<ie, according to the thickness of the skin. 

10 The ttnuej skins are ^nftened by maceration in a paste 
of oatmeal, 130 pounds; salt, y pounds: warm water. 

This (luantity serves for 1.50 skins. 

11. The leather is cleaned and drained. 

12. The leather is curried . a mixture of seal-calf oil 2, 
birch-bark oil 1, being employed, anj carefully spread on to the 
extent of 9 ounces of oil to a skin 

13- The skins are stretched upon cords in an open shed and 
The French plan is as follows : — 
1. Unhairing by a weak steep of lime and potassa. 
2 Scraping on the beam. 

3. Ri'ising and fulling. 

4. Wxshin::: in hot water 

5. Steeping 8 da-s in a farinaceon.s fermenting liquor. 

6. W;ished, and scraped with a fjesliing-knif^. 

7. Inimc '■sod 43 hours in a paste of rye Hour, fermented, and 
then diluted. 

8. 15 days' steeping in a similar steep. 

9. Washed previous to tanning. 

10. Steeped for from 7 to 14 days in a warm infusion of 

The skins are handled twice a day, and pressed for an hour 
each time 

11. Drawn and dried. 

12. Curried, a. Treated with fish-oil; the bide being sheaved 
to equalize it, stretched and ponuneled to j-upple it. 

b. Grained by weighted rollers, whose surfaces have raised 
parallel and intersecting threads, so disposed as to give the de- 
sired patteru- 

c. Treated with oil of birch on the flesh side. 

13. Colored Pommeled, slicked, and hard brushed. 

The red color is given by alum and a decoction of Bmzil and 
sandal woods; the biark by a .solution of sulphate of iron and 
sandal-wood. It is evident that the sandal-wood has something 
to do with the ixK:uliar fragrance. 

Rus'sia-mat'ting. flatting manufactured iu 
Russia from the inner bark of the linden {Tilia 
Earopaa). This matting is much used for jtacking, 
and the bast of which it is composed is used for tying 
up plants. 

Kus'sia Sheet-i'ron. Sheet-iron made in Rus- 
sia, and having a smooth, glo.'^sy surface of a purplish 
color, sometimes mottled. The process has been 
long supposed to be a secret, or it has been sup- 
posed that certain secret com]>ositions are used. 
There may be some truth in this, and it does not 
a]ipear that all the manufactones follow exactly the 
same order of treatment. The process lias been ob- 
.served by many travelers, among whom nisy be cited 
Punipelly. One authority states that the metal is 
not subjected to any secret process, but that the 
iron is, in the lir&t i>lace, a very ptn-e article, ren- 
dered exceedingly toutih and flexible by refining and 
anne;iling. Its peculiar surface is a rombineil sili- 
cate and oxide of iron, produced by ]^assing the liot 
sheet, moistened with a solution of wood ashes, 
between poli.shed steel roUei-s. 

Most of the attempts to imitate the Rnssia sheet- 
iron have been to give it a surface of carbuiet of iron. 

Probably the reliable descrij'tion accessible 
is that given by Captain Jleshtcberkin, a Russian 
mining-engineer conversant with the manufacture, 
to Dr. Percy. 

According to this officer, the manufacture is pnn- 
<ipally contined to the eastern or Asiatic side of the 
Ural ilountains. 

Charcoal iron from magnetic ore. carbonate, or red and brown 
hematite, and refined iu the cbarrnal finery or the puddling- 
furnace, is employed. It should be mtber crystalline than 
i fibrous, and contain snffident carlion to render it somewhat 
" steely."' The puddle-b:ills are rolled into bars 5 inches wide 
by i inch thick. Either one or two pairs of rolls, making not 
less than TiO revolutions per minute, are eniplo\ed. 

The sheets ore extended under a trip-hammer {n. Fig- 4507) 
having a wrought-iron head faced willi fte<fl. and «iighing 
about 60 poods (2,160 pounds) ; the anvil is of white cast-iron ; 
both should be quite hard. Another trip-hiuiinier (6), having a 
broaJcr face, weighing 40 to 50 poods (1,4-iO to I,8C0 pourdsl, 
attached to a kver fulcrunied more nearly at the center than 
the first, is employed in polisliing. 

The reheating furnace is shown in rection ate and in plan atrf. 
The fireplace e extends under the bed of the rehcating-chauiber/ 
from end to end, and thepi>eous pi oiluct.s of combustion are car- 
ried into the chamber through five equal openings^ on each side, 
and are finally carried off by the chimney /(. t are the grate- 
bars, and Ic i-thc doors of the fireplace and ash-pit. / is the 
charging-door. This and the other doors are made as tight as 
possible, in order to prevent access of air to the plates being 
heated. Wood is the fuel used, and some of this nl.^o sur- 
rounds the pile in the reheating-* hamber. The puddle-bars are 
cut into strips 29 inches in length, which are then heated to and cross-rolled some 12 or 14 times, until they are 
about 29 inches square. The sheets thus produced are then 
cleansed with a wet broom, arranged in packets of three, and 
pa-sed through the roils about ten times, powdered char- 
coal having been previously sprinkled in between them, and 
afterward sheared to the dimensions of 28 ■ 56 inches. Each 
.';he.-t is then brushed all over with a mixture of birch-charcoal 
[(owder and water. From 70 to 10(1 sheets are made up into a 
packet wi, which is bound with %v:iste sheets and slowly heated 
for o or 6 hours in the furnace, surrounded by logs of wood, in 
order to consume any free oxygen present. The pile is then 
removed from the furnace aud placed under the first hammer, 
being manipulated so that the blows fall upon it in successive 
rows" from end to end. When it has been gone over about six 




times in this way, it is removed and the sheets arc alternated 
with sauK- whieh ure completely tiui.-«hed, niitkiii<; tip a juicket 
of from l4i) to '3HJ sheets ; these are suhjeetud to tue action of the 
second hammer, under which they are parsed twice in a similar 

Fig. 4506, 


Russia Sheet-Iron {H'tmriurs and 

manner, which com- 
pletes the smoothing 

After the second 
hammering, the 

p:icket is opened, 
the surface of each 
sheet is again 
cleaned with a wet 
broom, and it is set 
in a Vertical rack to 
cool ; it is then 
sheared to the di- 
mensions of 28 X 5i5 

Prnfessor Punipel- 
ly.who witnes-ed the 
proress eniployeii in 
the works at Nijoi 
Tagilsk, attributes 
thesuperioriby of the 
Russian product in 
great part to the 
cleanliness observed 
and the skill and 
carefuhiess of the 
workmen. lie stages 
that when thin 
sheets are required, 

the rolling is repeated a third time in packages of four or si.K. 
The spotted sheets are separated into two inferior classes, and 
their diminution in value is deiluct«j from the workmen's pay. 

The fire-proof bricks used in lining the furnace are made of a 
fine quartz sand, merely sprinkled with lime-water before being 
molded and burned. 

By another account, the rollers used are not formed in a 
lathe, hut ca.-*t at once of the requisite smootlines:* and regular- 
ity in mold< rubbed over with graphite While the plates are 
being rolled, the edges arc kept free from gaps by paring them 
with large shears. They are then placed in picks of from 10 to 
20 on a moving bench, which pLisse-s them to and fro under a 
hammer of 40 poods' weight ; both sides are alternately exposed 
to it^ action, and a man carefully brushes off the scales that are 
continually produced on the surface- The pirings are mixed 
with half their weight of charcoal and converted iuto bar-iron. 

Herbrrt 15any, late director of estates antl iron- 
works of, thus describes the manuf.ieture : — 

The refined iron is hammered under the tilt-hammer into 
ntirrow slab-i, calculated to produce a sheet of fiui^Ued iron, 
5S inches by 2S inches, weighing wlieu finished from 6 to 
12 pounds. These slabs are put in the reheiting-furnaces, 
heated to a red heat, and rolled down to a sheet in three opera- 
tions. These are .subse(iuently hammered to reduce tlie thick- 
ness and coufer the glance, k nuuiber of these sheets, having 
been again heatc 1 to a red heat, have charcoal-powder sifted be- 
tween them. The pile, then receiving covering and a bottom in 
shape of a sheet of thicker iron, is placed under a heavy ham- 
mer; the bundle, grii.><pcd with tongs by two men, is pulled 
backward and forward by the gang, so that every part may he 
well hannnered. When the redness goes off, they are finished, 
80 far as this pirt of the opi-ration goes, and have received some 
of the glance or necessary pilis i. Tiiey are then agiiu heat^-ii 
atid are rolli-d between cold finished sheets. Thev are again 
h immerc 1, and, after thi-* process, are finished as far as thick- 
ness and :f!ance are coui-erneil. 

Thrown down separately to cool, they are taken to the shears 
an 1 trimmed- Each sheet is then weighed, and after being thus 
as.-iorte 1 in wcighU, tlu'V an^ linallv .-Jortcd into firsts, se<'onds, 
ami third-i, according to tlieir alanrt and freedom from Haws 
and splits. A fir.-it-class sheet must be like a mirror, without a 
Bpot in it. 

The general weight per sheet is from six to twelve pound'', the 
larger demauti being from ten to eleven pounds; but they are 

made weighing as much as thirty pounds, and may then almost 
be called thin boiler-plates, being used for stoves, etc. 

The appearanie of Russia iron is imparted to sheet*: (No. 22 
wire gage) by dipping liiem while warm in a mixture, the cnn- 
si.stency of moUuiscs, of chalk, porcelain-clay, and graphite, in 
equal parts. When dried, they are farther robed and anin-alcd, 
and afti-rward dipped in a pickle of 1 part sulphuric acid to 3 
water till free from scales, then allowed to remain a short time 
in a lye of 1 potatih to 20 water, filtered ; afterward washed with 
Clearwater and smoked in an oven heated with light wood; 
the soot is burned off !is the heat increases, and a carburet is 
formed on the surface with which it is closely combined. The 
plates are now gradually permitted to cool, and then hammered 
or rolled and tempered in a tightly closed chamber lined with 
fire-brick, when tiiey may be again lightly hammered or pjist-ed 
through the polishing-rolls. 

At the sheet-iron works in Brooklyn, an engine of 200 horse- 
power drives an automatic steam-hammer weighing seven tons. 
The roiled sheet iron is greased and arranged in packages of 
thirty or more sheets, liich sheet is about 2J feet wide and 7 
feet long. The i)acks are then run into an oven and exposed to 
heat until the surface has attained the proper degree of oxida- 
tion. The packs are tlien transferred to the hammer, all the 
sheets in the pjck being hammered at once. The anvil is mov- 
able, and the workmen change the position of the pack at each 
stroke of the hammer, so that every portion of the iron will be 
acted upon. 

At the McKeesport Iron-Works, Wood's process is used. A 
heavy haumter falls vertically on the sheets with rapid blows as 
they are passed over an anvil, the face of the haumier and the 
anvil being pitted with small indentations. It is the passage 
under this hanmier that does the planishing, giving the even 
surface, mottled finish, and density of fiber which characterize 
the Russian. The charcoal iron is rolled iuto bars and cut, the 
scale is removed, after which it is rolled into sheets of diflerent 
thirkncs?es, then cold rolled, then heated to a cherry-red, and 
pas.sed under the planishing-hanmier three sheets at a time. 

The following are condensed descriptions of United StJites 
patents for modes of making sheet-iron similar to the : 

No. 2,813, Wood, 10, 12, 1842. Rolled in usual manner, but 
left thicker: oxide removed by acid ; cleaned and dried ; coated 
with linseed-oil; two such plates placed between two otliers; 
the pack heated to a cherry-red and rolled repeatedly till the 
gloss is ohtained. 

No. 2,824, Guilford, 22, 10,1842 Scale removed by acid; 
washed and dried ; subjectt^d to mutual friction in a box with 
lid aiid stampers; heated to blue color; passed, while hot, 
thrcugli hardened and polislied rolls. 

No ^8,048, Wood, 15, 4, 1851. Similar to No. 2.813, but tlie 
pack Is rolled between shield-plates The latter eventually be- 
come inside plates, being scaled, oiled, heated, and rolled as 
the others. Smoothed and glared by cold rolling between 

No. 9,075, McCarty, 26, 6, 1852. Plates are scaled by acid 
bath and zinc in a lead pan during efl"ervescence ; washed and 
dried ; heated to cherry-red in a lead bath ; ridled while hot ; 
nifittlcd marks given by hammer-dressing on the rolls. 

English patent. No- 14,244, 1852 The sheets are rolled, piled, 
in fours, and rerolled, trimmed, heated, rolled in packs, heated, 
packed (20 sheets) with intervening charcoal, hammered with a 
::5l)-ponnd hammer; unpaiked, packed (40 sheets) without , 
chiircoitl, one hot and one cold sheet alternately ; haumiered by 
aimO-pounil hammer; annealed and trimmed. 

No, 10,047, McCarty, 27, 0, 1853. Planished rolls to give mot- 
tled marks to the iron sheets. 

No 10,482, Pomeroy, 31, 1, 1854. Iron plates painted with a 
composition of graphite, charcoal, and soot or boneblack, diluted 
with anything and put on with a brush : heat and roll 

No. 21,fiU2, Morris. 5, 10, 18&8. Making a mottled, chilled- 
iron roll for rolling sheet-iron. The rolls are chilled, turned, 
polished : dotted with wax according to taste ; immersed in acid 
bath to etch in the intervals ; placed in a lathe and rubbed with 
emery and oil to take off the sharp edges. 

No" 21,772, Morris, 12, 10, IS5S. Siicet-iron of carefully Fe- 
lected and prepared metal is passed between mottled rollers (ns 
above), plai ed in a mutfle, heated to redness in a furnace ; made 
into a pack of ten, with intervening charcoal ; the pack placed 
on an anvil, which is made to travel to and fro beneath a gang 
of hammers; reheated; rehammered; annealed. 

No. 21,817, Chandler, 19, 10, 1858. Sheets are rubbed with 
or dipped into a paste of clay or peat, and metallic oxides; 
rolled, cleaned, made into a pack, and rerolled. 

No 31 ,184, Morris, 22, 1, 1861. Rolled sheets are coated with 
oil, boxeil. placed in a muffle, and heated to OOll*^ Fah, ; ham- 
mered in tlie pack to combine the carbonized tcale and form a 
carbureted surface. 

No. 32 341, Wood, 14, 5, 1861. Rolled sheets are annealed at 
a dull white heat; cooled; rolled between corrugated roils to 
break scale, then between plain rolls; no acids; coat surface 
with oil and graphite; heat to bright red; roll in packs; rol.s 
covered with oil and graphite 

No 3;J,341, Wood, 3, 9, ISJl. Rolled plates are warmed and 
di[»ped in a bath of water, chalk, poreclain-clay, and graphite; 
withdrawn and dried; pack of ten plate-* heated to bright red 
and rolled : acid bath to remove scale ; alkaline bath to develop 
color ; water bath ; dried ; heated in a smoky oven to cover sur- 




face with carbon deposit, which becomes embodied in the iron ; I 
cooled; planished or rolled; tempered. 

No 33,214. Kiess, 3, 9, IS.Jl Rolled plates are dipped in a J 
bath of chalk, porcelaiun-lay, and grapaite; dried, packed, 
heated, rolled, and annealed. 

No. 3:i,S44,MiDiniel and Harvey, 3,12, 1861. Vacnum press- 
ure in removal of acid hquor, and subsequent alkaline 

No. 31,294, Dixon, 4, 2, 1862. Rolled plates scaled by acid 
bath; washei with adaesive, or rye-water ; swabbed at less than 
a red heat with an enamel composition : kept at that heat for ] 
ten hours in an oven ; sheets placed in an annealing-bo.t with I 
interposed charcoal-dust, and heated ; rolled in p.icks and an- j 

No 46,974, Pratt, 14, 2, 18155. Sheet-metal immer-ed in acid 
bath at a prescribed heat ; removed, scrubbed, and inunersed 
in alkaline bath ; brushed with rotary brushes while wet ; 
heated to dryness; immersed in oil bath at 100^ to l.jU^ Fah. ; 
dripped, and passed between polished steel-rollers ; buffed by 
leatller-rollers and chalk-dust ; colored over charcoal furnace. 

No 48,918, EUs,25, 7, 186.5 Sheets annealed ; placed loosely 
in a cast iron box, with scale of oxide, animal charcoal, coke, 
lime, or other decarbonizing or cutting agents; agiUited while 
heated in the furnace. 

No. 50,203, Grey, 26. 9, 1865- Heats the sheets previous to 
finishing; cools to a point below cherry-red ; rolls without re- 
moving scale ; repeats operation. 

No. 52,647, Perkins, 13, 2, 1.866. Cleans and brightens me- 
chanicallv :' then heats in an oven to develop color. 

No. 53.476, Perkins, 27, 3, 1866. Sheets packed with inter- 
vening iron turnings; heated, rolled, annealed 

No. 53,253, Allen and Hinsdale, 20, 3, 186';. A fagot of iron 
has top and bottom steel.plates ; heated, rolled into a bar ; 
bar rolled into sheets : oxide removed by acid bath ; washed ; 
a pack often heated to redness and rolled. 

No. 56,759. Jones, Spaulding, and Perkins, 31, 7, 1866. The 
wrought-iron melted in a crucible with nitrate of lead, muriate 
of antimony, bone-dust, and graphite; stir; remove flux from 
the top ; run into molds and roll as usual. 

No. 61,034, Wood, 8, 1, 18 J7. After removing from the alka- 
line bath, and washing as usual in hot water, tile plate is dried 
and heated in an oven below redness; dipped in a bath of oil 
ami turpentine. 

No. 63,8il5, Miller, 16, 4, 1857. The rolled sheet, before a 
final rolling, is heated nearly to welding point by, above 
and below the plate, just before entering between the fiuishing- 

No. 77,111, Shaw, 21, 4, 18 j8. The heated iron, or the rolls, 
are mopped with a composition of graphite, animal fat, soda, 
and water 

No 81,903, Hinsdale, 8, 9, 1868. The bar-iron is scaled; 
washed ; dipped in a bath of clay 100, lampblack 1, prussiato 
of potash .5; heated and rolled; the sheet-iron is dipped in 
same composition and rerolled 

No. 88,002, Atkins, 23, 3, 18,59. Roll into sheets, scale with 
acid, neutralize with lime-water, oil ; lay up the iron in paclvs 
with intervening charcoal and marble dust ; raise to Jl red-heat, 
roll singly ; reheat, and roll in pairs, and so on ; rolling till 
cold to develop polish ; heat in packs to anneal ; roll, and cool 

No. 95,554, Barker, 5, 10. 1869. Roll : remove scale by acid ; 
wash; potash bath, in which they remain till rolled; roll in 
packs, cold ; mottled rolls, made by a peculiar process of chili 

No. 98,3!H, Fields, 28, 12, 1869. Iron is of Franklioite 100, 
good pig-iron 400 Sheet-iron is scaled ; dipped in a bath of 
flour of zinc 1, graphite 1, tallow enough to make consistence 
of cream, when melted ; a pick of three sheets is placed be- 
neath a steam-hammer with a hard-wood face ; the anvil having 
a similar face; grain of wood vertical. 

No 103,.323. Grey, 24, 5, 1871. Scale removed by an acid bath 
and subsequent heating on racks in an oven to raise the scale 
in blisters. ,\ tliin, tenacious oxide forms on the surface and 
is preserved. Rolled cold, first singly, then in packs ; annealed. 

No, 103.577, Craig, 31. 5, 1870. Plates are built into packs 
with intervening eliarcoal-dust ; heated nearly to welding heat ; 
rolled in packs ; reviving the metal of the superficial oxide. 

No- 114,956, Marshall, 16,5, 1871- Scale removed by saline 
bath and furnace heating; dipped in lime-water; heated to 
cherry -red and rolled in packs ; anneal 

Rus'ti-ca'tion. (.Uasourif.) A genoral natne for 
tliat speuies of iiia.sonry in wliich tlie surfaces of the 
stones are left rougli, aiKl the .several courses ami 
the stones in each course are distinctly marked hy 
sunk joints or groo\'es, either chamfered or other- 
wise cut. 

Contrary to the import of the name, rmiication 
admits of great variety of e.\pression and very 
ehiborate tre;itnient. The faces of the stones are 
sometimes venniculated or otherwise made rough ; 
the tooling occupying a panel surrounded liy a 
smooth border terminating in the arris of the chani- 
fei-, which constitutes the projection of the face 
above the surface of the sunk joint. 

The varieties of rusticated work are known as rcr- 
miculated, j)u;icturcd, frosted, stiilaciilcd, chamfered, 
according to the character of the ornamentation of 
the face, or some peculiarity of the salient edge. 

Vcrmiculatcd has contorted tooling distantly re- 
sembling worms, from which its name is derived. 

Pimetiired Is picked full of holes in lines or ir- 

Frosted has a fine, even roughness, distantly re- 
sembling hoar frost. 

IStaladUcd has ornaments like icicles, in imitation 
of those natural deposits from which the name is 

Chamfered ; the salient panel has a beveled edge, 
having an angle of 1-35° with the face. 

Rus'tic Cham'fered Work. (Masonr;/.) The 
chamlered eilgcs of the face of the ashlar have an 
angle of 135° with the face, so that at the joint the 
beveling will fcn-m a right angle. 

Rus'tic Joint. (Masonr;/.) A sunken joint be- 
tween stones, eitlier si|uaiv or <'liamfered. 

Rus'tic Or'der. That kind of building in which 
the faces of the stones are hatched or uir/r/edwith the 
point of the hammer. 

Rus'tic Quoin, (.l/asoi?)-//.) The a^hlaring at 
the collier of a house or wall, projecting from the 
face, and laid alternately stretcher and header with 
nistic joints. 

The quoins may have edges chamfered to an angle 
of 135° with the face of tlie building, so as to make 
a right angular joint. The faces of the stones are 
usually tooled. 

Rus'tic Work. 1. {Wood.) An imitation of 
rough or jniiiiitive work. Funiiture for snminer- 
hoiises and lawns, made of limbs of trees, taking 
advantage of natural crooks and crotches to form 
the shapes desired. See Gaiuien'-seat, Fig. 2159. 

2. (Stone.) Masonry jagged over with a hammer to 
an irregular surface. A margin around the joints 
is recessed. This is known as the margin-draft. 
When the face is made in imitation of ice, it is 
called frosted rustic-trork. When contorted, it is 
called rrrmiculatcd work. 

Rust-joint. (Mdal-vorking.) A joint made 
water-tight by a compound which oxidizes or sets 
on exposure to the air ; as the following : — 

Quickiv senilis. Sal-ammoniac in powder, by weight, 1 part ; 
flour sulphur. 2 parts ; iron borings, 80 parts. Make toa paste 
with water. 

Slowfil setting. Sal-ammoniac in powder, by weight, 2 parts ; 
flour sulphur, 1 part ; iron borings, 200 parts. 

The latter cement is the better one if the joint be not re- 
quired for immediate use. 

Ru-the'ui-um. Equivalent, 52.1 ; symbol, iii'. ; 
specific gravity, 11.4 ; nearly invisible. It is of a 
gray color, hard and brittle". A rare metal found 
associated with platinum. It was discovered by 
Clans in 1845. 

Rynd. (Grinding-miH.) The ball which sup- 
ports the runner on the head of the spindle. See 
Balange-uy.mj, F F, Fig. 536. 





Sa'ber. (JFcapon.) A sword having a cnrvei.1 
bliulo, siu'ciiiUy iulapted for cutting. 

Three, kinds jice in general use in the armies of 
Europe and America. 

That for liuavy cavahy has a slightly curved, 
heavy bhule. 

The ligiit-cavalry saber has a lighter blade some- 
what more curved. 

Tiie horse-artillery salier i.s still shorter, lighter, 
and more curved, and has but one branch to the 

Sa-bot'. 1. A wooden shoe made of one piece 
hollowt-l out hy boriug-touls and scrapers. 

We learn from Cicero that }niri-icides at Rome were 
fitted with a pair of wooden shoi?s lielbre tliey were 
sewn up in tlie sack in whicli they were drowned. 

Sabots are cherished l)y tiie whole Gallic race, and 
might be vised with advantage by other people for 
occasional protection on sloppy pavements and on 
wet ground, wliile about the duties of the kitchen, 
laundry, and kitehen-gardeu. 

Sabots in France are divided into the grox and the fins: the 
former being co^irse and sold at 14 cents per pair ; and the latter 
at 40 cents, trinuning extra. 

The kinds 'of wool used, beginning with the commoner varie- 
ties, are wjllow, puplar (LombarJy), beech, birch, ai*pen, ash, 
horubeam, w.ilnut. 

The wood is cut when it attains a certain size, and is sold on 
the spot by auction. The sa'tntiers attend in person and worlc 
up their purghascs on the spot, giving the crude form to the 
sabots, whicli are afterward se,iJioneJ, and are tlien finished, 
carved, and blacked iii Paris or some other mercantile center. 
The seasoning of the woo. I t;ikes about twelve months. Gros 
sabots are sometimes dried and smoked to expedite the season- 
ing, and are finished and sold by country makers and venders 
in their own communities. 

The timber is cross-cut in lengths for shoes and riven into 
blocks. They are rough hewn by a hind-axe, the operator be- 
ing called a laiileur^ or cutter. Another workman, the pnmir^ 
or pirer, now takes them. The cut;ing-to'»l has a bent blade, 
, a short handle, and its point h is a honk which engiges a ring 
attached to tlie bench. The block is liuld in the left hand and 
steadied by certain indentations and prominences on tlie bench 
■while it is being pared, assuming some.vh it the shape of a last. 

The third workman is the creiis^itr, or scooper, who works wirli 
augers and spoon-shaped cutters, called ciiUeres. The blank 
is fixed by wedges between po-sts on the bench, the heel pre- 
sented toward the workman, who scoops and gouges out the 
JQterior, testing his work by giges. 

Aft«r drying, they are carved, painted, and trimmed. 



Pig. 4507. 


compromise ; a shoe with double 
wooden sole, hav- 
ing a double ik^\- 
ible shank D in- 
terposed between 
tlie toe and heel 

2. (Ord)iancc.) 
a. A circular 
lilock, usually of ; 
wood, hollowed 
out and lixed by i 
Sabot. tin straps to a I 

jirojeetilc, so as j 
to maintain its proper jiosition in the bore of a gun, | 
to prevent its np-ictting m loading, wobbling in ilis- l 
charging, and to decrease windage hy occupying the ', 
bore more perfectly than can be done by the projec- I 
tile itself. | 

b. A nu'tallic cup or disk fixed to the bottom of. 
an elou^ati'il projeetile, so as tt> till the bore and take 
tln' rilling wli.'ii the gun is disc-liarged. I 

Sa-bo-ti-ere'. A French api>aratus for making j 
ices. It consists of an outer pail of wood and an 
inuev vessel of metal, to contain the cream to be , 

iced. In the intervening space is a mixture of 
pounded ice and salt, or of sulphate of soda and 
hydrochloric acid. The contents of the inner vessel 
are agitated by a handle, and the frozen cream is 
occasionally sc-ra])ed down. 

Sab're-tasche. A leathern pocket suspended 
on the left siile Irom the sword-belt of a cavalry 

Sac'cha-rom'e-ter. A hydrometer graduated 
to indicate the amount of .sugar in worts and othel 
saccharine solutions. Bate's is generally used iii 

It consists of a brass ball with a cjdindrical stem, 
graduated into 30 parts, each corresponding to Tn'no 
of the specilic gravity of water, the relative length 
of the divisions being such tui to compensate for the 
increased volume of the submerged portion as it 
sinks in the liquid. Tables are prepared, showing 
the percentage of sugar contained in worts of specific 
gravities corresponding to the indications of the 

The optical saccharometer is a foi-m of ])olariscope 
devised by Jlitscherlieh with special reference to 
testing sugars by polarized light. It is provided 
with a graduated circle for measuring the angles of 
polarization, wliieh serve as a basis of comparison for 
the dilfcrent qualities. 

The saccharometer usually employed in this country and on 
the Continent of Eurojie is B:iunit-'s. It consists of a bulb hav- 
ing a smaller bulb beneath, weighted with mercury or shot, and 
a graduated stem above. In water it sinks to a cert;iiii mark, 
but in sirup it rises in proportion to the density of tlie latter. 
It is a hydroiVFter with marks which render it specially applicable 
to the use-* of determining percentages of sugar in soluti<)n or 
in sirups. The alro/iohnfier, and others of tiiis cbiss dilTer in 
their graduations, which render them spei-ially applicable to a 
specific chuss of liquids or solutions. A degree on tlie scale of 
the Riccharometer marks 0.019 parts of sugar in the .'■irup. 
Thus, if the saccharometer, floating in sirup, marks 10" It , we 
have .0J9 X 10 = .19. and know that there is 19 per cent of su- 
gar in that sirup If the .«irup is boiling, liowever, it is lighter 
than when cold by about 3^. Thin juice is of the same density, 
hot or cold. See IlYDaoMtTER. 

A .saccharometer commonly employed by 
brewers in England for testing worts is of 
copper, and has a fiat seem having a pro- 
jec tiun a at the upper part to receive a se- 
ries of weights marked 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 
30. At the temperature of 02° Fah., the 
instrument sinks in distilled water to the 
mark b. A barrel (30 gallons) of pure wa- 
tvT at this tempei-aturc weighs 360 pounds. 
If the instrument be placed in a liquid 
weighing 301 pounds to the barrel, it will 
sink only to the mark c. The distance be- 
tween tiiese two marks is divided into 10 
eriual parts, each equivalent to a difference 
of ,„ of a pound in the weight of the liq- 
uid. The number of pounds and tenths 
which a barrel of wort weighs over 3i)0 is 
ascertained by placing weights over the Wort- Saccharometer, 
projectinii sufficient to sink the stem to one 
of the points b r or one of the intermediate graduations Thus, 
if the weights 10, o, 2 be required to sink the instrument to the 
mark numbered 3 on the stem, the wiighi uf the wnrt will be 
377.3 pounds per barrel, d Ua. ves.^el fur containing the wort 
to be operated on. 

One mode of detecting the character of a saccharine solution 
is by the polari/,'ition of light, observation being made of the 
extent to which a given volume of a saccbarino solution twists 
a ray of polarized light. 

By peculiar operations, the presence, quantity, or relative 
proportions of cane and grape sugar may be determined. Both 
cane and grape sugar twist the ray to the right, but the former 
alone h;ts this power inverted on ebullition with hydrnchloric 
acid. This furhishes experimental datji for the quantities of 
each pii'sent 

Another mode consists in converting the cnne-sugar into 
grape-su^ar by fioiling with dilute sulphuric acid for two or 
three hours and thi-n heating with solution of potash or soda, 
and comparing the depth of color of the resulting dark brown 

Fig. 4508. 




Fig 4509. 

{Fabric.) Coarse 

See Bag-filter, 

liquid with similar liquids prepared from known weights of 

Grape-sugar will also reduce an alkaline solution of tartrate 
of copper with preeipitatiou of orange-y«llow suboxide of cop- 
per. This reaction is perfectly dftiuite, and may be applied in 
the estimation of grape or cane sugar, or both. 

Sack. A hag of leather or fabric, used for hold- 
ing grain, salt, coal, and innumerable other articles. 

The word snrk is said to be the only one which survived the 
confusion of tongues at Babel, being tbe wime in all languages. 
Each man, as soon as he found something was going wrong, 
called for his sack to carry home his tools in. 

Sacks are made in U'estern India from the inner bark of the 
Antiaris sacci'iora. A section of the tree about one foot in di- 
ameter is cut off, of the length required for a sack ; soaking and 
pounding loosens it, and it is stripped off as a squirrel is skinned. 
Sew up the end, and the thing is complete. The bark is also 
used, pounded thin, cut up to the pattern required, aud sewn 
together like any other fabric 

The ;?panish 'wine called sack, which would appear to have 
formed the principal nutriment of Falstaff. is said to derive its 
name from the le:ithern sacks containing it ; others, however, 
think it a corruption of 5ec (dry). 

Sack'but. (Music.) a. An ancient wind-instni- 
nient mentioned in Daniel iii. 5-15. 

b. A wind-instrument of the trumpet species. It is 
of a low ](itch, and the tone is mod- 
ulated by lengthening and shorten- 
ing by means of sliders. See Tkom- 



stull' for Sinks. 

Sack-fir ter. 
page i2n'.>. 

Sack-hoist. An adaptation of 
the wheel and axle to form a con- 
tinnoii.s hoist for sacks and pack- 
ages in wurehouses, etc. In Fig. 
4509, the wheel is turned by pull- 
ing on the endless chain a ; the 
links of the hoisting-chain b engage 
sprockets on the axle ; while one 
end is ascending with a sack at- 
taL'hed, the other descends to re- 
' ceive another sack. 

The apparatus may have a fric- 
tion-brake and a ratchet and pawl 
to prevent the weight falling should 
the hoisting be suspended for a 

The flispatch-hoist {a. Fig- 4.510) is spe- 
cially intended for sacks of corn, hales of 
leather, and other articles not liable to 
injury if let down quickly. The load re- 
mains suspended just where left, until 
released by reversing the action of tlie 
main wheel The descent can be regulated 
by this wheel, the rope remaining station- 
Sack-Hoist. ary. 

The snfety-hoi.-it {b) is adapted for goods 
requiring care in lowering. The main wheel, on being reversed, 
causes the load to descend at a moderate speed. and can bi- kept 
going by an occasional pull at the rope. If the load be allowed 
to run, it will gradually check itself until it stops. If the rope 

Fig. 4510. 

Sack' Lifter. 
A seat or ]»id to be 

Sack- Hoist. 

is suddenly " let go" while lifting, the kxid will remain su.«- 
pended just where it is. The principle of this latter is found in 
the differential pulley. 

Sack'ing. {Fabric.) A coarse hempen or llaxeu 
fabric, made for bags and bed-bottoms. 

Sack-lift'er. Tlie ajiparatus (Fig. 4511) is used 
as a lifter and a truck. It is 
turned up on end to receive 
the full sack, which is placed 
on the movable platform a ; 
it may then be wheeled to 
the wagon or storehouse, and 
the saek raised shoulder-high 
by turning the winch b, wliiuh 
operates the rack c attached 
to the platform. A pawl d 
prevents the descent of the 
platform when the winch is 
let go. 

Sac'ris-ty. (Arckikc- 
fnrc.) That apartment of a 
church in which the conse- 
erated vessels and the vest- 
ments of the elergy are kept. 

Sad'den-ing. {Dyeing.) t 
A method of applying several 
monlants to cloth to be 

Sad'dle. 1. {Saddlery.) 
placed on the back of an animal to su(>port the rider 
or the load. Besides the ordinary kinds, the man's 
saddle, and the sw?c-saddle for women, there are cart^ 
ffif/i pffclc^ ambuharcc, camcly and ox saildles. The 
camel is used in Asia and the northern part of Af- 
rica. The ox is the ordinary beast for riding and 
for burdens in the interior of Africa, as witness Liv- 
ingstone, Speke, Grant, Baker, Barth, Chaillu, IJeade. 

The earliest saddles on record are those of Egypt (o) and Per- 
sepolis. They were not for riding, but were analogous to our 
harness-saddles, except in their po- 
sition. They rested on the withers 
of the horses, and were secured in 
place by belly and collar bands. 
They were attached to a yoke wliic h 
passed over the slinulders of the 
horses, and at its niidlength was at- 
tached to the pole or tongue of the ' 
chariot. The saddle had a hook for 
the bearing-rein, and had a single 
trace, on the side of the horse 
against the pole. ?ee page 1062. 

The Persian saddle (h) was sub- 
stantially the same. 

Equestrians used cloths .«ecured 
by girths The Per>ian seat cloths 
were abundant, but they had no 

The saddle referred to in our 
translation of the Bible. 1890 b. 
and subsequently, was doubtless a\ 
cloth fastened by a .-^urcingle. 

The .'saddle of Alexander (320 B.c) 
was without a tree or stirrups ; the 
cloth on which he rode was secured 
by girth and breast-band The 
equestrian represented ontbeEtrus- 
c:in vase of Cardinal Gualteri rode 
on a naked horse. Even after the 
introduction of cloths, it was es- 
teemed manly to do so. The Roman 
cavalry, until the time of Nero, pa- 
raded and reviewed without cloths 
or coverings in order to show plainly 
the condition of the animal*, Nero 
ailded cloths for show, and in the 
time of Alexander Severn? {A n. 222) 
they were splendidly nccoutered. 

Pliny states that one Pelethronius first introduced seat-cloths. 
Xenbphon speaks of the gorgeous and excessive coverings of the 
Persian horses. The Germans despised them after they were 
fully adopted in the Roman army. What may be termed pad- 
saf/'ff/es. of leather, are mentioned a. d .3"4 

The invention of the saddle has been attributed to the Selinns, 
a people of ancient Franconia. Hence, perhaps, the Latin fella. 

Fig. 4512. 

Ancient K^tif.tinn and 
riTsian Saddles. 




T^eaviug a doubtful passage in Zonaras referring to the fall of 
Constautini.' tlie Younger (a. d. 3iU) from the sfUa, wliii-li uiay 
uie.iu a saddU,hK\i more probably means his seat on lior.-eback, 
we fin J tlie -sad-l!*; full> describej in the time of Ttieodi>sius. In 
the code of this monarch, publi^ned about The year '6ih^ there 
is a rescript wliieli diii-'ets tliat the weight of a caddie and bridle 
for post-liorses should not togetner exceed GU pounds, — a very 
good order. 

The Emperor Leo I., in the fifth rentury, interdicted the use 
of pearls and jewela in the decoration of .*iaddles. 

Mauritiu.4, in the sixtli century, ordered the saddles of the 
cavalry to'be covered with fur. 

It appears that the lireeks and Romans mounted from what 
we call the off side of the liorse. 

The dilference between a pad and a saddle consists in the 
pre.sL-nce of a tree in the latter. The niouunieuts and eoiny show 
a gradual change, IVom the mere cloCh to a padded seat and sur- 
cingle ; then appear roll.-*, wliicli m;iy be consideivd incipient 
pounnel and cantle. The wnrd in early use was e/>hi/'/>iifm; it 
wa^ afterward silla. I'erh ips tlie latter was the true saddle. 

The saddle was known in England among the Saxons, and was 
probably introiluecd by the Romans during the latter portion 
of their occupition. According to Strutt, wiio is, perhaps, the 
best authority, the Saxon and Norman ladies rode sideways, as 
at present. Other autnorities state that the side-saddle was in- 
troduced by Auuo, daughter of the king of Bohemia and queeu 

Fig. 4513. 

CaiTid Saddle and Gun. 

of Richard TT. Previous to that time, a lady rode on a pillion 
behind her cavalier or a servant, or else in the masculine man- 
ner still customary in some parts of Europe. 

Que<Mi Elizabeth rode on a pillion behind the Lord Chancellor 
from London to Exeter, and this was common till the beginning 
of the prcseiit century. 

Stirrups were invented about 200 years after riding-saddles. 
See St naup. 

The Tartar saddles are of wood, carefully adapted to tlie shape 
of the animal's back. The fitting is done by a Uuife, by succes- 
sive parings and trials. 

The Japane-Je saddle is of wood, with a cushion unrlerneath, 
and a cloth at the rear, covering the horse's loins. It is secured 
by a girth, a poitral, or breast leather, and a crupper. The 

Fig. 4514. 



Fig. 4515. 

Camels Saddle. 

civilian traveler uses a pair of saddle-bags, an adnfski or trunk 
laid over them, and sits upon a cloth spread over all. 

The dignitiiry or cavalry soldier rides upon a saddle with high 
ridges for ponunel and cantlo. The stirrup is shaped like a 
shoe-sole, and is open at the side. The stirrup-leathers are 
short, The rider mounts from the o^side 

Fig. 4.^13 is a view of a camel's saddle and gun, from l>ahore 
in the Punjaub. The drawing is from the article which was 
contributed from India to the London Exhibition of 1851. 

Fig 4514 is also a camel's saddle from Lahore. 

The Icelandic side-saddtes, like those of some other nations, 
resemble an ordinary chair-seat 
with a foot-piece, as in the an- 
nexed cut from a drawing by J. 
Ross Browne. 

The Prussian cavalry -saddle 
has a wooden tree in two parts, 
attached at the ends by cast-iron 
forks, forming a high pommel and 
cantle. The seat is covered with 
a padded leathern cushion. A 
padding of straw is used with 
the saddle 

Among some nations, as the 
Ilungaiians, Mexicans, and oth- 
ers, tlic saddles are extremely 
elaborate. An enumeration of 
tlie parts and appurtenances of a Ilungarian saddle may be 
interesting : — 

Icelandic Side-Saddle. 




La<ing- thongs. 




Pilch {pell) fur covering. 


Crupper dock, body, and strap. 


Carbine bucket and strap. 
Carbine stay-strap. 
Shabraque strap. 
Wanty, for binding on a lond. 
Blanket, folded beneath the 

The parts of a saddle are the tree or foundation, the padding ^ 
skirts, seat, girth, stirrup-strap, and crupptr-loop. 

Fig. 4516. 

Fig. 4517 

Spring- Saddle. 

The tree consists of pommel, cantle^ and side-bars. To the 
latter are attjiched the stirrup-loops; the cntpper-loopU attached 
to the cantle. See 


In Fig. 4516, the 
seat is suspended 
above the tiH?e fiouj 
springs attached to 
the pommel and can- 

Fig. 4517 has an 
ehistic seat H strained 
between the poniniel 
and cantle, and has an additional support by transverse, arched 
springs (1 G, whose ends rest upon the side plates. 

Fig 4518 is a haruess-sadd.e. 

Fig- 4518. 

Riding- Saddle. 

Harness- Saddle. 

2. (N'auHcaL) A pi('['e or lilock hnllowcd out to 
fit another portion, which is seated thereon, us — 




a. The block on a jard-arin wliich receives the 
studding-sail boom. 

b. The blix;k on the ui)per side of the bowsprit to 
receive the heel of the jiLi-booni. It is situated at a 
distance one third of the length of the jib-boom in- 
ward from the outside of tin; bowsprit-cap. 

3. (Ordnance.) A support on which a gun is 
placed for bouching. 

4. {Uailwaii.) a. The bearing or ftrass resting on 
the journal of a car-a.xle in the a.\le-box. See Cau- 
Axr.E Box. 

b. A chair or seat for a railway-rail. See Rail- 

5. (Machinery.) A block with a hollowing top to 
sustain a round object, as a rod upon a Iwuch or lied. 

6. (Bridge-building.) A block on the summit of 
a jiier over which suspension cables pass or to which 
they are attached. In the illustration, ^ is a sec- 
tion, B an elevation, and Ca plan of the saddles of 
Cliai-ing Cross Bridge. Tlie plates a a, to which the 
upper and lower chains are connected, rest upon a 
cast-iron plate b, to which they are fixed by the 
standards c c ; this plate is supported upon rollers 
d d held in place by a frame e c. The lower plates 

Fig. 4519. 

SaddU.for Cable of Suspension Bridge. 

f f, on wliich the rollers run, are supported on a 
platform of timber and iron girders, by which the 
weight is distributed over four pillars of brickwork, 
whicli support the whole. There are two saddles on 
each pier, connected together by a bar g working on 
a center at h, so that wdiile the saddles are main- 
tained at a proper distance apart, they are allowed 
the renuisite freedom of motion. 

/> is a saddle on the apex of one of the piers of the 
Menai Suspension Bridge. It is of cast-iron, resting 
on wrought-iron rollers with brass boxes, so that as 
the temperature varies some jday is allowed to the 
chains. There were 16 chains, "e.ach weighing 120 
tons 299 pounds. Total, 3,876,784 pouiids. The 
bridge was built over the Menai Straits by Telford, 
in 18'29. Each of the eight cast-iron saddles weighed 
3,248 pounds, and the cast-iron bed-plate on the 

apex of each pier, supporting the saddles at that end 
of the catenary, weighed 46,080 pouuds. 

Sad'dle-back. (Jluildinij.) A co]iing with a 
double slope to shed rain. 

Sad'dle-bags. (Saddlery.) A ])air of lags or 
pouches, connected by a leathern seat, carried on the 
back of an animal, being laid over or behind the saddle. 

Sad'<31e-bar. \. (Carpentry.) An iron bar cross- 
ing a window-frame and sei'ving as a stiTj' for the 
fretwork or glass secured in leaden cames or bars. 
See FEETWor.K. 

2. (Saddlery.) The side-bar, sidc-plalc, or sjiriny- 
bar of a saddle-tree, one on each side connecting the 
pommel and cantle. 

Sad'dle-bow. (Saddlery.) The upper, front 
part of a saddle-tree formed of two curved pieces 
unitcil so as to foim an arch. The pommel. 

Sad'dle-cloth. (Saddlery.) A cloth attached 
to a saddle and extending over the loins of the horse. 
A housinei. A shabrack. 

Sad'dle-girth. (Saddlery.) A band of leather 
or webbing which is attacheil on one side of the sad- 
dle, and, passing under the horse's bellv, is secured 
to the other side by a buckle and strap, serving to 
keeyi the saddle in phice. 

Sad'dle-joint. A form of joint for sheet-metal, 
in connertiug adjacent boiling-pans 
or adjoining strijis in rooling. One F'S- 4520 
portion oveilajis and straddles the 
vertical edge of the next. 

Sad'dle-nail. (Saddlery.) A 
short nail having a large, smooth SiuldU-Joint. 
bend, n.-sed iu making saddles. 

Sad'dle-rail. (Railivay Enoineerinq.) A rail- 
way rail which has llanges straddling a longitudinal 
and continuous sleeper. See Rail. 

Sad'dle-reed. (Saddlery.) Small reeds used in 
the place of cord to form the edges of gig-saddle 

Sad'dle-roof. (Building.) A double-gabled 

Sad'dler's Knife. (Saddlery.) A half-round 
knife. The semicirrnlar kuife, .so fandliar as 
a leather knife, is shown in the paintings of F'g 4521. 
ancient Egyjit. ~ 

Sad'dler's Piuch'ers. (Saddlery.) A 
tool somewhat resembling the shoemaker's, 
but heavier, and having straighter grasping 
jaws. It has a lug on its lower side, serving 
as a fulcrum in drawing nails, etc., and 
straining leatlier tightly into jiositioii for 
tacking or stitcliing. ' SnddUr's 

Sad'dler-y and Har'uess. Sce- 





















Breast strap. 

Brea-st-strap harness. 

Breast strap slide. 




Bristle boot. 

Brow band. 






Carbine thimble. 





Cbaff halter. 






Check rein. 

Check-rein hook. 


Chin strap. 

Choke strap. 




Collar- awl. 




Collar block. 


t'ollar fitufflug machine. 


Cross straining. 






Curb bit. , 


Currying glove. 



Dog- muzzle. 

Draw-giige cutter. 






Fore- bow. 

Fore -piece. 

Gag rein. 

O^g- runner. 




Gii tree. 


Groimtl plate. 


II liter. 



1 lame lock. 










Hitching clamp. 

Hold buk 

Hollow punch. 





Hor-e collar. 


Interfering attachment. 






Leaf her- gouge 

Leg and tuot guards for horses. 






Men's harness. 




Neck- yoke. 


Nose band. 

Open link. 

Over check. 

Ox -yoke. 



Pad crimp press. 

Pad for horses. 


Pad -screw. 







Pricking- wheel. 




Itound knife. 








Saddler's knife. 

Saddler's pinchers. 

Saddle. Side 


Saddle-tree harness. 


Safety -rein 

Scalloping tool. 













Single line. 






Snap link. 






Stitch wheel. 



St raining- reel. 









Throwing horses. Apparatus 


Trace- hook. 


Valise saddle. 
Wood-cock eye. 

An Eii-^'lisli sndirer publisln-.s tlip following list of 
artiok's nccdi'd in a stable liy a g.-ntlemau keeping a 
carriage anil one horse : — 

Set of single harness. Pair knee-caps. 

Driving-whip. Set Hannel bandages. 

Carriage-nmta. Set linen bandages. 

Whip-soeket. Exeroisinji-bridle. 

Loin-leather. Hoad-i ullar. 

Suit horse-clothing. Pair h l-collar reins. 

Night-rug Pail- pillar reins. 

Si n gei ng-apparat us . 




Corn -sieve. 











Hemp head and reins. 

Cleaning materials, viz. : — 




Carriage -can dies. 


(Sadiflrn/.) A gen- 








Com position-brush. 


Bass- broom 

Inside carriage-brush, 

Set sluK'-brushes. 




Six rubbers. 

Four leathers. 

Two sponges. 



Pair scissors. 



eral naiin' lor all metallic goods used in making .sad- 
dles and haiiiess. 

Sad'dle-tree. {Saddlery,) a. The frame form- 
ing the supiiort of a saddle ; usually made of wood. 
Tlie parts are secured together hy tenons and mor-, and held in jdace by a covering of canvas or 
wet raw-hide, which is tacked tiglitly and then 
shrunk by drying. 

The tree c<)iisists of a 2)07m)icl, cojitle, two side- 
bam : two sfij-rup-bars are added and iron staples for 
the valise, if requii-ed. 

The kinds are numerous, according to the purpose, taste, or 
fixahion of saddles. We may enumerate — 
Spanish. McClellan. 

Half-Spanish. Somerset. 

English. Jockey, etc. 


The tree is the basis of the saddle, and determines its shape, 
IIS well as to a large extent it>j eRieiency. It is usually of beech, 
sti-engthened by iron plates; the gutlei-plates under the head, 
plates over the head and under the eantle. 

Kelly, 1810, nuide saddle-trees of whalebone lined in part with 

Thompson, 1825, made a saddle- 
tree of steel or iron. iJielefeld, in 
1*>55, one principally of gutta-per- 
cha. Brooinan, 18ij5, of wood and 
leather. Another man. in lS(i;j,one 
of papier mache and horseliair 
combined and molded. 

As a means of making Ruldles 
adjustable to fit different horse.i. a 
Mr. Smith, in 178fi, made the foie 
points of steel springs with gullet- 
plates set out or narrowed by >~et- 
screws. Dunn, in 1791, nuule 
jointed gullet-plates. 

h. The frame of a Immess-sadflh 
or ^i^-safifile. In the exam})le, the 
check-rein hook G is seeured be- 
tween the seat and the tree by means of a lug or projection o 
passing through the leather at the upper surface <if the tree, 
combined with a screw, Hush with the under surface; and an- 
other screw passes through a lip placed at the rear of the tree 
and into a pendant projection, for the purpose of securing the 
rear portion. 

Sad'i-ron. An iron with a fiat face, used for 
smoothing clothes. A 

4522. Saddle- Tree. 

^flat-iron. A smooth- 

Besides the ordi- 
nary laundry-iron are 
many others, heated 
by incandescent eliar- 
coal, by iron-heater, 
by gas, lamp, etc. 

In Fig. 452:5, the 
body of the iron is 
liollowand lias a per- 
forated curved jilate 
supi)orting the fuel. 
The top is formed by 
two plates b c, one of 


rcoai-Hfuled Hoi/iron. 




Fig. 4o24. which serves as a dam- 

per. The products of 
coiiibustion are carried 
off by tlie Hue C. 

In Fij;. 4524, the covpv 
is hinged at the back and 
held sliut by a spiing- 
bolt at the fore end. The 
heater C is re|daced by a 
hut one wheu it becomes 

In Fig. 4525, the hol- 
low iron has an opening 
ibr the admission of a 
gas-burner, the Hame of 
which is directed against the bottom of the iron. An 
elastic tube connects the gas-bracket witli the sadiron. 

rig. 4525. 

Fig. 4527. 

Heater ^diron. 

Gas-Jet Sadiron. 

In Fig. 4520, the iron is perforated longitudinally 
and turned uj) at the forward end, where it has a lid. 
The iron is sn|iported on a stand, so that the chim- 
ney of a coal-oil lamp may occupy the perforation of 
the iron. The window c allows a view of the tianie. 

Lumji-Iifatrd Iron. 

Sad'i-ron Heat'- 

er. 1. A block to be 
made red-hot in a fne 
and placed in a box sadiron. 

2. A device for heating a sadiron, a.s a lamp (Fig. 
4526) or a gas-jet (Fig. 4525). A stool (Fig. 4527) 
for holding a tiat-iron suspended over the fiot-hole 
of a stove. 

3. A heated block (lo\yer part of Fig. 4527) in 
whiih an iron is placed to heat. 

Sad'wet {Ghiss-mahiiiff.) A corruption if .S'«/h/- 
de- venv (Fy. ). The saline scum or alkaline sulphates 
formed on glass-pots. Glass-gall. Sandivcr. 

Safe. ]. A strong ease ibr containing money, 
account-books, and other valuable articles, to guard 
Uiem from the attacks of burglar.s, and generally 
provided with means for protecting them against the 
action of fire. 

Fig. 4528. 

Herring^s Bankers^ Safe. 

Safes are of various kinds for different purposes, 
a.s, — 









^ Steam fire-proof. 




Fig. 4528 is an illustration of a modem form of 
safe, built of wrought-iron, high and low steel weld- 
ed, and franklinite iron. It has hooped boily and 
solid corners, tongued and groo\'ed door with a lever 
hinge. The joints are ])acked with rubber to pre- 
vent the operation of the air-pump, — a. new and 




dangiM-ous resort of burglars in intruiliR-iiig explosives 
at tiie cracks, to blow o[hmi the doors. The view 
shows the outer and inin-r tloor oju-n, and also tiie 
door of the inelosed coin-sate. 

The crown jewels of Scotland were, at the time of the Union, 
in 1707, Uepositeil in au oaken chest. Its Hd was scoured by 
three loirks, which were forced open in 1818. because the keys 
coul'l not anywhere be found, leaving u.s to infer that lock- 
smith:* at leist were not at that time very expert in the mystery 
of [ock-pickin<!:. 

Old muniment, deed, and cash cliests of this kind were 
8tren;;theiK'd by iron bind'*, and {generally elaborately carved. 
They were f istened by several padlocks, or by a multiplicity of 
bolts shot by a single lock ; were formerly considered as secure 
as first-class safes are at present. 

The first eximplcji of metallic safes are coffers, consisting of 
iron frames, covered with sheet-iron, aiid strengthened by hoop- 
iron crossed at right angles on the outside and riveted through. 
These were common during the last century. 

The first Engli-sh patent tor a fire-resisting safe was to Richard 
Scott, in 18JI. It consisted of an inner and outer causing of 
iron or other met;il, between which was an interspace on all 
sides, filled iu with charcoal or wooi treated with a solution of 
alkaline salt. The door was male in a similir way. 

The next wa^ to U'illiam Marr, 1831, who introduced a second 
metallic lining, so as to form two interspaces within the safe, 
the inaencf wliicli was lined with mica or talc, and filled in with 
a non-conducting material. These were known as " double- 
chests," and a variety of non-conducting materials were used 
for filling, — clay, lime, graphite. Asbestus was used in 1834. 

Chubb, 1833, pitented a process of rendering wooden safes 
burglar-proof by lining them with steel or case-hardened iron 
plates, and fire-proofing iron safes by means of several linings, 
the interspices bet.veen which were filled with granulated brick, 
pori-tTr', or ot'.ier slow conductor of heat. 

Milin-r, 184'J, filled the spaces between the linings with an 
absr)rl)cnt material, in wjica were placed vessels cont lining an 
alk.tiiue solution or other liquid which could be vaporized by 
he it, so that in case of fire theie would burst and saturate the 
porous materi il with vapor. 

In 1S43. VViller made a safe of heavy plates of iron, with a 
filling of hydrated gypsum, hydraulic cement, steatite, alum, 
and tlie neutralizL'd and dried residuum of the so-called soda- 
water [ninuficture. 

Lillie u*ed slabs of chilled cast-iron and flowed cast-iron over 
wrou^:it-iron ribs. Herring made safes wita boiler-iron exte- 
rior, harlened steel inner safe, and the interior filled with a 
casting of franklinite around rods of soft steel. 

Tanii, H43, used an outer and an inner metal casing filled in 
wit'a a coaipo-iition of equil quintities of alum and gypsum, or 
Austin'sceaieat; withintheinnercasing wasa wooden iining.'^cp- 
arated from the canng by a spice filled with the same compound 
Slier .vooi, 1S50 to 1854, mentions a safe within a. safe, wiih a 
filling of firebrick, melted alum, and clay. Steam or water, or 
carboiiicJicid gis, injected or evolve I in the safe. Safe in a 
safe, intervening space filieil with water; corners of angle-iron, 
and other points of construction. Safe burns loose (in case of 
fire) and filbt into a protected place. An arrangement of a 
cor)Iing passige around a safe in situ. 

Ne.vton, 1S.J3. formed a burglar-proof safe consisting of an 
exterior shell of cast iron, within which was placed a network 
of wrought-iron rods ; a core wius built within these, and fluid 
iron poured in, filling up that part of the spice between it and 
the shell not occupied by the ro Is ; this became chided by con- 
tact with the surface of the shell. The whole thus formed a 
compound, offering different degrees of resistance, so as 
to turn aside burglar's tools. 

Guiick, 1857. A marine safe, rendered water-proof and hav- 
ing compirtments filled with air or cork, so that it may float 
when overboard, 

Chubb, 1857. Inserting plugs of hardened steel into the iron 
plates of which a safe is made, at short intervals, apart or hack 
of the exterior iron plate, with a corruga?.ed steel plate or strips 
of .ste;;l, so as to prevent drilling into the safe. 

Rhodes, 18J9. Admitting a flow of cold water to circulate 
bet.veen the inner and outer walls of a safe and its door by a 
valve which opens when the temperature reaches 212'^. 

Caatwood, 18 JU. B icking corrugated or indented iron plates 
by pouring in fluid metal beaind tliem, which becomes chilled 
on the face; the hard corrugations or indentations serving to 
break the drill in case drilhng is attempted ; also so aflftxing'the 
lock-chamber that it will partially open to allow the gas to 
escipe if it is attempted to blow the safe open, and then close 

Stocker, 1831. Method of partially converting, piling, and 
rolling bir.^ and plates for safes, so that their outer surfaces 
may have the hardness of steel while the inside retains the 
fibrom nature of iron. 

Chatwood, 18o2. Mode of making safes from "iron-steel," 
compo<ed of .a plate of steel welded in between two of iron, by 
forming ttie top. bottom, and two sides from a single piece, the 
end* being welded or riveteil together; also by casting in one 
piece of liomogeneous or other ductile nietJil :"fire-proofing by 
lining with .vood saturated with solution of sulphate of iron, 

sulphate of copper, alum, etc., and filling in cavity between the 
body and lining with non-conducting substjjiice containing ves- 
sels filled witii sulphurous acid, bisulphide of carbon, or otiicr 
substiince wliich vaporizes at a low temperature; providing 
safety-valves and apertures for carrying olT the gases in 
gunpowder be used, and filling the lock-chanilier with an ab- 
sorbent containing a compound of glycerine and parafline, or 
other substance which hinders the powder from exploding 

Price and Dawes, 18(J3, Uacking wrought-iron outer plates, 
having inward projections, with white cast-iron cither joined 
I inmiediately by pouring or cast separately, and having pieces 
of hard mineral substiince interposed. 

Chubb, 18t)5. Placing the safe door within a recess, and pro- 
viding it with an exterior bar to pi-event its beitig wedged open. 

Thompson, 1895. Recessing the door and providing an in- 
terior Hange, behind which tiie bolts shoot to prevent tlie in- 
troduction of wedges. 

Varley's, 1865, is the first patent for an electro-magnetic 
alarm for safes. The signal is given by means of a bell cau^ed 
to ring when the circuit is broken by moving the safe or open- 
ing its door at an improper hour. 

Tann, 1865, in order to render safes burglar-proof, welds 
bars of iron and steel together, hardens them and rivets them on 
the body of the safe, with or without an interior plate. Also 
fire-proofing with alum and non-conducting materials. 

Hill, 18fi5, and Hodgson, 1865. Sliding doors of peculiai' 
form to resist the operations of burglars. 

Loysel, 1865. A protecting wall, revolving or sliding, is 
placed between inner and outer cylinders or plates; the inner 
one contains the door, to which access is had by pushing atide 
the protecting wall when its bolts are released. 

Parrish, Thatcher, and Glas.scock, 1865. Forming a series of 
dovetiiil projections on the door frame, which fit corresponding 
mortises in the door to prevent its being forced open by wedges. 

Other modifications of this principle, in the form of serra- 
tions or undulations in the door and its casing, have since been 
embraced in various patents. Another method is to form a 
bead around the donr, fitting a groove in the ca.sing. Uesides 
this, various special arrangements have been adopted to prevent 
the entrance of wedges. 

Other methods of combining and arranging metals of different 
degrees of hardness, so a.s to break the drill or turn it aside, 
to render it impossible to drill a continuous hole, have also 
been contrived. 

Billing, 1866. Two hollow spheres, one placed concentrically 
within the other, aeid capable of rotating therein. Each is pro- 
vided with a cylindrical door ; the inner sphere may be made to 
rotate by bevel gearing, or arranged so as to bring its door oppo- 
site that of the outer one in the act of unlocking. Other forms, 
as the ellip.-oid and cjlinder, may be substituted for the sphere. 

Besides the electro-magnetic alarms ot Varley and others, sig- 
nals have been devised to indicate by the sudden extinguish- 
ment of a light if an attempt has been made to open a safe. 

As filling for safes, we meet with tiie following materials The 
numbers of the United States patents are cited for the conven- 
ience of farther reference : — 

8,952. Residuum of soda-water manutacture. 
Soaps tone. 

Tiles, alutn, and clay. 
Alum, pieces of brick, alkali. 
Alumina, sulphates of alumina, and ammonia. 
Coj>peras, gypsum. 
Starch, water, gypsum. 







40,800. ) -, . . . , ^^ , . 

41 521 ( ■'^''^'" *" pieces, imbedded in gypsum. 

46,228. Epsom salts, gypsum. 

Hydraulic cement, sawdust, lime, and sand-mortar. 

Paper-pulp, alum. 

Steam and wat*;r vessels. 

Removable water-vessels between the casings. 

Moistened sponge to dampen powder used for blow- 
ing the 8 ife open. 

Nest of pipes in safe ; fusible plug gives way with 

Vials stopped with fusible alloy and containing sul- 
phuric acid, which rejiches carbonate of.voda and 
carbonate of ammonia, generating carbonic-acid 

Paper-pulp, alum. 

Raw cotton, sawdust, whiting. 
100,632. Asbestus, earths, sucli as cement or gypsum, chemi- 
cal salts, alum. 
101,268. Asbestus, marble-dust, pipe-clay, gypsum, glycer- 
ine, mucilage, sulphnte magne.^ia, sulphate soda, 
borax, alum, sal-soda, paraflfine. 

Safes and vaults using water or steam for protection in rase 
of fire : — 

('.7 154. 





Sjinborn . . . . 






Ashcroft. . . . 

.No. 39.019 I Katonand Ireland. .No. 71288 


Urvant " 79,808 

Bryant *' 79.H(t9 

Bryant " 86,356 

Robertson "101 .(t44 

Putnam " 104,352 

Short " 116,227 




Fig. 4529. 

'Fire- Proof Safe. 

Fig. 4529 shows a safe with exterior and interior 
■walls, with intervening non-couducting tilliug. The 
door is also double. 

Fig. 4530 is a view of Hall's safe, in which, the 

Fig. 4530. 

cial compartment of a fii-e-proof safe, as shown at 
c. Tlie tire-jirooting material is a composition of 
calcined plaster of I'aris and alum, which, on being 

Fig. 4532. 







1 1- 


I— c^ 


Hall Burglar- Proof Safe. 

plates are dovetailed together, and angle-irons are 
tenoned into the corners to make them mutually 
Fie. 4531. Fig. 4531 is a safe 

having hollow walls 
connected with the 
city main. 

Marvin's burglar- 
proof safe (a b. Fig. 
453"2) is of globular 
form, having no ."^a- 
lient points to facili- 
tate the action of a 
tool for opening it. 
It is made of chrome- 
iron, whose extreme renders it 
impervious to the drill, 
and the door, which is 
Fire-Proof Safe wilk Waler-Jacket. CnnicSLl and of Cast- 
steel, is accurately 
fitted to its opening. It may be simply mounted 
on a platform with rollers, or fitted within a spe- 

a 6 c, Morfin'5 Spherical Safe; li, Coin-Safe^ 

heated, gives up its water of crystallization ; this is 
converted into steam, which prevents access of fire 
to the interior. 

The portable coin-safe (d, Fig. 4532) is of cast- 
iron, and opens in the middle like a portmanteau. 
The two halves are secured together by screws tr n, 
and have depressions b b to receive seals. The 
inside has a series of rarks c e, which may be of 
difi'erent sizes to suit ditferent coins. 

2. A ventilated receptacle for meat and other 

Safes for meat, etc., have a wooden frame cov- 
ered with wire ganze or )iciforated sheet-metal 
(usually tin-plate), to permit a free circulation of 
air but prevent the entrance of insects. If the 
latter material be emjiloyed, the ]ierforations are 
made by a number of dies set in a press and so 
arranged as to form lines and geometrical figures 
by turning the sheet on its supporting block or 

3. (SaiidJenj.) Apiece of leather placed un- 
der a buckle, to prevent it from chafing. 

4. A smooth edge to a file. 
Safe-a-larm'. An alarm-lock, or other contri- 
vance, to notify a watchman or the police of the 
tampering with a safe. Alarms foi' this purpose are 
usually electro-magnetic, but are also operated by 
the escape of a body of water or of air confined 
within the outer shell of the safe. 

Safe-edge File. One having a smooth edge, 
which does not cut a surface against which it im- 

Safe-guard. 1. (Hailirai/ Eiigiiivcring.) a. A 
rail-i/uanl at a switch or crossing. 

b. A contrivance attached to a locomotive for 
throwing stones and otlier obstructions oil' the track. 

2. (.P.ijirr.') See S.^ff.ty-paper. 

Safe-lock. A comidex lock for a safe. See 
list uiiiler L'TK. 

Safe'ty-arch. (ArchUecture.) One placed in a 
wall to receive a weight of superincumbent niasoniy 
and relieve a transom or beam. A discharging 

Safe'ty-beam. (Hailu-ay.) A beam in some 
forms of railway car-tnicks which has stra]is to catch 
ou iu case of breakage. A similar duty is performed 





by the salety -stirrups s v in Fig. 1159, page 

Safe'ty-belt. A ln-lt witli c(]ik liniii-i:;, or iiiaUe 
of iutlatabie material, iisetl to keep a per.'ioli from 
sinking' beneath the surfaee of the water. A lifc- 

Safe'ty-bri'dle. (Saddlery.) A briille designed 
to alVoril the means 
of pronjptly elu'ck- 
ing hoisrs in tlie 
event of tlieir at- 
tempting to run 

In the example, 
the hit-ring /''is sus- 
pended on each side 
from a ring D on 
the cheek-strap by 
a running-strap G, 
whicli is connected 
]iriniarily to the l>it- 
ring, passes up and 
througli the check- 
ring ; the running- 
strap is then carried 
down through the hit-ring and connected to a safety- 
rein /; tile latter is also connected to tile gag-rein, 
so that pulling ujion the safcty-i'cin shortens uv the 
gag-rein A', and at the same time diaws up th- bit 
toward the ring on tint cheek-strap. .See liumLE. 

Safe'ty-buoy. \ float to be attached to the per- 
son to prrvi'iit ilrowning. 

Safe'ty-cage. A hoisting and lowering chamber 
for mines, having guards wdiich arrest the descent if 
the ropc! break or overwind. See Cage ; RoI'E-klb- 

VATcll: ; .'^AFETV-STOP, etc. 

Safe'ty-car. 1. A marine car adapted to be 
drawn ashore on a hawser connecting a stranded ves- 
sel with Tiic land. See Life-car, Fig, 2!i27 

2. A hoisting cage with stops to arre-st its fall if 
the rope hieak. See Cage ; SAFETY-sroi>. 

Safe'ty-chain. (Riiilwii.ii.) A shndc chain 
which attaclics a truck to a ear-body ami limits the 
e.\cnisions of the former as it slues round. 

Safe'ty-fun'nel. A glass funnel with a long 
neck for iiitroducing acids, etc., into liipiids contained 
in bottles (jr retorts, ami under a pressure of gas. 

Safe'ty-fuse. A water-proof tube, ribbon, or tape 
containing an iullammable composition for ignitin" 
a blasting-cartridge. The i;omposition has a regular 
rate of burning, say two or three feet in a minute, 
allowing the miners or quarrymeu time to reach a 
]ilaee of safety previous to the explosion. In some 
cases, however, a mticli more rapidly bnniing com- 
position is employed, a nua'h greater length of fuse 
being used, and tire being ronnnunicated at the spot 
whrre the nien have taken refuge. 

Safe'ty-guard. (Ihiilinni Enciivcerinri.) An 
axle-guard to keep the car-wheels on a track at a 

Safe'ty-hoist. 1. A hoisting-gen r on 
t\w dilferciitial-pnllcy principle, which will 
not allow the load io descend by the run. 
See Sack-iioist. 

2. .V catch to prevent the fall of a cage 
when a rope breaks. See Fig. 4539. 

Safe'ty-hook. .\ device to prevent a 
watch from being detached from its chain 
L by accident oi' by a smlden jerk. In the 
I ligure, this is ell'e('ted by screw'ing down the 
nut li against the shoulder n ; this prevents 
the tongue i from . turning open on its 


Fi|». 4531. 

Safe'ty-lamp. A lamp surroundcil by a cylin- 
der of wire gauze, invented about IblS by ISir Huni- 
[diry Davy, to obviate the danger of tire-damp ex]ilo- 
sions in mines. A similar contrivance was, about 
the same time, invented by the elder Stephenson. 

Davy, after numerous experinuMits upon the 
pa.ssage of Ihune through narrow apertures, found 
that wire gauze of suHicient linenes-s acted as a com- 
plete barrier to its transmission, and that the gas in 
question could not be exploded unless absolutely in 
contact with the flame. 

The principle may be readily demonstrated by 
lioldiug a sheet of wire gau/.c above a fl.ame and 
bringing it down gradually till it divides the cone 
of intlammable vapor ami matter by a horizontal sec- 
tion. That w hich is below the gauze will continue 
to burn, but that above may be blown out anil relit ; 
but the llame will not communicate through the 
gauze to the vapors above. 

Sir Humphry Davy gave some ofl'ense to the fac- 
ulty, who ccuild not keep nji with his discoveries, 
and especially a patriarch in Aberdeen, who ignored 
Davy's researches lor some years. The discovery of 
potassium was so paljiabht a hit that the sage had to 
relax the quarantine, and announced : "Gentlemen, 
both potash and .soda are now said to be metallic 
oxides ; the oxiiles, in fac't, <jf two nu'tals, called 
pota.ssium and sodium by the discoverer of them, — 
one Davy, in London, — a verra troublesome person 
in chymistri/." 

Davy's lamp (n), sent to the mines for experi- 
mental, has 74S apertures to the square inch, 
the wire being -/„- of an inch in diameter. The cage 
or cylinder has double joinings, the gauze being 
lapyied over at that point. The jiarts are fastened 
by hard solder. The limit of .size is 2 inches in di- 
ameter ; that of the meshes j',! of an inch. The num- 
ber of meshes was subseipiently increased by Dr. 
Clanny, who also made other improvements in the 
lamp, to 1,290 per square inch. 

In Mupselor's safety-lamp, a part of the metallic eoT- 
ering which surrounds the tiaiiie aod fnnus the chimney is re- 
placed by glass, atVordiiifr more light than that yielded by the 
Davy lamp. The air for supporfing combustion is admitted 
from above through two wire gauze diaphragms at right angles 
to each other. 

Eloin's lamp, also Belgian, has a concave glass at its lower 
part, to thsper^e the rays of light 

Messrs. Liaute and Denoyel, students in L'Ecole Polytcch- 
nique, of Pari>, have devised a lamp in which tiie gas necessary 
to support combustion is generated in the lamp itself In an 
experiment made at Paris, one of the lamps was burned for 
three quarters of an hour eight feet under water, and when 
drawn up was burning as brightly as at first. 

a represents the first Davy safety lamp, in which a wire cyl- 

Fig. 4535. 


inder was placed as casing over the flame. It is now in the 
possession of the Hnyal Socii'ty. 

f', English lamp. The light inclosed in a glass cylinder, the 
upper end of which is prntcffcd by wire gauze. 

c. Knglish lamp. The gauze cylinder protected. 




d, French lamp, Mucseler's. Glass and gauze cylinders. 

e, petroleum lamp, liliis? and gauze. 
See also Photo-electric Lamp. 

Safe'ty-lock. 1. {Lock.) A lock so contrived 
as not tu be opened by a picklock or without the 
proper key. See Lock. 

2. {Firc-ai-ms.) One provided with a stop or 
catch to prevent iiceiilental discharge. 

Safe'ty-pa'per. A p^iper chemically or mechani 
cally prepared 

changed by being tampered with ; or a paj)er so 
difficult of production as to give an additional meas- 
ure of safety. 

Of safe t}*^- papers there are several kinds : — 

1. Paper made witli distinguisliing marks to indi- 
cate proprietorship, as with the Bank of finghind 
water-mark, to imitate which is felony. Or the 
paper of the United States currency, which has silk 
libers united with the pulp, the imitation of which 
is felony. 

2. Paper made with layers or materials which are 
disturbed by erasure or chemical discharge of written 
or printed contents, so as to prevent fraudulent 

3. Paper made of pecidiar materials or color, to 
prevent copying by photographic means. 

A number of processes may be cited : — 

One kind is made of a pulp tinged with a stain easily affected 
by chlorine, acids, or alkalies, and is made into sheets as usual. 

Water-marks made by wires twined among the meshes of the 
wire cloth on which the paper is made See Wat^r-m \rr. 

Threads embodied in tlie web of the paper. Colorcil threads 
systematically arranged were formerly used in EnglauJ fc»r pn^i- 
oflire envelopes and exchequer bills. 

Silken fibers mixed with the pulp or dusted upon it in pro- 
cess of formation ; as useJ in the United States paper currency. 

Tigere, 181". Treating the pulp or the paper, previous to 
Bizing, with solution of prus- 
siate of potash. 

SirWm. Congreve,lS19. A 
colored layer of pulp in com- 
bination with white layers. 

Printing upon one sheet 
and covering with an outer 
layer plain or water-marked. 

(.ilynn and Appel, 1S21. 
Mixing a copper s>tlt in the 
pu.p and aher^vard adling 
an alkili or alkaline salt to 
produce acopious precipitate. 
The pulp is then washed, 
m lie into piper and dipped in 
a sapnnai'eous co:npound. 

Stevenson, 1S3T. Incor- 
porating into paper a metallic ba^«e, as manganese, and a neu- 
tral compound, as prussiate of potash, to protect writing from 
being tamperej with. 

Varnh un, 1815. A paper consisting of a white sheet or sur- 
face on one or both sides of a colored sheet. 

Stones, 1851. An ioJide or bromide i.i connection with fejro- 
cyanide of pota'^^ium and starch are combined with the pulp. 

Johnson, 18>3. Employing the rough and irregular surface 
produced by the fracture of cast-iron or other brittle metal to 
form a water-mark for paper by taking an impression there- 
from on soft metal, gutta-percha, etc., and aft:erw.ird transfer- 
ring it to the wire cioth on wliich the piper is made. 

Scoutteten, 1353. Treating piper with caoutchouc dissolved 
in bisulphide of Girbon, to render it impermeable and to pre- 
vent erasures or chemical action. 

Ross, 1854. Water-linin_ 
the note in colors while the pulp is yet soft 

Evans, 1854 Embodying a lace or open-work fabric in the 
pulp when making. 

Courboulay. 1S5*). Mixing in the pulp, or applying to the 
paper salts of iodine or hromine- 

Loubatieres, 1857. Manufacturing paper in layers, any or 
all of which might be colored, or have impressions or con- 
spicuous marks for preventing forgery. 

Herapath, 185S. Imbuing paper during or after its manufac- 
ture with a solution of a ferrocyanide, a ferrid-cyanide, or sul- 
pho-cyanide of potassium, sodium, or ammonium. 

Seyd auit Brewer, 1S5S. Applying aqueous solution of ferro- 
cyanide of potas-sium or other .salt, which forms an indelible 
compound with the ferruginous base of writing-ink 

Spirre, 18o9. Opaque matter, such as Prussian blue, white 
or red lead, insoluble in water, is stenciled on one layer of the 
paper web, forming a regular pattern ; this is then covered by 
a second layer of paper. 


Moss, 1859. Coloring-matter prepared from burned china or 
otiier clay, oxide of chromium or sulphur, is combined with the 

Barclay, 1859. Incorporating with the paper, 1. soluble ferro- 
eyauides, ferrid-cyauides, and sulpho-cyauides of various metals, 
or forming dibasic salts with potassium, sodium, or ammonium, 
in conjunctiou with vegetable, animal, or metallic coloring-mat- 

2. Salts of manganese, lead, or nickel not containing ferro- 

,...w.^.^ ». .,. ..-^^. ..*,., ^' t'^rrocyanides, etc, of potassium, sodium, and amnioni- 

Vi V r"i--' -—•"—""J v. ..-^^...*... j ^^ . ^.Qnjmjction with insoluble salts of manganese, lead, or 
that Its color or texture will be njckel. b . . "^ 

4. Insoluble ferro- or ferrid- cyanide of manganese, or soluble 
sulpho-cyanide of manganese alone, or forming double salt3 
with potassii^i, sodium, or ammonium. 

Hooper, 1S(>0. Oxides of iron, either alone or dissolved in an 
acid, are mixed with the pulp. 

Nissen, 1860. Treating paper with a preparation of iron, to- 
gether with ammonia, prussiate of pota^^h and chlorine, while 
in the pulp or being sized- 

Middleton,1860. One portion of a bank-note is printed upon 
one sheet of thin paper and the other part on another; the two 
are then cemented together by india-rubber, gulta-percha, or 
Other compound. The interior printing is seen through its cov- 
ering sheet, so that the whole device on the note appears on its 

Olier, 186K Several layers of paper of various materials and 
colors are employed ; the middle one may be colored with a 
deleble dye, whose color will be changed by the application of 
chemicals to the outer layer. 

Olier, 1863. A paper of three layers of difft^•ent thicknesses, 
the central one having an easily removable color, and the exter- 
nal layers charged with silicateofmagnc-ia or other .salt. 

Forster and Draper, 1804 Treating paper during or after its 
manufacture with artificial ultramarine and Prussian blue or 
other metallic compound. 

Besides these, are numerous devices for preventing copying 
by piiotographic means, certain colors l)eing employed in parts 
of the genuine note which are not capable of giving a photo- 
graphic image with the distinctness required. 

In a paper made by the apparatus shown in Fig. 4530, threads 
of rublx-r or gutta-percha from the roll H are iuserted ijetweea 
the two layers of the double web, formed by the making cylin- 
ders B D D^ compacted by the press-rolls E E, and solteued 

fig. 4536. 


2. A device to pre- 
vent barrels from 
bursting by the expan- 
or printing the denomination of! sion of their contents, 


Saftty-Paptr Machine. 

and united to the paper fiber on passing through the heated 
drying-cylinders F F. 

Safe'ty-plug. 1, {Steam-boiler.) A btilt hav- 
ing the centtT tilled witli a fusible metal and screwed 
into the top of the fire-box, so tliat the metal may 
melt out when the tt-mperature of the inside of the 
boiler reaches a certain 

Fig. 4537. 

or gases 


It consists of a hol- 
low metallic screw- 
phig, haWng a valve, 
which is supported 
against its seat by an 
adj ustable spring of 
india-rubber, or other 
ela-stic material, which 
will yield when the 
pri'S.sure in the vessel from any cause exceeds a cer- 
tain limit. 

Safe 'ty -rail. {lUiilway Eaginecritig.) A guard- 

Safrtf- Plug for Barrels. 




rail at a switi-Ii to licai- against tlie inside edge ol' a 
wlii'i'l-lliuif!!' to kta'[i the tivad on tlie ((■((cA'-iail. 

Safe'ty-ra'zor. A razor liaving guards at each 
side of Ihe cilgi' to prevent nervous and inlirni jier- 
sons troni aiTidentally cutting tlicnisclves in sliaving. 
See liA/.oi;. 

Safe'ty-rein. (Saddler;/.) A rein to be used 
in case the liorse iittc^inpts to run away. It usually 
has a special of some kind intended to draw 
the hit violently into the angles of the mouth ; to 
throw a blind over the eyes ; to draw a choking- 
strap around tlie throat, etc., etc. 

In the e.\am[)le, the gag-rein passes through a 
loop above the bit-ring, and is connected to the 
cheek-piece by the brow hand. It is also connected 
by cross strap to the driving-rein, which has a 

Fig. 4541. 


spring section next the bit. The driving and gag- 
reins e.\ert their usual functions until the horse is 
restive, when severe draft on the driving-rein 
stretches the elastic section aiul transfers the ])o\ver 
to the gag, which draws the bit into the angle of 
tlie mouth. 

Safe'ty-stop. {Hoisling-machim.) Provision 
is made in hoisting-machines whi<'h are hoisted by 
a rope for being automatically stopiied when the 
I'ope breaks. 

Otis"s apparatus for tliis purpose (Fig. 45.30) consists of a pair 
of pawls wliich engage 

Fig. 4539. 


ratcliet teeth in tlie bars 
attactieU to ttle uprights on 
the side of the sliaft. The 
pawls are held out of en- 
gagcuiGiit with the racks 
so long as the weight of 
the platform is .suspended 
from the rope, hut if the 
rope break the spring comes 
into action and depresses 
the elbow levers, which 
force out the pawls and 
prevent the farther descent 
of the platform. SeellOPE- 

In Fig. 4540, the rubher 

, ^ springs A' A', in case the 

V rope break.s, draw down 
^ — ' th» 

the inner ends of the arms 
A A, forcing their beveled 
outer ends into a rack on the guides G G. 

Fig. 4540. 

In Fig 4541, the press- 
ure of the elliptic spring 
L against the levers jV jV 
is relieved sutticiently to 
allow them to clear the 
notches in the guides 
T r so long as the hoist- 
ing-rope is kept tense by 
the weight of the cage ; 
but in case of breakage 
the spring acts to force 
out two sliding catch- 
bolts into the notches, 
preventing farther de- 

2. (Fire-arms.) A 
device to prevent the 
accidental discharge 
of a gun. In Fig. 
4542, a flat spring 
catches against the 
rear of the hammer 
and locks it against 
the nipple ; when 
the spring is pressed 
against the stuck, the 
hammer is free to be cocked. 

3. A device on a pulley or sheave, to keep it from 
running backward. 

4. .\ stop-motion in a spinning-maehine, knitting- 
machine, loom, etc., which arrests the motion in 

Fig. 4542. 

Miller's Sa/tlij-Stop. 

Safettj- Stop for Elevators. 

Safety- Stop for Gitn-Locks. 

case of the breakage of a sliver, yarn, or thread, as 
the case may be. 

Safe'ty-strap. (Saddler;/.) An extra back 
band over the seat of a gig-saddle, having 
holes through which the terrets jiass to keep it iu 
position, the ends being buckled to the .shait-tug ; 
used as a safeguard on light trotting harness. 

Safe'ty-switch. (JiaiUca;/.) A switch which 
returns automatically to its normal position after 
having been moved to let a train on to or oU' of a 

Safe'ty-tube. A tube used in chemical opera- 
tions to ]irevent the bursting of a vessel from the 
sudden disengagement of gases, accession of air, or 
the niingling of lluids in vessels connected together. 

Safe'ty -valve. (Sleatn-cnginc.) A valve which 
automat iially opens to permit steam to escape or air 
to enter the boiler in order to prevent its explosion 
or coUajise. 

Interval. Opens to the inner side when the press- 
ure of steam is less than a given weight. 

E.elernal. Opens to the outside when the pressure 
of steaiu is greater than a given weight. 

The latter is more important, and is an indi.>ipen- 
sable attachment to ('\-ery boiler. It I'onsists com- 
monly of a lever of the third class pivoted at one end ; 
the valve, which is on a stem projecting from the 
lower side of the lever, is conical, and lits into a cor- 
lesponding seat. The lever has notehcs for receiving 
the hook or loop of a weight which is susjiended 




therefrom, and may be moved from one notch to 
another, like the weight of a steelyard, so that a 
gi-eater or lese- amount of steam |iressure may be re- 
quired to lift the valve from its seat. 

The safety-valve is also used with boilers of va- 
rious kinds, air and gas engines, i)roving-[iuinps, 

Locomotive-engines have two valves placed on 
thi.: boiler for the escape of stt-am when it exceeds 
certain Uniits. One of them is placed beyond iht; 
control of the engineer, and is called the lock-up 
valve. The othei" is regulated by a lever and spring- 
balance at a little lower pressure than the lock-up 

It was invented by Papiu, 1695, and was origi- 
nally applied to his dlgi^Mcr. 

XjFig. 4543, shows Papia's safety-valye in connection with 
his engine for raising water, a is the valve, which is a conical 
stopper, representing the power in a lever of the third kinil, 
weighted at 6, lilted by the valve when the steam pres^siire iu 

the boiler c exceeds a fixed limit. For raising water by this 
machine, a vacuum was produced over the Heat d in the cham- 
ber e, causing the water to rise through the induction-pipe f 
and fill the chamber; on turning the cot k g-, steam was admitted 
above the float, forcing the water out through the discharge-pipe 
/(, the cock I being opened for that purpose. Au air-chamber k 
made the discharge continuous. 

B, safety-valve for high-pressure boilers The weight is re- 
placed by a spiral spring whose tension is adjusted by a thumb- 

C, French safety-valve. The lever has two equal arms, hav- 
ing weights traversing on rollers; when the pressure reaches 
the fixed limit, the weights roll down the tilted lever, leaving 
the valve opening free until they are rephiced. 

/), common safety-valve with graduated lever, on which the 
weight may be set at any required number of pounds' pressure. 

E, the valve is held to its seat by bent springs. 

F, a series of removable perforated weights on the valve- 
spindle are employed. 

G, the weight is attached to a stem projecting downwardly 
into the boiler. 

H, Nlmmo's valve for steamboat boilera ; a modification of 
the above. 

/, A', valve used by Mr. Southern in his experiments on high- 
pressure steam ; the first iu closed, the second in open position. 

In the conditions of competition for the £500 prize for the 
best locomotive-engine, offL-red by the Liverpool and Manches- 
ter Railway Company, and won by Stephenson's " Xtocket," it 
was stated that one of the 

Safety. Valves. 

safe t}"- valves should be *' locked 
up." See also Loce-up S.afety- 


A British form of the lock-up 
safety-valve, which is inacces- 
sible to the engineer, except to 
lift it to ascertain that it is not 
set fast, is shown in the illus- 
tration (Fig. 4544). 

Fig. 4.S45 shows two other 
forms of safety- valves forsteam- 
boilers ; one from Burch'.-^ wnrk 
on " Steam -Boilers " ; the lower 
one is Cameron's valve. 

In Fig. 4546, the lever and 

Fig. 4644. 

Loc/l-up Saffty-Yalve, 

weight are toothed on their under surfaces, engngnig the teeth. 

of aspur-wheel, to whose 

axis an index is attached Fig. 4545. 

which indicates on a dial ^^ _ 

the steam pressure at 

which the saiety-vaive 

is set. 

Fig. 4547 is a safety- 
valve, or blow-off valve ; 
operated in the latter 
case by a stem passing 
through a stuffing-box 
in the front ofthe boiler. 

Le'ver. {SUa/n- 
cnghic.) The lever 
to which is attached 
the weight or spring 
that controls the 
opening of the safe- 
ty-valve. In loco- 
motive-engines, it is 
fixed at one end to a 
stud and rests on the 
valve at a short dis- 
tance from this stud. 
Its length is proper- Safety- Valves. 

tioned to the area of 
the valve, and a spring-balance indicates the pressure 

Fig. 4547. 

Safety- Valve. 




Fig. 4647. 


iliq^^ iiiuw-(i/r Va 

in poumls per 
siiuare inch on 
till' btiiler above 
ii t III OS p he ric 

Saf fi-an. 
[Lfttt kcr .) A 
(lyi'tl leather 
iiiaduat Astnu'au 
^P ami other }Kirts 
of A.siatio Hiis- 
sia. The skins 
of bucks ami 
goats are used 
for the purpose, 
and the colors 
used are retl ami yellow. The articles used in its 
preparation are liine, do<;'s duuf^, and bran. Honey 
is used alter the bran. After three days' feruienta- 
tion. tlie skin is salted and dried. The skin is then 
dyed, and tanned with sumach. The red color is 
given by eociiineal and iricoidc.% an alkaline plant 
growing plentifully on the Tartarian salt deserts. 
The color is tinislied with alum. For the iinest 
qualities, sorrel is added in the cochineal bath, and 
the tanniui^ is done by galls. The roughness is 
given by a in'avy iron rake with lilunt ])oints. 

Sag. 1. The liending downward of the middle of a 
beam or other object supported at both ends. Some- 
times beams are i'raiued with a slight ccunbcr^ which 
neutralizes tlie stvj. 

Hof/ginij is the depression of the ends when sup- 
ported in the midtUe. See Hog-fkamk. 

2. The movement of a shi[» when making consid- 
erable Irr.-waif. It is the opi)osite of hulUing a good 
wind, or bi-aring up well to windward, 

Sag'a-thy. {Fabric.) A mixed fabric of silk 
an<l cotton. 

Sag'ger. (Porcelain.) Saggers for earthenware 
liold a pile of ware in the biscuit or white condition, 
but ehimi and line porcelain articles are contained 
separately in small sttijfjcrs called sctt^^rs^ which are of 
a shape to suit tlu' article. They are reared iu bnntjs 
in the hiln where they are fired. Saggar ; seggar. 
See Seggau. 

Clay for making pots to be used as saggers. 
Sag'ging. {X'tnticul.) A term the reverse of 
hugging. Ap[)lied to a ship when tiie middle por- 
tion of tlii^ keirl and bottom arch downward. 

Sa-git'ta. {Masonrg.) a. The keystone of anarch. 
b. The versed sine of an arch ; from the resem- 
blance of an arrow standing upright on the string of 
a bow. 

Sa'go-mak'ing. Sago is a variety of stan-h pre- 
parctl fmiii the pith of palms behmging to the ^'enus 
sitgics, and emi)loytrd in various culinary preparations, 
particularly for invalids. 

At the proper age, the sago-palm is cut down, the wood being 
a mere shell around a most iiliuiidmit pith. A strip of the burk 
and j*hell of the trunk is rcnioveil, and the interior pnlp bejiten 
up with stone hammers until only a trough about half an inch 
thick is left. Tlie pulp is then taken in ba.'ikets made of Kigo- 
palm leaves, and wa.shed in tnxighs nuule fnun the trunks of 
the tree, strained throuj^li sieves made from the filx-r and allowed 
to settle, this part of the proceiw resonihliug the iiiannfactiire 
of stareh. When a sufficient quantity has been olitaiiied, it in 
made into thirty-pound rolls, wrapfied in sago leavt-s, uud is 
rt-ady for market under the name of raw sago. By tlic .Malays 
this farina is broken, up into powder and dried in the sun. Tliis 
is baked in shapes in an oven. The cakes are dried iu the sun, 
tied in bundles, and packed away. They are eateu dry, wet, 
toasted, or boiled like rice. 

Sa'ic. ( J'cssrI. ) A Levantine vessel like a 
ketch, but without top-gallant sail or niizzen-toj)- 

Sail. A canvas clotli spread to catch the wind. 

1. (XaiUicai.) It is supported by the masts, spai's, 
or stays of a vessel. 

2. The propelling sheet of a wind-driven caiTiage. 

3. Tile clothing on the radial arms of a windmill. 

4. A funnel-shaped bag on the deck of a vessel to 
intercept or gather air and lead it below deck^for the 
purpose of ventilation. A n-ind'Sail. 

The Greek tradition that L)?edalus, the Athenian, 
1240 B. c, tirst contrived sails, is disproved by the 
expeditions of the Phcenicians around the Mediter- 
ranean i)revious to that time, by the fart that the 
Nile had been for over 1,000 year.^ the great liigh- 
way of Kgyjit, and the rivers of China for an eipial or 
greater jieriod had run through a well-peopled country. 

*' Sails come from Egypt, and this paper too." 

Ubrmippcs : quoted i)y ATHi:N.EUS, a. d 220. 

The Veneti, a tribe of the Belga?, had leathern sails managed 
by chains. The Romans tore them by scythes on the ends of 
long poles. — Str.\bo. 

Sails take their names from the mast, yard, or 
stay on which they are stretched. Some of the 
names indicate relative elevation : — 

Foretopmast-stiysait . 
Main-skysail, etc., etc. 
See Fig 4549. 

They also differ in their mo<le of extension : — 

A square sail is extended hy a yard or bno77i (see Fig 4'4S) 
A. fore-and-aft sail is extended by a ^njf\ stay, April, or i/rtrd. 

Names indicative of form ; — 


Square sail, 
L;i teen-sail. 

Shoulder-of-mutton sail, etc 

Sjieeific names of vai-ious derivations : — 


Sky .sail. 






Names derived from normal position : — 

Fore-and-aft sail. 


Hy position before or abaft the center of effort of 
the vessel : — 



The Sfjnare sails are: courses, topsails, top'gallantsails, roy- 
als, and skifsails, on each mast. Lu^ and ituddins sails are 
also enumerated among the square sails. 

Ihe fore'aiul-aft sails are: staysails, trysails, jibs, drivers^ 
spatiker.s, gnj/'topiails ; and in sloops, cutters, and schooners, 
the main and fore sails, and frequently the topsails. 

TVysails arc bent to small spars abaft the lower masts. That 
of the niizzen is called the spanker. 

Siaysai/s arc those hoisted on the stays of the masts. The 
/(trttoiii/i'tsi-stai/snil. Jib, Jlying-jib, a.ud jib-of-jib are of this 
kind. Suiitf jibs do not run on a stay. See Cutter. 

Tlie courses are the sails sustiiined by the lower masts, as the 
forisail, -inainsnil, and spanker. 

The parts and accessories of a sail are: — 

Hrad ; the upper edge. 

Foot ; the lower edge. 

Leech: the vertieal edge. The weather-leech is the luff. The 
lee-leech is the atter-Xcvah 

Clew : one of the lower corners of a square sail ; the lower 
after-corner of a fore-and-aft sail. 

Tnrk : the lower weather-corner of a square sail ; the lower 
forward corner of a fore-and-aft sjiil. 

Bunt : the middle part of a sail, vertically. 

Bolt-rope : .sewed round the edges of .1 SJiil ; it is called the 
head, f'fiot, or Irerh rope, according to position. 

Earing : the upper corner of a squan* sail. 

The depth of a sail is from the head-rope to the foot-rope of a 
square sail : the length of the after-leech of a fore-and-«ft sail. 

Tabling ; an additional thickness of canvas on the ropid side 
of a .»iail. 

Reef-band; a strengthening band across the sail at the eyelet- 
holes for the reef-points. 

B erf -paints ; tJipering pieces of braided cordage called sentiit, 
which pass through the eyelets and bang down an cfjual dis- 
tJincc before ami abaft the sjiil. The length is such as to enable 
them to reach twice round tlie yard. 

Reef-line: a substitute for reef-pnints, consisting of a rope 
rove through the eyelets of a reef-baud and over the yard. 




Reff-tackh ; a purchase by which the reef-rringles on the 
leech of the s;iil are hauleJ up to the yard in reetiu}^. 

Bethj-buH'S : a strengthening band of canvas running: horizon- 
tally niid'.vay between the lowest reef-baud and tin* foot of the sail. 

Bunlline-ciolhs ; bands of canvas ruuuing up aud down fi'om 
the belly-band to the foot of tlie sail. 

Rerf-iackle patch: a strengthening piece 
of canvas at the reef-cringle on the leech of 
a sail. 

Top-tin m? ; a patch on the lower part of 
a topsail where it chafes on the lup of a 
lower mast. 

Cringle ; a loop on the leech of a sail to 
which the reef-tackles are attached. The 
head-cringle is a loop ou the upper corner 
of a sail by which it is lashed to the heatl- 
earins; strops on the yard-arms. 

The hea/I-rope of the sail is secured to the 
jarkstay on the yard by robands passing 
through eyelet-holes. 

The roarh of the sail is the concave curve 
of the foot. 

A save-all is a piece which fills up the 
roach when required. 

For the ropes to operate yards, sails, etc., 


A sail is — 

Bmt ; that is, fastened to its yard or other 
spai;; or 

Unb-nt : cast loose therefrom. 

FurU'I : drawn up to the yard or spar and 
secured by gaskets. 

Reefed: reduced in area by tying up a t, 
portion of theybof or of the ktad, as the case 
may be. 

Atrip : hoisted and sheeted home ready for 

Tt imined ; when the yards are braced up 
in the most advantageous position to catch 
the wind. 

To set sail ; to expand it on its yard or stay. 

To 7nake sail is to spread all or a part of the sails or shake out 
the reefs. 

To shorten sail is to furl, reef, or clew a part of the sails. 

To strike sail is to lower it sudJeuly by letting run the hal- 

To lonsen sail ; to shake it from the yard to dry. 

To bark sail : to handle the sail so as to catch the wind in a 
direction to force the ship astern. 

To hand sail is to furl it. 

To brace a sail is to move it by bracing the yards; to brace 
about is to brace them in a contrary direction ; to brace in i^ to 
haul in the weather-braces; to brare up is to haul in the lee- 

To brail is to haul up the foot and leeches of a sail by its brails. 

To Jilt is to brace the yards so that the wind will act upon the 
after surface of the .siijls. 

To settle down a sail is to lower it to the cap handsomely. 

Square sails are worked by the motions of the yards which are 
effected by those parts of the running-rigging known as 

Fis 4548. 

Frigate under Full Sail. 



The ropes especially devoted to the sails are the 




Canvas or sail-cloth ismade in grades of quality and strength. 
Of the latter it is Nos. 1 to 8. The first number is the sti-on- 
gest, and is used for storm-sails ; No. 8 for small sails and stud- 
din gsai Is. 

The seams of the cloth in a square sail are vertical. In a 
fore-and-aft sail they are parallel with the after-/fac/i. 

In Cowan's patent (English) the seams are horizontal. 

The seams have also been made diagonal, with no improved 
effect, but rather otherwise 

Some of the terms employed by sail-niakera are, — 

Seaming; sewing the breadths together. 

Goring: cutting out the wedge-shaped pieces where the sail 

Tabling ; putting on the strengthening strips around the 
edge, where the cringles are inserted 

Sowing on the reef, bellfi, lining, and buntUne bands. 

Roping ; sewing on the bnll-mpe. 

Marling on the clews and foot-rope. 

Many attempts have been made to avoid the necessity of going 
aloft to set or furl sail's, which is a dangerous duty, especially in 
stormy and wintry weather. 

Cunningham's patent (English) is for a yard, rotated by ropes 
from the deck, so a< to wind on or unwind the sail in furling or 
setting. The plan involves a vertical division of the sail, and 
has not been genoral'y adopted. 

Fig. 454S is a course or lower square-sail. 

main- topsail. 

', niaiu-top-gallant-studding 

, maiu-royal-^tuddingsails. 

in, foresail. 

n , fore-studdingsail. 

o, foretopsail. 

p, foreto|imtist-«tuddingsail. 

9, forc-t op-gal I ant sail 

r, fore-top-gallant-studding- 

.«, fore-royal. 
t, fpi-p-royal-studdingsail. 
I', jib. 
V, flying-jib. 

Sail-cloth. iFubric.) A canvas for sails, made 
of Hax, lu'mp, cotton, or jute. In thii-kness, and 
consequent weight, it varies from 22 to 44 pounds 
per bolt of 3S yards, 24 inches wide. 

Sail-clutch. An iron hand fastening a sail ; a 
substitute for hoops or hashing. 

Sail-hook. {Xa<(ticaL) A small hook for hold- 
ing the sail-cloth while sewing. 

Sail-hoop. {Nautical.) The wooden rings by 
which fore-and-aft sails are secured to masts anil 

Sail'ing-car'riage. A wheeled vehicle propelled 
by sailis. Such appear to have been used by the 
Chinese, and at the present day a kind of sled pro- 
vided with sails is sometimes met with on our north- 
ern rivers. They are capable of great sjieed. See 
IcR-i^(»AT ; Kite. 

Sail-loft. A large apartment where sails are cut 
out and made. 

Sail-nee 'die. {Nautical.) A large needle with 
triancrulnr tapering end, used in sewing canvas. 

Sail-room. {Nautical) An apartment or bimk 
on board sliip where spare sails are stowed. 

Sail-wheel. A name sometimes apjdied to the 
tachometer of "Woltmann. See TAriioMETKR. 

Sa'ker. {Ordnance.) An old form of cannon, 8 
or y feet long, and of 5 pounds' calilier. 

" The cannon, blundt^rbuss, and saker, 
lie was the inventor of and maker." 


Sal'a-man'der. 1, A circular iron plate u.sed in 
cooking. A griddle. 




2. A tenii souu'tiiiies applieil to a fire-])foof safu. 

3. A lii'iiti-'J iron 1'ot- liriiigcaiiiion, called on .sliip- 
boai'd a lo<^gt'i"hi'ail. Not now in use. 

Sal'a-mander's Hair. Asbestus, ainiantlma, 
mineral lla.x. Sec \a'^cn l(i7, 168. 

Sa'li-ent An'gle. (/•'art ijicution.) Two united 
faees, present inj; the veitex outward, as in the redan 
and bi I. ■<! in, I. Wee Ki^'. 4-2KS, 

Sal'i-nom'e-ter. An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the saltness ol' water. . 

The thcrnionu'in'cal method is hy ascertaining the 
boiling-point of the hriue. This is used in salt- 
works, the scale being graduated to indicate percent- 

The hydromclric method is by finding its specitiu 
gravity at a given temperature. 

The following table shows the boiling-points and specific grav- 
ities of sea-water (at 00^ Fall. ) of UilTereiit degrees of saturation, 
expressed in parts of salt contained therein, the bai'ometer indi- 
cating 30 inches of mercury : — 



Sp. Gr. 

Pure water 



Commou se!i-water i ^3 

213 2° 







Up to this point no 

deposit will be Ibrmcil. 





217, SF 






2211 .3° 



221 5° 









226 0° 




1 348 satui-atcd solution 

As a general rule, the boJIiiif^-point of the water, when sub- 
jected to :i pressure of one atmosphere, shoiiliJ never be allowed 
to exceed 21ii'^. The tempenitiircnuist be ascertained by draw- 
injj off ;i small quantity of the brine, and boiling it in a deep 
copper vessel in the engine-room, a eori'cctiou being, if 
necessary, for the state of the barometer. 

The following table shows the liit^ht of the boiling-point in 
Fahrenheifs scale at different bights of the barometer : — 





27 inches. 


29,V inches. 

211 20° 

27.i inches. 


30 inches. 


28 inches. 


30'. inches. 


28i inches. 

209 55° 

31 inches. 


29 inches. 


Fig. 4551. 

Fig. 4552. 

Fig. 4550. 


An ordinary form of 
marine salinometer is a 
graduated glass tube, 
whose bottom swells into two bulbs, the 
lower the smaller, and eontiiining shot, to 
cause the instrument to float vertically. 
The greater the degi'ee of saturation, the 


heavier the liquid, and the consequent hight of the graduated 
stem relatively to the water's surfat-e. 

The water-chamber of Gamble's salinometer (Fig. 4550) is 
connected to the boiler, so as to give a constant indicutit.n of 
the di'gree of saturation, find cont.iinsa thermometer for show- 
ing the temperature tif the watLT in the boiler. The case has a 
gl;u-<8 fiice, tiiruugli wliich the salinometer can be seen, and the 
bulb has a horizontal line, whose coincidence with one of the 
graduations at the side of the case shows the proportion ot salt 
contained in the water, as 1 y™, "- 33, etc. ; intermediate propor- 
tions may be estimated by the eye. 

In Fig, 4551, water from the boiler is drawn through the pipe 
E into the cylinder B. The upper end of the hydrometer is 
visible through an opening in the tube C, so a* to expose the 
graduations. A thermometer G indicates the boiling-point. 

In Fig. 4552, an inner tube is weighted to balance a column 
of water of known hight and density, and rests upon a Hexible 
diaphragm, through which the pressure of the water is trans- 
mitted. Variations of pressure are indicated by an index con- 
nected with the upper end of the tube and traversing the dial, 

Sal'i-nom'e-ter-pot. A vessel into uliich wa- 
ter from the boiler is drawn, in older to be tested by 
the salinometer. 

In Sewell's, the water entering; at the induetion- 
pipe a is received in the outi-r ehiiniber /», and thence 
passes downward and around the lower edge of the 
inner chamber C, so as to prevent a scalding jet fly- 
ing out at the top. 

Fig. 4554. 
Fig. 455a 

Salt name ter-Pot. 

Sa-li'va-pump. {Vcn- 
tislrn.) Adevice toreniovethe Saliva-Pump. 

saliva from the month during 

dental operations. The tongue and cheeks are kept 
from eoutaet with the teeth of the lower jaw, and 
the saliva drawn ott' by an air-pninii throngli a per- 
forated tube into a receiver. The air-eseaj^e valve is 
between the receiver and the exhanst-bulb of the 

In Fig. 4555, the rebent upper end of the pipe 
has a rose head to take up the saliva. A compressi- 
ble bulb and two valves form the operative mech- 

Sal'ly-port. 1. {Forfifimtion.) An ojx'ning cut 
in the giaci.'^, through which a passage leads by a 
ramp from the terreplein to the covered way of the 
interior. A postern. An underground passage from 
a fortihcation for making sallies from the covered 

2. (Nautical.) A port for entering or leaving a 




Fig. 1SS5. 


Sledge. (Fortifica- 
tion.) A sledge used 
for hauling oid- 
nance, aiiiriiunitiim, 
etc., uji the rani [is, 
Salomon - lad'- 
der. A eliute lor 
salmon to a.^cend 
falls and weirs. It 
has usually a broken 
or a sinuous descent. 
A fish-ladder orfish- 

Sal'mon- stair. 
A zigzag channel (Ui 
the face of a weir to 
assist fish in ascend- 
ing the same. A 

{Railway Eiujinccr- 
ing.) A passenger- 
car fitted up with 
sofas and chairs, to afford first-class accommodation 
for those aide and willing to pay extra for it. A 
drmrina-mnDi or paictcc car. 

Salt-block. An apjiaratus for evaporating the 
wati'r from a saline solution. The technical name 
for a siilt-fictory. 

Salt'ern. A salt manufactory where water is 
evaporated from brine and dry salt olitained. 

More especially a plot of retentive land, laid ont 
in pools and walks, wheie the S(^i-\vater is admitted 
to be evaporated by the heat of the sun's rays. 
The operation is concluded in boilers. 

The simplest form of this apparatus, where artificial heat is 

employed, is probably that of West Viriiinia or Syracuse, N Y., 

where the brine is piimpeil 

Fig. 4556. from a great depth of the 

e — ^T— ~ — ^ earth and conducted by 

pipes to the kettles, whicli 
are in two \oxi^ rows, built 
into the top of a furnace, 
which is 150 feet in length, 
h;iviiig the furnace doors at 
ihh; end and a chimney .at 
the other. The iron pans 
:,ri' licavy and shallow, and 
nuay be from 80 to 100 in 
numljor. .\.s the water evap- 
orates, the salt is precipi- 
tated, and is dipped out into 
baskets, which are placed 
in pairs over the pans, in 
nrilcr that the salt may drip 
iimi dry. The salt is then 
,-inptied into the bin and 
.-hoveled into barrels for 
The brine which supplies 
Sn!t-Fttrnar^. the aalt-works of Moutiers, 

in the Tarantaise. Switzer- 
land, has only 1 83 per cent of saline matter, IJ pounds to 13 
pillons of water. (The water of the North Sea in Europe has 
2.25 per cent.) 

To condense this attenuated solution, the brine is repeatedly 
trickled over fagots of thorn placed in frames, being conden.sed 
bv aiSrial evaporation to 22 per cent. Another plan there ailopt- 
ej is to trickle the brine down vertical cords, upon which it 
crystallizes, and the saline cylinder is then broken off The 
cords are renewed every 25 ye:irs ; the fagots, every 7 years. 

Salt-gage. A s.\linomf.teii. See Figs. 4450, 
44.51, 44.5'2, previous page. 

Salt-glaz'ing. (Potlerii.) A glaze for earthen- 
ware, lurjiured from common salt. 

Salt-pan. A salt-pit, or salt-works. An evap- 
orating-j'nn for salines. 

Sai'vage. (Xautii-nL) A .skein of hemp, not 
twisted, but simply bound with yarn ; used for 



tackling of cannon, and other purposes where great 
pliancy and strength are required. Sdvacicc. 

Sal'ver. {Uuusr.hold. ) A kind of tray or waiter, 
used lor falile service.. 

Sa'mite. (Fabric.) A heavy silk embroidered 
stull'. Saincftc. The name is from the Greek 
f'iaVuroj, six-threaded, which indicates a peculiar 
twill in the original goods, given by floating the 
weft over 5 warps. ,See DlMirv ; Twill. 

** Clothed in white samite.''^ 


Sam'pan. A Chinese punt used on the rivers 
for roMViying merchandise, and also frequently for 

Sam'son-post. I. {Shipbuilding/.) A pillar rest- 
ing on the keel.son and KU]q>orting a deck-beam. 

2. {Nautical.) A spar sustained in a vertical posi- 
tion by guys, and used as a ^(7) for the suspension 
of hnisting-taekle, for getting boats or blubber 
aboard, fishing the anchor, etc. 

Sa'nat. {Fabric.) An calico. 

Saud. {Foundiiifi.) The .sand used by the 
molder, while it consists essentially of crystalline 
particles of silica, contain other substances 
as well, to give it tenacity when damp, and wdien 
sub-scquently dried. Clay plays the most important 
part; it is a common constituent of the .sand as 
found in its natural bed. In this respect, different 
kinds of sand differ exceedingly, and tliey have to 
be mixed in suitable proportions, and (for iron 
molding) additions of powdered coal or coke made 
to adapt the sand to each specific purpose. 

Sands lor difl'erent purposes or kinds of work re- 
ceive sjiecific names, as, — 

Co?'c-sand, dry sand, /rtcf/iflr-sand, green sand, new 
.sand, old .sand, strong sand, etc., which see under 
their respective heails. See also ho.\u. 

Sau'dal. A protection for the sole of the foot. 
It consi.sts merely of a sole, with sometimes a shield 
at the toe and heel, leaving the upper part of the 
foot bare, and is secured by straps jiassing over the 
instep and around the ankle. Sandals were worn 
by the Jews, and most Oiiental nations, as well as by 
the Greeks and Ronuans, but appear to have been 
to a great extent supplanted, even among the 
Orientals, by shoes. 

The sandals of the ancient Egyptians are shown in many of 
their paintings at Medinet-Aboo and elsewhere. 

Fig. 4557 

E^ijp'i'an and A>^t/r"nt Sandals and Shoes. 




In the Abbott Collection (New York IlistoriciU Society) arc 
old Egyptiaa sandals made from date-lfuves, papyrus, luatlier, 
and raw-liide Also boots and shoes of purple leather, white 
kid, and red leather. 

Tlieir common sandals were of papyrus or palm-leaves ; those 
of the Greeks and Komans of willow. The haxa was the saudal 
of the comedian ; the culhitrnus, of the tra-^ie aotoi". 

The priests of Egypt eschewed leatlier for .sandals, as the con- 
tact of anything that had died wa.-^ delilement. 

A number of examples are given iu the cut annexed, a is a 
handsome sandal with tlie usual instep strap and the cord 
which reached from the latter to the sole, passing between the 
great toe and the second one. assumes the shape of a shoe, 
having sides and no straps between the toes, i J k are distinctly 
shoes, c is the common saudal of the people 

The common sandal, in Orient d countries, is made of a piece 
of hide from tiie n(!ck of a cami^l , and sometimes of several thick- 
nesses sewed toLjether. It is fastened by two straps, one of 
Which passes between the great and the secoad toe, and the other 

Fig. 4558. 


around the heel and over the instep ; hence it easily slipped 
off when the "latchet" was "unloosed" (Mark i. 7). The 
direction of the angel to Peter, " Bind on thy sandals" (.\cts 
xii. 8), indicates the style of f.istening, even did not contempo- 
rary statuary show the form with perfect clearness. 

\Vhile many ladies vvere shod with ornamental sandals, which 
were sometimes like pittens to raise them above tlie dirt of tlie 
street or the dunpuess of the bath-rooai tloor, it is probable 
that some wore buskins, or moccasins,. as we should term them, 
and that such were alluded to in Canticles vii. 1 : '' How be.iu- 
tiful are thy feet with shoes." They were probably worn by 
Judith when, as it is said, her sandals ravished the eyes of IIolo- 
ferues. Bid'^er's skin is referred to by Ezekiel (xvi. 10) as a 
choice m iterial therefor. 

On the sculptures of Nimroud the king is represented wear- 
ing sand lis. Those of the Emperor .Augustus were rights and 
lefts, lie esteemed it an ill omen that he acci lentally misplaced 
them. The pillar or thong bet.veeo the big toe and its neigh- 
bor would early suggest making them specially for each foot. 

The Assyrian sanilal e had a long counter .and a sole,fastene(l 
to the foot by means of binds around the iustep, in some eases 
aided by straps which passed forward to the ball of the foot or 
between the largest and the seeoud toes. They were of wood or 
leather. In E^s'pt, palm-leaves and papyrus-stalks were em- 
ployed in addition to leather. The soles 
of the Assyrian sand.ils were flat ; those 
of the Egyptians were freiiuently turned 
up at the toes, as at /'. g k are also As- 
Syrian ; t m n, Egyptian. 

Saii'dal-brick. A local name 
fur iiii[) 'rl'fctly burnt brick. San- 
del, .s■'//^■/, placCf pixkiiirf l)rick. 

Sand-bag. \. {Fortification.) 
A caiiva.s .sack lilleil with sand or 
earth, and used in fortilication. 

Sand-bags are u.sed a.s a eovfir 
for troops, as a revctiuiuit for para- 
pets and embrasures. They usu- 
ally contain a cubic foot of earth. 

They are extensively uscid to crown the parajiet 
of earth e.'ceavated in sippiivj. 1,000,000 sand-ljags 
were employed in the offensive works at Sevastopol, 
prim-ipaily in the protection for the 70 miles of iip- 

2. A form of ballast for boats. 

3. The ballast of a balloon, thrown out to enable 
the balloon to rise, or to keep its level as f;asesea))es. 

i. A lonr; llannel baj; filled with sand, n.seil to 
stop chinks beneath doors or between sashes. 

5. {S)t.eet-mcliU Working.) A flat .sack filled with 
Baud on which work is supported while being chased. 

6. {Enrjravimj.) A similar bag on which Fig. 4559. 
the [ilate is laid and turned about while 
being operated on with the graver. 

Sand-balL Soap made up into a ball 
with tiiii' sand, for washing the liands. 

Sand-bath. 1. Avesselof heated sand, 
used as an e([uable lu'ater for retorts, etc. *"'"'-■'»"«• 

A form of evaporator largely used in laboratories. 

Fig. -lotiU represents a form of sand-lmth in which 
ce a is a trough for sand ; i, a small steam-boiler, 

Fig. 4500. 


wliich has a safety-valve not shown ; d d hot-air 
and smoke Hues ; and e a reservoir from which the 
boiler is suii]>lied with water. 

]>y the of this or a similar aiTangement, an 
eijnable temperature may be attained in the bath, 
and the chemist has always at hand a supjily of hot 
water for jmrposes of the lab<uatory. 

2. (Mcdicul.) A form of bath in which the body 
is covered with warm or wilh sea sand. 

Sand-bed. (Foiindintj.) a. Tlie floor of sand 
at a snielting-furnace in which the metal from the 
furnace is run into Jiigs. 

b. The floor of a foundry in which large eastings 
are made, or on which the llasks aie laid, rammed, 
and ]iouieil, 

Sand-bel'Iows. A haiul-ljellowsused for sprink- 
ling sand on a Ireshly painted surface to give it the 
apliearance of stone. 

The sand from box £ sifts down into the .spout as 
the ujiper valve is opened, and is ejected by the 
bliibt as the bellows are closed. 

Fig. 4561. 

Satiil- B^llotcs. 

Sand-blast. A method of engraving and cut- 
ting glass and other hard niaterinls by the percussive 
force of jiarticles of sand driven bv a steam or air 
blast. See Gl.Ass-ci'TTlxo, page 97S. 

For cutting an ornament or in.scrii)tion on stone, 
an iron pattern is fastened to the stone, ,and a mov- 
able jet-]iipe is caused to traversi' the surface of the 
stone, which it abrades, leaving intai't the jiortions 
protected by the pattern. Common hard sand is 
the material cni|iloved ; but small granules of iron, 
about uV inch in diameter, have been found to act 
more vapidly on granite. Crushed agate is also 




Sand-blo'w'er. A device for powdering with 
sand a I'reslily painted surt'ate, in order to make it 
resemble stone. 

Tlie piston is chambered, and has inwardly open- 
ing valves in its two disks, so that when moving in 

Fig. 4562. 


either direction the air is forced throngh the tubular 
piston rod and j)ipe to the discharge-mouth. 

Sand-board. (I'ehidc.) A bar over the hind 
a.xle and luiralli-l therewith. It vests upon the hind 
hoiinils ivhcre they cross the a.xle. 

Sand-box. 1. A bo.K filled with sand, usually 
placed in front of th(^ 
Fig. 4563. driving-wlieel, with 

a pipe to guide the 
sand to the rail, to 
be used when the 
drivers slip on the 
rails, owing to frost 
or wet. 

In the West, railway- 
trains have been stopped 
on a grade by loensts. 
When the dew fiills and 
the rails are warmer than 
the grass, these insects 
have a fancy for sitting 
on the rails, and when 
theengine-wheel tonclies 
them they are crushed, 
leaving the rails so soapy 
that the wheels slip. 
Sand-boxes are used with the locomotive. 

In Fig. 45153, the box has a hemispherical bottom, 
in tlie lower part of which is a conical valve-seat, 
which is closed by a valve of the same form. This 
valve-seat has two apertures, one on each side of the 
engine, through which the sand passes, and is con- 
veyed to the rail in front of each driving-wheel. 

2. A box with perforated top, for sprinkling paper 
witli sand in manner of a pounce-box. 

Sand-burned. (Founding.) When the heat of 
the melted metal cast into a mold atfects tlic surfece 
of tlie sand so as to subject it to a jiartial fusion, 
whereby it adlieres to and even unites more or less 
with the surface of the metal, giving a rough result, 
the casting is said to be snnd-bnrnrd. Tliis defect 
is caused by the unsuitable nature of the sand or the 
want of proper hhwking on the mold. 

Sand Crush'er and Wash'er. A machine for 
breaking nodules of sand, reducing it to a fineness 
and wasliing away foreign matter. The axis of the 

wheel is attached to a vertical shaft, which rotates 
in the central opening of the pan, while the wheels 
traverse in the annular trough, the water assisting 

Fig 4564. 

Sand Crusher and Ifasher. 

in comminuting the mass and washing off the earthy 
particles. It is especially used in preparing sand for 

Sand-glass. A time-measurer, consisting of a 
vessel containing a measnreil amount of sand, which 
is allowed to escape through a hole of definite pro- 
portions so as to occupy a certain time in so doing. 

The was derived from or suggested the clepsydra, 
or water-clock, in which the lapse of time was indicated by the 
esciipe of water from a hole in a vessel. This was probably 
the first time-measurer acting mechanically. Previous to this 
the lapse of time was counted by the dial , by devices such as the 
counting of jjebbles from one helmet to another by the Franks 
and Norsemen : a measured tread and counted paces ; the time 
required to recite the prayers, as indicated by the beads. See 

The clepsydra assumed various forms. 

1. In one a brass dish with a hole in the bottom was 
floated in a cistern, and the time required for its filling and sub- 
mergence formed a unit of time. 

2. The emptying of a large brazen vessel, the side of which 
was pierced with a small hole. 

3. A vessel similar to the foregoing, with a float and gradu- 
ated stem, indicating time by its subsidence. 

4. The device No. 3, with the addition of a string from the 
float, to turn an axis and a pointer finger on a figured dial. 

5. A clepsydra in which the e-'^caping water turned a wheel 
which communicated motion to a hand on a dial. See Clepsydra. 

These devices were subject to many difficulties such as the 
evaporation of the water, which affected those depending upon 
the measured amount, and the unequal rate of flow at dilTerent 
stages of fullness of the discharging-vesscl 

At what period toothed gearing was invented cannot be readily 
ascertained. Archimedes used it 220 B. c, and probably saw it 
in Egvpt. 

Sand,. a5 the flo-ving material, is stated by some authorities 
to have been introduced in France about the time of Charle- 
magne, but this is an error. 

On an ancient bas-relief in Rome an hourgla.«s is placed in 
the hands of Morpheus. Athenajus says that the ancients 
carried portable hour-glasses with them. 

The term translated bour-sla^s does not warrant the idea 

that glass was used. The probable material was horn, or tlie 

I mineral then so much used for windows, laminated mica, the 

I lapis spenilnris of Plinv. The two chambers were probably 

separated bva plate having a drilled opening. See HouR-Guss, 

It may be mentioned in this connection tliat the first dial 
on record is that of Ahaz, 742 B. c. It was probably derived 
from Assyria. See Di.vr. 

The dial is mentioned in the book of Tobit. The date of the 
writing of this book is not certain, but it details the experiences 
of an Israelite of Naphtali, a prisoner in Nineveh in the reigns 
of Shalinanezer and Senn.acherib. 

The statement of Herodotus that the Oreeks derived the sun- 
! dial from the Chaldeans is no doubt correct. In the time of 




Ahaz, the communications between Assyria and Palestine were 
open anj w«U the l!*raiilit*;s well Ituew and felt. 

Homer describes the sun-dial, 950 u. c. 

The dial was introduced in Atla-ns by Meton, 433 u. c. 

By L. Papirius Cursor into Itonie, '-iiW u c 

Hipparchus used a dial at Alexandria, 130 b. c. 

Auj^ustus set nne up ou a luuguiticent bcale in the Campus 
M;irtius. See Dial. 

San'di-ver. (Fr. Snint-dc-verrc.) A saline scum 
whicii rises to the surfaot; of fused glass in the pot, 
and is skimmed off. Called also glass-gall ; saduui. 

Sand-jet. A process for grinding and abrading 
hard sulistaiices by the itnpact of a stream of sand 
propelled by an air or steam jet. 

In depolishing ghiss, the stream of sharp sand is projected by 
a fan thirty inches in diameter, makiug thirty revolutions per 
minute. The air U driven through a chute into which tbesand 
is fei, and from which it is thrown forcibly down upon the gla:ss 
below the mouth of the eluite. From ten to fifteen -seconds' ex- 
posure to the shower of sand is sufficieut to dcpolish the sur- 
face of ordinary glass; and sheets of the latter may be con- 
veniently treated by being passed slowly under the sand by 
means of endless bclt^, for cuttint; stone, the impelling jet is 
Btoam ; tlie force given to tlu? sand, and, of course, the rapidity 
of the cutting effect, being proportioued to the steam pressure 
For one hundi-ed pounds" pressure, the sand is most advan- 
tageously applied by drawing it through a three-sixteenth inch 
tube ; the steam issuing through an outer tube concentric with 
that which conducts the sand. This is for drilling holes in hard 
niat^?rial ; and, with a pressure one fourth greater than thtit 
just indicated, one and a lialf cubic inches of granite are worn 
away per minute, three inches of marble, and ten inches of soft 
brown-stone. In cutting corundum with sand driven by steam 
at three hundred pounds' pressure, a hole an inch and a half in 
diameter was cut through a piece one and a half inciie^ thick 
iu twenty-five minutes. The process is also used in cleuuiug 
the internal surfaces of hollow ware preparatory to tinning. 
See Olass-cuttinu, page 978. 

Sand-pa'per. An abrading agent made by eoat- 
ing paper with glue and dusting tine sand over it 
with a sieve. Thin cotton cloth is sometimes used 
instead of paper. Sand-paper is intermediate between 
glass-paper and emery-paper in its action on metals, 
but is less energetic than glass-paper in its action on 

Glass-pai'ER (which see) is prepared in a similar 
way from pounded glass, and is sometimes termed 

Sand-pa'per Hold'er. A block or ]iad on which 
a [liece uf sam.1 ur glass i)api.-r is wrapped for use. 

Fig. 4565. 

Sand- Papering Machine (Shoe Machiiury Mann/actitrijig Co.). 

Sand-pa'per-ing Ma-chine'. 1. {Joinery.) A 
device fur siiml-jiapcring Hat surfaces. Thr work is 
laid on the table, which is vertically adjustable ; the 
sand-paper disk is rotated at the end of a jointed 
tubular extension arm, which also conducts the dust 

Fig. 456' 

Sand- Papering Machine. 


away, through tlie hollow arm, to the 

2. {Shoemahin{}.) For buffing the 
Boles of boots and shoes. Sometimes 
called whitening. 

An exhaust Ian or blower create.^; a 
draft which conducts away the dust 
caused by the action of the snnd-piipcr 
roll ujion the bnttoiiis of the shoes. 

Sand-pul'ver-iz'er. A machine 
to grind and sift s;nid for use in glass- 
making and for otlier jmrjio.'ics. Fig. 
45H7 has a grinding -plate working 

. against a vertical yielding bed and a 

^^^^^^^ revolving wire-gauze cylinder, by which 
the sand is sifted. 




Fig. 4568. 

Sand-pump. A cylindrical case or metallic tube 
havin<; a valve at bottom opening uinvardly. Its 
office is to remove the sand whicli collects in the 
bore when a well is being drilled ; the drill being 
temporarily removed, and as the sand-pump is low- 
ered, the dirt and water force up the valve and enter 
the tube, the valve dropping again to prevent their 
return. Tliis being repeated again and again, the 
barrel of the sand-pump becomes hlled, is drawn to 
the surface and emptied. When the detritus is all 
removed from the bore, the drill is reintroduced and 
the operation proceeds. 

The sand pump is described in Gool's English p.itent, 1823 
It is tlxero called a sftelt or sfteU-pinnp. It is called by the 
French, i-mp(irle-}ncce . See SHELL-peMP. 

The Chinese liave had deep-bored wells for .ages ; we cannot 
suppose that they have failed to use this device for withdrawing 
the detritus. The wells of in China are 
numbered by hundreds, 
are 5 or (5 inches in diame- 
ter, and over 1,000 feet 

The sand-pumps, used 
for removing the sand 
from the caissons of the 
St. liouis and Illinois 
brirlge, as the piers de- 
scended , were of three-inch 
bore, e.ich discharging ten 
cubic yards of sand in an 
hour, and gravel stones 
two and a quarter inches 
in diameter. A stream of 
water was forced down 
through one pipe, and 
caused to discharge near 
the sand into another pipe 
in an annular jet, and in 
an upward direction. The 
jet created a vacuum be- 
low it, by which the sand 
was drawn into the second 
pipe or pump, the lower 
end of which was in the 
sand The force of the 
jet drove the .sand up to 
the surface as fast as it 
entered the second pipe. 
See Air-lock ; Caisson. 

Sand-Ejector ( 5"^ Louis Bridge 

Saud-roU. One for a rolling-mill, for instance, 

— cast in sand, as distinguished from a chill-roll, 

one cast on a chill. 

Sand-scoop. A shovel for obtaining sand from 

the bottom of a 
river. A form of 
dredge. In Fig. 
4569, the staff 
rises perpendicu- 
larly from the rear 
end of the scoop, 
and has a collar 
ing-ropc is at- 
tached. The rope 
has a series of 
loops to engage 
over a pin on the 
boat, and the rope 
attachment to the 
start' forms a ful- 
crum in the use of 
the scoop. See 
Fig. 517, Dredg- 
ing - .M .\ c H I N E , 
page 747. 
Sand-shot. (Ordnance.) Small cast-iron balls, 

such as grape, canister, or case, cast in sand. Larger 

balls are cast in iron molds. 

Sand'stone. An aggregation of siliceous grains, 

sometimes cohering without visible cement, but 

Dredging- Scoop. 

usually bound together by a slight quantity of 
siliceous or calcareous matter, or by iron or clay. 

Nature shows all gradations in texture. When 
coarse-grained, it is called grit. When the fragments 
are so large as to form jiebblcs, it is called co}i- 
glomerate or pudding-sUme, which may cuii- Fig 4570. 
sist of one or several kinds of rock. 

Micaceous sandstone has little ]ilates of 
mica, which are sometimes in layers parallel 
to the stratification. 

Calcareous sandstones are those in which 
the siliceous grains are cemented by car- 
bonate of lime, or in whicli the particles are 
partly siliceous and partly calcareous. 

Sand-throw'er. An implement for 
sanding sized or painted surfaces. The ex- 
amjile has a hollow handle, whiidi contains a 
sufiply of sand that is received in a V-shaped sa„,i. 
bi).\ li, having a narrow slit with a projecting Thrower. 
liji h. by which the sand is distributed. 

Sand-trap. (Hijdraulic Engineering.) A de- 
vice f o r separating 
sand, etc., from water lis. 4571. 

flowing through a pipe. 
In Fig. 4571, the wa- 
ter enters the trap 
through the valved 
induction-pipe D, and, 
flowing upwardly into 
the dome-shaped cover 
/>', is conducted oH' by 
another pipe ; the sand 
is detained by the 
diaphragm A, and 
settles in the annular 
reser\'oir 0. 

Sand--wash'er. A 
device for separating 
earthy matters from sand. In Fig. 4572, a cylindri- 
cal wire screen having exterior wings is rotated in 
a trough B, to which a constant supply of water is 
admitted through a chute M ; soluble matters pass- 
ing through the meshes of the riddle are carried off 

Kg. 4572. 



by the chute C, and other foreign particles are dis- 
charged by the tail-spout L. 

In Fig. 457.3, the .sand, after being screened by a 
shaking riddle, passes down a chute to a series of 
troughs having wheels rotating on a common axis, 
by which it is agitated and successively transferre<l 
from one to the next, being cleansed by the action 
of water at each step. 

Sand'^wiched. Said of a rail or lamina which is 
inter]iosed between two sleepers or thicknesses. 

Sap. (Fortification.) An excavated trench or 
tunnel, for the purpose of approaching a fort under 
cover of the scarp and parapet formed by the ditch 
and excavated earth. 

At the head of the sap]iing party is a bullet-proof 
snp-rollcr, which is juished along as the sap advances, 
affording protection to the men. 




Fig. 4573. 


The sap advances by a series of zigzags, so directed 
a.s not to be exposed to an enfilading tire from tlie 

Tlie approaches and the paralli'ls are made by sap- 
ping, and tliese sunken roails all'urd the tneiins for 
conveying ordnance, aniniunition, and .stores to and 
from the advanced batteries, and for marching bodies 
of troops to and fro. 

Sand- bags, gabions, and fascines are employed as 
revetments or to crown the paiapet formed by the 
excavated earth. 

The works in front of Sevastopol consisted of 70 
miles of snnken trenches ; and no less than 60,000 
fascines, 80,000 gabions, and 1,000,000 sand-bags 
were em])loycd to protect the men working in the 
trenches and at the ditl'crent batteries. 

The diiubte sup has a jiarapet at each side. 

Sap-boil'er. A furnace with pans for evapo- 
rating tlie so]i of the maple. See EvAPor..\Ti)K, 
pages .SU -,Sl:l. 

Sap-buck'et. {Suiiar Manufacture.) A bucket 
for rei'civing tlic sap of the sugar-maple as it runs 
from tlie trci-. Tin jians, earthenware pots, and 
woollen troughs hollowed out fiom the log are also 

Sap-buck'et Hook. {Saijiir-wal-in<i.) A hook 
from which the sap-bucket is suspended ; it has a 

Fig. 4574. 

same length 
tweeii being I 


pointed or screw-threaded end for attachment to the 
Sap-fag'ot. {Fortification.) A fascine about 3 
feet long, used in sapping, to close the 
crevices between gabions. 

Sap -fork. (Fortification.) A 
forked lever used for advancing the 

Sap'ping-ma-chine'. A circular 
.saw turslabljing balks and sawing bolts 
for shingle stull'. 

Sap-roU'er. (Fortification.) A 
large roller kejit in advance of the 
men engaged in .sajiping. It is rolled 
along at the head of the sap for the 
protection of tlic excavators. 

The sap-roller is a gabion, 6 feet long 
and 4 feet in diameter, rendered liuUct- 
proof by an internal gabion of the 
and 2\ feet in diameter, the space be- 
llied up with stout wooden pickets. It 
is sometimes stutt'ed with wool. It is pushed forward 
by a sap-fork. 

Sap-spile. (Snriar-making.) A small wooden 
spout, which is driven into an auger-hole bored in 
the sugar-maple tree, and serves to ccuiduct the sap 
to the trough or bucket. It is sometimes made of 
an I'lder with the pith pushed out ; sometimes of 
wooil, liori'd out. 

Sap-spout. (Suyar-inakinij.) A device for 
conducting sugar- 

niajile sap from Fig 4575. 

the tap-hole to 
the bucket. 

The spout has, 
between the hold- 
ing-screw and the 
collar, a perfo- 
rated neck which Sap-Spout. 
gives free com- 
munication with the outer layer of the alburnum. 
A hook gives means of suspension for the bucket. 

Sar'ce-uet. (Fuhric.) A thin grade of silk 
goods used Ibr liniiig.s, etc. Named from th>* Sara- 
cens, (k'araceniciiin, Latin. Cloth made by the 
Saracens. ) Sarsenet. 

'* With my wife to the new Exrh.ingc to huy her pome things ; 
where we saw some new-fasliion [jetty coats ril'sarcenett, witli a 
blnclt broad lace printed aroiwl f/ie bottom and before, very 
handsome.'* — Pepys's Diart/, 1662. 

How about balmorals ? 

Sar-coph'a-gus. A stone coffin. 

Sarcopli.-!;;! were aneiently in generjil use, at least with the 
wealthy, among the Orientils. paitirularly. tiioje iiihal>iting tlie 
ea.stern shores of tlie Mediterranean, and were oftt-n oriiaii.ented 
witll elaborate and expensive srnlptnres. Large numbers )et 
remain in that part of Syria whieli tbnnerly belonged to Tyre 
and Sidon, though the ancient cemeteries have forages supplied 
tlie later inhabitants with stone for eeonomie nses. 

The sarcophagus of King .\shmnnazer, discovered at Sidon in 
1855, is interesting as containing the longest IMlcenieian inscrip- 
tion known to e.\ist. until the Moabite stone, since discovered, 
antedated it. .^^ee Pen. 

The sarcophagus of Setei-Menephthah was discovered by 

Relzoni in a deep recess of a tomb It is of Oiiental ala- 

bii.^ter. and is co\'ered with some thousands of figures, evi- 

.l.'iitly a funeral procession. It was long in the museum of 

Sir .lohn Soane, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. It 

had been broken open by robbers, probably many 

centuries before the visit of Bel/oni. The body was 

gntu'. and the lid broken into five jiieees. 

In Fig. 4576, a repn'sents a Clmlda'an clay coffin or 
vault-cover found at Mngheir, eight feet in-low the 
Rurfice of the soil. A shows the interior on an en- 
largeit scale On a platform of snn-dried brick is laid 
a m.'it. rm this the skeleton or pjiirof skebtons. sur- 
rountlol by ntensils or ornnnients. .\ huge rover of 
burnt clay inclosed the whole. In the particular 
instance illustrated, the cnnrents, besides the skele- 
ton, were a sun-dried brick for a pillow ; a copper 




bowl; small cylinders of meteoric stone: pieces of bamboo; 
baked cliij jars'nod uteusils for fnod ami water : remains of dute- 
stones in a shallow dish, c is anotlierkind of Ulialda-an sarioph- 
Rgus, formed of two lai-ire open-nioutbed j:irs, two and a half 
to three feet iu depth and two feet in diameter. The mouth 

Vis- 4576. 

Ckaldaan Sarcophagi . 

of the smaller is inserted in that of the larger, and luted with 
bitumen. In each coffer is a small hole for the escape of the 
(rases of putrefaction. This form is common at Mugheir and 
Tel-el-Lahm. Journal of the Asiatic Society, XV. 413, 414- 

Sa'ree. 1. A cotton fabric worn by East-Indian 
women wrapped about the person. 

2. A long scarf of embroiJeiTd ganze or silk. 

Sark'ing. (Buildinrf.) Tlic slieathing of a roof 
above the rafters, and affording a liolil for the nails 
■which secure the shingles or slates. 

Sar-rus'o-phone. (.Uiisic.) A form of wind- 
instrument of the horn clas.s, m.ade by G.autrot Aine 
and Cie, Paris. They are made cti siiilc, of sizes and 
compass to take diflerent parts in concerted pieces of 
music, and are known as tlie cornets and sa.xhorns by 
names, as so]U"ano, contralto, tenor, barytone, bass, 
etc. ; or by the pitch, as b flat, c flat, etc. See a, 

Fig. -inei. 

Sarse. A fine sieve. 

Sash. 1. (Carpentry.) A frame for holding the 

glass of a window. The side pieces are the sfi/rs : 

the top and bottom pieces, rails; and the interior 

pieces, which hold the panes, 

' ^Fig. 4577. JfWJi^ bars. 

There are two kinds of : 

1. French sa,sh or casement: 
I liiuig upon hinges so as to swing 

ipi'ii like doors. 

2. Sliding sash; opening and 
shutting vertically. When sus- 
pended by weights and conls 

r^^^ /^ passing over pulleys, thi'v are 

[ ) / '\ **''^ *" ^'^ hung. 

a. Double hung; both sa.shes being 

ft. .Single hung ; one sash only being 

f. Bittfinred : when each has a 
Sath. LiJ counterpoise weight, so that it is read- 

ily lifted : or the two sashes are made to counterbalance each 
other. In the former case, the sashes may be lifted or depressed 
independently ; in the latter case, they move tn;:ether, closing 
or opening siinultaneously and in the same degree. 

a, Gothic sash. c, ovolo sash. 

6, ogee sash. <l, square-bevel sash. 

2. The gale in which a mill-saw- is strained and 

3. An oraamental girdle worn over the shoulder 
like a baldric or around the waist. 

Sash-bar. (C'arpenlr;/.) The vertical and trans- 
verse pieces within a window-frame wliiih liold the 
panes of glass in place. Tliey are laMieted or grooved 
on one side to receive the, and are uiitered to 
each other and to the frame. See Sash. 

Those for the Crystal Palace, in 1851, were made 
by a special inachii'ie devised by Paxton and Birch, 
in which a series of revolving cutters .shaped a piece 
which was afterward diviileti by circular saws into 
four jiarts, each constituting a comjdetc bar, other 
saws of less diameter at the same time making the 
grooves for the glass. 

They were painted by drawing tlieni through a 
trough filled with color, and afterward jiassiug them 
between a series of brushes set at right angles to 
eacli other, which removed the sujierlluous paint. 

Sash-bor'ing Ma-chine'. A machine for bor- 
ing holes in the stile.s of sashes for reception of the 
bars. It may be preliminary to mortising. 

Sash-chis'el. (Carpentry.) A chisel having a 
narrow eilge and a strong blade, for making the mor- 
tises in blinil and sash stiles. 

Sash-fas'ten-er. (Bu ilding. ) 
the meeting rails of .'ashes, to pre- 
vent a sash from being opened. 
Usually a sort of turn-button on one 
sash wliich locks over the to]i of the 
lower sash. In the example, the 
sashes are locked together by a jtin, 
which transfi.\es tliem. 

b. A device on the eilge of the 
sash which locks against it, to 
maintain it at a given higlit. In 
Hammnnd's, the edge of the sash 
is notched and engaged by a spring 
piece, which may be withdrawn 
when the .sash is to be lowered. 

An ordinary form is a snail-shaped 
piece on the sash which locks against the jamb. 

Sash-fil'lis-ter. (Carjxntry.) A plane for rab- 
beting window-sash to receive the panes ot 
glass and the putty, which holds tliem in Fig. 4579. 
jdace ; the illustration shows the rabbet 

A device at 
Fig. 4578. 

' Sasli-Fnate.ur. 

made by the sash-fillister, and also the ovolo T | 

Sash-frame. 1. The frame, within the Sasli. 
windosv-casing, in which a sasli slides. 

Sash-frames are cased or solid. The former have 
boxes at each side for the weight. The latter con- 
sist merely of strips fastened to the window-jandis. 
A sash-casing consists of four pieces, — the pulley- 
piece and inside, oidsielc, and back-lining. 

The strips which form the sash-slides are the in- 
side and outside beads and the pa>-ling-bead. 

The parts of a sash-frame are the fiead, sill, and 
sides or casings. 

2. The rectangular frame, in which a mill-saw is 

Sash-gate. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A stop- 
valve sliding vertically to and from its seat. 

Sash-lock. A i'a'stening for the meeting rails 
of window-saslies. 

Sash-mold'ing Ma-chine'. (IJ'ood-worling.) 
A machine lor planing molds on sash bars and stiles. 




Fig. 4580. 

Sasli-Mohlmg Machine. 

Fir 4581 

Its size, higlit, ami iiroiiortinns pnrtionlnrly a Inpt it 
for tlie work on tlii.s small 
.stuff. Tlie views A B 
am respectively .side and 
end elevations of the ma- 
cliine. a is the rotary 
outter, having bits of 
such .shape as the mold- 
ing rei)uire.s ; b is the 
stutl' going through be- 
neath the rollers c c, the 
pressureof which is deter- 
mined by the adjustable 
weigiit d ; r. cc are spring- 
pieces to keep the stuff 
against the fence. 

Ma-chliie'. (Wnnl- 
ii-iirkinfj.) X macliine 
for forming mortises in 
.stiles and rails of doors, 
sash, and other small 

In that illustrated, the 
chisel -holder is recipro- 
cated by ]iitman connec- 
tion with a crank on a 
wheel driven by judley 
and belting. Tlie cliisei- 
• bar a is revei'sed Ijy a 
slight movement of the 
ti'eadle b, and the bed c 

may be adjusted to njortise at any desired angle, 
ami is n^i^ed or lowered liy turning the crank d, 
to determine the de|ilb of cut on work ol any dimen- 
sion within its i:apacity. 

Sash'oou. (Sliocmakinri.) A soft leathern jiad 
placed inside a shoe to ease the pressure on a tcniler 

Sash-plan'ing Ma-chine'. A snjall Fig 4582. 
form III' moldin,i;-niachinc adapted to mnk(^ 
the rabbets and nioUiing for the stiles and 
liars of window-.sasli. See S.i.sii-sTicKi.Mi 

Sash-pul'ley. The sheave in the ]>ulley- 
piece ol a sash-liame over winch the weight- 
cord runs. In the example, tlie .slicave is 
held between two ])lates, which have coun- 
ter proj'ections ami depressions on the edges 
of their incurved ends, and .side perforations 
for reception of the sheave-pivots. Snsh- 

Sash-rail. One of the horizontal bars in PulUy. 
a w imhtw-sash. 

Sash-saw. 1. A mill-saw strained in a yate, or 
snsh, as it is sometimes called, fioni the resemblance 
of its stiles anil rails to the frame of a window-sasli. 

2. A particular size of tenon-saw used in making 


FlK. 4584. 

Fay^s Sash-Sltckmg Machine. 

window-sash is known as a siis/i:wni: It is bacl<ed 
with brass instead of iron, and has 13 teeth to the 
inch. The tcnun-saic has 8 teeth to 
the inch. 

Sash-sluice. A sluice with ver- 
tically sliding viilves. 

Sash-stick'ing Ma-chine'. A ma- 
chine for planing the moldings on the 
edges of s.ash bars and rails. The exam- 
ple shows a table r» on which the stuff 
.slides beneath the feed-roller b and cut- 
ter c. A spring d rests on the stulf and 
prevents chattering. The cutter-head is 
provided with bits adapted to make the 
molding required. Two extra cutter- 
heads are upon the floor. The weight « 
is adjustable on its arm to press the feed- 
roller upon the work. The bed is gibhed 
to the frame and raised by a single screw. 
The machine is also n.sed for planing up 
small stulf, such as slats and trunk-stuff. 

Sash-sup-port'er. (Biii/diinj.) a. 
A device to hold a sash in an elevated 






position. Frequently a spring 
holt, wliii'li locks into a hole or 
notch in tlie sash. Or acani-shaped 
piece, which binds against the 
janili or strip. 

b. A suspension arrangement of 
cord, weight, and pidley. 

A rack and pinion arrangement 
by which the sashes are made to 
balance eacli other. 

Sash-ten'ou-ing Ma-chine'. 
A machine lor cutting the tenons 
on sash-slats. Machines of simi- 
lar construction are used in cut- 
ting tenons on slats of Venetian 

In the machine shown in Fig. 45S5, the upper and 
lower cutter-heads raise and lower by a set-screw 
operated by a hand-wheel c, and by this adjustment 
any thickness of tenon may be made, the carriage d 
remaining stationary as to i£s vertical adjustment, 

Fig. 4585. 

Fig. 4586. 

Sask-Tenontn^ Machine. 

but sliding easily across the bed of the machine, 
carrying the slats between the cutters. The upper 
cutter has an endwise adjustment on its arbor, so as 
to cut a longer tenon on one side of the slat if de- 
sired. The driving-belt c passes over the pulleys of 
both cutters, propelling them at uniform speed. 

Sasse. {HijdmnUc Enginccriiu/.) A weir with 
flood-gates ; a navigable sluice. 

Safin. (Fabric.) A silken fabric with an over- 
shot woof and a highly finished surlace. It was ori- 
ginally imported fioni China. 

" What s,iid master Dumbleton about the satin for my short 
cloak and^lops ? — Fa lstaff. 

" The Duchesse of York, sitting in state in a chair, in white 
satlin.'' — PtpYS, 1662. 

" To church with my wife, who this day put on her green 
petticoate of flowred sattin, with fine white and bl.ack gimp lace 
of her own putting on, which is very pretty." — Ibid. 

The woof of .satin is coarse, and is hidden nnder- 
ncath the wai-p, which forms the surface. The unrp 
is of orcfanzijie ; the vxff. of trom. In a full satin 
twill there is an interval of fifteen threads. See 

Sat-i-net'. (Fabric.) a. A light kind of satin. 

b. A glossy cloth made of a cotton warp and woolen 
filling to imitate sutiit. 

Sat'in-ing-ma-chine'. (Pnpcr-mrding.) A 
machine for impaiting the " satin " finish to paper. 

Satin ing- Mncit ine. 

The web from the roller I) is presented by the rollers 
B B to the action of the brush J., which rotates in 
the same direction, but with greater velocity, and is 
raised therefrom by the rollers C C, being finally 
wound upon the second roller D. The rollers B are 
adjustable by set-screws, and are rotated by a series 
of gear- wheels, w bile the rollei's C run loose on their 
spindles, and are turned by the onward movement 
of the web. 

Sat'in-jean. (Fabric.) A twilled cotton goods, 
having a .smooth, satiny surface. 

Sat'in-loom. (JFeaving.) The satin-loom has 
at least a fivc-Icavcd set of heddles, 
with corresponding treadles, which 
are so operated that the .shuttle 
passes over one and under four or- 
more of the warp-threads at each 
throw. The upper is the glossy side. 
Sau'cer. 1. (Hydraulic Engiiieer- 
iv(j.) A tiat caisson or camel which, 
being sunk and placed beneath a ves- 
sel, is then punijied ont, so as to raise 
the vessel. By another mode of op- 
erating, the saucer is raised by the 
power of hydraulic presses, so that 
the water riin.^ out of it. 
_ 2. (Nautical.) An iron bed bolted 

'^^ to the deck below that on which the 

capstan works, for the purpose of 
securing the pivot of the cajistan. 
3. A shallow piece of table service, forming a sup- 
port for a teacuji. 

Sau-cisse' ; Sau-cis-son'. (Fortification.) a. 
A powder-luise for coniniunicating fire to a charge 
in military mining. 

h. A stout and long fagot, larger than a fascine. 
Sau'sage-fill'er. (Domestic.) A small machine 
for stuffing sausage-meat into intestines. See Sau- 

Sau'sage-grind'er. (Domestic.) A machine 
for mincing meat for sausage. 

Sau'sage-ma-chine'. A machine for grinding, 
mincing, or pounding meat to make sausages. In 
the vernacular, these are "either in guts or tlabs." 

Axlonicus, in the " Chalcis," quoted by Atbenseus, a. ». 
220, says ; — 

" T am making hash. 
Putting in well-warmed fish, and adding to them 
Some scarce half-oaten fragments ; and the pettitoes 
Of a young porker, and his ears ; the which I sprinkle 
With savory a.safetida ; and then 
I make the whole into a well-tlavored sausage, 
A meat most salable. Then I do add a slice 
Of tender tripe ; and a snout soaked in vinegar." 
De gustibuK non est dispittanduw. 

The sausages of Heliogahalus were a compound of oysters, lob- 
sters, crabs, and shrimps, flavored with delicious condiments, 
— black pepper., anise-seed, garlic, asafetida, ginger, rue, and 

Some people, following the Pennsylvania Dutch process, to 
go no tarther back, use the anchydle or coecum of the entrails 




of the ox as nn envelope for sausage. To such — ami thert* are 
very iiiff |)uopli' who stufV Siiiisnj^L' into t;uts unJ ttiiiij5-«, even 
iuto liiieu bitgn — let uricuiuiueiid tlie fuliortiujj, which is a recipe 
na old as Ueiioijahiilus : — 

" A IIoo's Paunch. 

" Having cleansed it well, wash it, first with vinegar and salt, 
and afterward with water. Tlien take the hog'« flesh pounded 
into a paste ; mix it with the brains of tliree hogs, clejinst'd from 
the fibers, together with hard eggs. To tliis put cloves of gar- 
lic ; add whole pepper, and make of a proper consi-stence with 
broth. Heat up peppLT, lovage, luiafetida, anise-seed, ginger, 
rue, anchovies, and a little oil. With this stuff tlie paunch. 
Tie the mouths of t!ie paunch and boil, friek with a pin to 
prevent bursting. Then smoke it." 

" Here "s richness! " 

The old plan was to cut the meat by means of cleavers, one 
in each hand, a practice in which some jiersons attained great 
dexterity. Iti early times in the West, sausage w;is cut on the 
block by an axe. This wa^ much slower tliun the handy little 
pair of cleavers, which were kept for that purpose, and went 
the round of a settlement when hog-butchering began. 

The earlier forms of sausage-niitchines used cleavers, which 
were at first on levers, tri)>ped by cam movement from the main 
shaft (see i'ig. 3106, page Hlo). Afterward, knives were made 

Fig. 4587. 

Sa usage- Mack inc. 

to reciproeate vertically bv means of crank and shaft. There 
are many modifications of this fnnu Tlie tub usually rotates 
beneiith the knivi's, so as to bring all the mcit in sureessioa 
beneath tlie cutters ; a scraper lifts the meat and turns it over, 
so that the knives sluill not repeat the blow in the same place. 
See Fig 4:.8r, and Fig. 3107, pig.* 1415- 

The f ivnrite domestic form is a compact little machine. It 13 
either a spii-jil ro.v of stuils projecting radially from a barrel and 
forcing the meat between knives projecting inwardly from the 
ca'^ing ; 

Or it has a series of radial knives on each of a pair of cylin- 
ders, and placed so as to m:ike a shear-cut against each other 
(Fig. 31119, page Uli); 

Or the single barrel his knives which cut against opposed 
edges inside the ca-*e ( Kig. 311')) 

In each ease a spiral vane forces the meat through the ma- 
chine, which is cut as it passes along, and is discharged at the 
end opposite that at which it was fed in. 


Fig. 4583. 

{Domes fie.) A device for 
stuIRn^ ck-anwl intes- 
tines with. sausati^o-nicat. 

Amon;.^ the kinds may 
be enumerated : — 

Tlie piston, which is 
movedhy;i'h'ver or rack- 
bar, foreiiif^ the minced 
meat out at tlie spmit, 
over which the gut is 
forced, and from which 
it slijis as it is fiUed. 

The rotarify which re- 
sembles in essential 
strui'ture the rotary 

The hinged valve 
(Fi^. 4580), which os- 
cillates ISOMn the hop- 
pei', folding against the 
side while fiUiuf;, and then, as the handle is vibrated, 
forcing the meat out of the nozzle into the "ut. 

Fig. 4589. 


Saute-relle'. (Sfonc-irorHng.) A mason's im- 
pliinciit, usrd in tracing and forming angles. 

Save-all. 1. {Nautical.) A strip of canvas 
which may be laced to a sail to fill the roach or 
upward curve of the foot of the sail. 

2. {Pa2}cr-inakiii(i.) A trough in a paper-making 
machine wliich collects any pulp that may have 
slopped ovei- the edge of the wire cloth in the Four- 
drinier machine. 

3. A little tube and flaring collar to hold a candle- 
end in a candlestick while burning. 

Saw. An instrument with a serrated blade, the 
teeth of which rasp or cut away the wood or other 
nniterial, making a groove known as a I'erf. 

The wasp was perhaps the first sawyer. 

The Grecian myth of the invention of the saw (by Dirdalua, 
Pliny: Talus, nepliew of Pfcdahis, Apnthrtorus) is that the in- 
ventor once found the jawbone of a snake, and used it to cut 
through a piece of wood ; he then imitated it V>y jafrging an iron 
plate, and thus made a saw It is said that the uncle, jealous 
of the discovery, killed Talus. It miiy have been a case of in- 
terference between two inventors, with irregular process and 
short shrift, Researches in Egypt npset some of the tattle of 
Pliny and others of his day. We owe them a great debt of grat- 
itude, however. 

Other writers say that Perdix, nephew of Deedalus, employed 
the backbone of a tish, and was thus leil to the invention. 
Perdix raised the jealousy of somebody, and was changed into 
a partridge. Ovid mentions this, without assigning the name 
of the inventor. 

Saws of the bronze, age have been discovered in 
Oermany and Denmark, but not in Great Britain. 
(Lubbock.) The metal was cast thin, and probably 
was .serrated by chipjiing and grinding. 

Saws of the stone age were made by setting flakes 

Fig. 4590. 

Egyptian Sawyer ami other Mechanics {/rom Thebes). 




of flint in wooden handles and securing witli bitu- 
men. Obsidian was used in Mexico. Saws and 
knives of oltsidian have been disinterred in tlie allu- 
vial ground of New Jersey beneath the recent gravel. 
They are held to prove the existence of extensive 
coastwise trade, as no obsidian is found nearer than 
Mexico. The saws of the South Sea islanders in 
1768, when Captain Cook went to Otalieite to ob- 
serve a transit of Venus, were made of sharks' teeth 
lashed to a back-piece. The saws of the Lacustrians 
and other early inhabitants of Europe were of jagged 
flint ; those of the Caribs, of notched shells. The .saw 
is a very old device, as old as a knife with a ragged 

Fig. 4590 is from a group of persons represented 
in an ancient painting at Thebes, who are making 
poles or carriage- tongues. 

In dividing a beam of moderate length into planks, 
it seems to have been usual with the ancient Egyp- 
tians to set it upright between posts, to which it 
was lashed. Wilkinson failed to tind any saw adapted 
for use b}' two persons, like the pit-saw. 

gr, Fig. 3032, page 1379, represents a saw discov- 
ered by Mr. Burton at Thebes, and now placed in 
the British Museum. The owner had probably been 
dead several hundred years before Pythagoras,, Solon, 

Fig. 4o91 

Ancient Saws. 

or Plato visited Egypt to study science. The ancient 
saws were Juvid and fra/tie, 

a. From a painting at Herculaneum. Two genii 
working a frame-saw. 

b. A frame-saw from a funeral monument. 

c. A frame-saw blade detached ; from a monument. 

d. An Egyptian saw in the British Museum. 
The implements of labor of the Assyrians are not 

so fully represented 
Fig. 4592. on the monuments 

as those of warfare. 
The cross-cut saw 
was two-handled, 
but not cross-han- 
dled, apparently. 
The shovels were 
heart-shaped, as at 
present used in Asia 
Minor. The picks 
had single heads. 
The hatchets had a 

The modern Oriental saw is used with a fims; rather than a 
drife motion, and the teeth are suitably incUned, raking toward 
the handle rather than away from it. The ancient Egyptian 
blade wa:« of bronze, attached to the handles by leathern thongs, 
and was single-handled. Some of the blades, however, as in the 
instances of some of the Egyptian saws iu the British Museum, 
are set into the handles with tangs, like our case-knives. The 
Egyptian saws were operated by the thrust movement, the edge 
curved or straight. Such are shown in the paintings of ancient 

St. .Terome is understood to have alluded to circular saws, but 
the point is not clear. 


Tools of Babylon. 

A double-handled iron saw has been discovered at Nimroud. 

Scsorthus was called Aslepius by the Egyptians on accouot 
of his mechanical skill. The Greeks derived from him the name 
and atti'ibutes of Jisculapius. He introduced into Egypt the 
art of building with hewn stone, and, it ha;; been suppost-d, used 
saws upon his blocks of stoue. This is by no moans certain, 
but we are told distinctly in the Hebrew history that the Phoe- 
nician architects of Solomon's temple built it of stone squared 
with the saw. The marble facing of the palace of Mausolus, 
king of Caria, described by Vitruvius, is believed by Pliny to 
have been faced with sawn slabs. This was erected 350 u. c. 

Samuel (1033 B. c.) and Isaiah (742 b. c. ) refer to saws. 

The stone saws were commonly used, and the respective ac- 
tions of the metal and sand were fully understood, in the time 
of Pliny. See Stone-saw. 

For machines^ see Sawixg-machine ; Saw^-mill ; 
and list infra. 

Japanese saws are shaped like butchers' cleavers. The han- 
dle is llattish, as if whittled out of a piece of inch hoard ; the 
shank of the s:iw is driven into the handle, and the whole is 
secured by being wrapped with fine split cane. The metal of 
the saw is about the substance of our saws, but the teeth are 
narrower, giving more of them to an inch, and much longer. 
The teeth are pointed toward the handle, ^^'he^ a Japanese 
wants to rip a plank, he places it across anything which will 
elevate the end a few inches, then stands on the wood and cuts 
it by seizing the cleaver-looking saw in both hands, and pulling 
it towai'd him, working it by short, quick up-strokes. 

The very distinguished place occupied by General 
Sir Samuel Bentham in the history of the inven- 
tion and manufacture of wood-working machines is 
evinced by the list of sawing-machines invented and 
manufactured bj' him for the British Admiralty pre- 
vious to ISOO. 

Circular saw. Bevel saw. 

Segmental circular saw. Curvilinear saw. 

Crown and cylinder saws. Saw-blade grinding-machine. 

Segment sa wing-machine with Taper-gage for sawing-ma- 

radius arm. chines. 

Saw for irregular forms with Double-grooving saws. 


The circular saw is well described in Miller's Eng- 
lish patent, No. 1,152, of 1777. 

The band-saw is described iii Newberry's English 
patent, 18.08. 

See also AVood-wokking Machines and list un- 
der Saw-, infra. 

A circular saw was made with blacksmiths* tools 
by Benjamin Cummins, at Bentonsville, N. Y., about 
1814. This is supposed to have been the first made 
in this country. 

Making a saw involves the fono\ving processes ; — 

1. Cutting out the blade from the sheet. 

2. Toothing with a press and appropriately formed dies. 

3. Hardening, by plunging while heated in an oil-bath. In 
this state the metal is extremely brittle. 

4. Tempering and straightening ; the latter is effected by 
hammering on an anvil or by compressing several blades, while 
hot, between two dies worked by a hydraulic press. 

5. Grinding and polishing with emery -powder. 

6. Filing and setting the teeth. 

7. Reheating to restore the elasticity lost in tempering. 

8. Removing the scale by immersion, first in dilute acid, and 
afterward in alkali to remove the acid. 

9 The handle is attached and the blade tested. 

The plates for saws are made of ingots of steel, carefully pre- 
pai'ed to secure uniformity, and reduced to the proper thickness 
hy rolling. Formerly, the larger portion came from Sheffield, 
England, but Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and other 
places make them of the best quality, and from American steel of 
American Iron Circular saws were employed by Brunei in his 
block-making machine, and afterward came into general use. 
The plates for these vary in thickness from i <i„ to ^ ^ inch, ac- 
cording to and the diameter from 3 to 72 inches : though 
sometimes they are made 88 or even 100 inches in diameter. 
The materials employed are steel and iron scraps of the best 
quality, melted together, and after casting reduced by repeated 
rollings. The hole tn the center is drilled out, and the teeth 
roughly cut out by dies under a powerful press, after which 
the plate is firmly secured upon a heated table and the teeth 
pointed and sharpened by an emery-wheel ; a farther grinding 
and polishing operation then ensues, a second and narrower 
wheel finishing the gullets. They are then tempered by heat- 
ing until the film of oxide on their surface indicates that the 
proper temperature is attained, when they are immersed for 
about five minutes in an oil-bath. The oil is next removed by 
saw-dust, and the temper lee down by reheating and gradually 
cooling. These processes tend to warp the plate, which must, 
I therefore, be straightened by hammering upon an anvil, their 




accuracy being tested by a level This operation requires great 
care imd jud^niL'iit. The fwiw is then fxstenL'J centrally upon a 
ehutt and caused to rotate rapidly ag.iiust a lar^a- grindstone 
moving in an opposite din*ction, which dresttes utTone side to a 
perfectly uniform surfat'e, when the saw is turned and tlie other 
Bide similarly treat*-'d, making the blade slightly tliluner toward 
the center than at the I'ircuuiference. They are again tested as 
to planeness, the stniighteuing process repeated if necessary, 
and afterward polished by being cuused to rotjite in contact with 
wooden blocks coated with a composition of glue and emery. 

Straight naws are made in a similar manner, regiird bt-ing had 
to the difference in shape. The edge intended for tlie teeth is 
trinuiied true, the teeth punched by a By-press, filed, tempered, 
wiped, heated until any remaining oil blazes ojf, hammered on 
an anvil or .s-»nV/(^//,gronnd to a gradually dccrea.-iing tliickuess 
from front to bark (this is now done on both sides at once), re- 
liaiiitnrnd, aLTiin ■ground OT tirnwn, glazi'd or polished, iigiun 
8tiai'„-htriu-(i (111 tlie anvil, grained with emery, the tcetli set, 
the bladi- sritTemd by a heating process, any discoloration thus 
occa^ioned removed by acids, and, finally, oiled. 

For correctly spacing the teeth of fine saws, a double chisel 
(Fig. 45U'i) is sometimes employed 

For still more delicate saws, a small piece of steel, hooked 
rectangularly at one eiul, is used. Its end is hardened, and 
serves as a guide for the file. 

Piercing and inlaying saws for wood, metal, and ivory are 
made from pieces of watch-spring ; the teeth are laid off and 

Fig. 4593. 

1. Taper Saws, mostly wjthodt Frames. 

The thickness is that given by the Birmingham wire-gage. 

With a Handle at each End. 

Cross-cut saw. 
Long, pit, or whip 


Pit-fnmie saw 
Felly or pit-turuing 



















•3 .; 

o o 

a o 







With Handle at one End. 


Spacmg Teeth of Saws. 

filed by laying the saw stretched in its frame flat in a grooved 
bniss plate imbedded in a wooden block ; as each tooth is formed 
the file is shilteii aiii^uUirly and returned to its former position, 
thus ste|>ping off tJie interval of one tooth, the spacing being 
deteriniufd by the jud.;nient and skill of the operator. 

The French niethnd is about as follows : The blades, after be- 
ing rolled cdld several times, in order to render the grain close 
and themetJil lnunngeneous.are heated in special furnaces, from 
which the air is carefully excluded, and wheq at the proper 
temperature are plunged in a bath of colza oil ; this is done in 
a dark chamber. The tempering is effected with the aid of 
machines which cause the blades to pass between cast-iron 
plates heated to a fixed temperature, according to the nature of 
the article to be produced. The tooth-cutting, planishing, and 
grinding are done by machinery, as is also the reducing of joints 
of ribbon-saws, which is effected longitudinally, instead of across 
the blade. 

Saw-teeth are known, according to shape, rake, interval, set, 
or other peculiarity, a-s pfg, Jieatn, gullet, brier-tooth, hawk's- 
bill, skip, insertnble tonlh, etc. 

Fig. 4594 shows varieties of saws and saw-teeth. 

Fig. 4594. 


Half-rip saw. .. 


Broken space 
fine hand . . . 


Fine panel-saw 

Chest-saw (for tool- 


Compjiss or lock saw 

Keyhole or fret saw 




28-30 7-9 

26-28 6-8 

22-26 5-7i 


■^•5'^ ■ c o ^ 
>i^ ,&« o 

"Z H 

3-4 ef 


2i-3 I 

22-26 5-7i21--3 . 
20-244i^-7| 2-2^ . 
20-24 4-6 2-2^1. 

10 - 20 2i - 3.( 
18-26 l|~2i 
8-18 1-U 
6-12 i-j" 
10-24 2-3i 






18 -19 




16 - 19 
9 - 10 19 - 20 
4-7 |13-16 

2. Parallel Saws with Backs. 
With a Handle at each End, 







91 SI 

r o 


Sash-saw |14 - 16'2i - Si' . 

Carcass-saw 10-14 2-2j 

Dovetail-saw 6 - 10 I4 - 2 

Smith's screw-head saw. . . 3-8 |-1 







3. Parallel Saws dsed in Fbau&s. 
Stretched Lengthways. 


Mill-saw web. 
Veneer-saw . . . 

Chair-ni.aker's saw 

Wonii-cutter's saw 

ContineiitJil frame-.saw. . 
Turnini; or sweep saw . . 


Smith's frame-saw 


Inlaying or buhl saw, . . 










g> = 































2 -at 



IS) -22 














22 - 24 







» 10-' « 



' 100 in- 





■to- ',.00 


a d, cross-cut tooth. 
6, hand-saw tooth, 
f, gullet-tooth. 
f, comp!iss-saw. 
_/", hand-saw. 

The foliowinff table shows the dimensions of the cenerally 
used varieties of the rectilinear saws, arranged in three groups. 

g, tenon-saw. 
A, frame-saw for wood. 
1, smith's frame-saw for metal, 
y, Bovnton's " lightning"' saw. 
See a a' a". Fig. 4642. 

Fig. 4595, o, left-hand circular-saw; 
rotation is from left to right. 

Fig. 4595. 

. €. the direction of 

Saws: Lejl-Hand Saw; Kight-Hand Saw. 




i, right-hand saw ; rotates the other way. I 

Rail-saws uow consist of circular disks aliout3 feet in diame- 
ter, and driven at the rate of 3,lK)() revolutions per minute, 
giving a circumferential velocity of over u miles per minute. 
Steel rails are cut rapidly, giving out abundance of sparks. 
Such saws are used in America aud in England. 

Fig. 4596 shows a number of detachable teeth for circular 
saws. In each case but a portion of the blade is shown. The 
shape of the teeth and the mode of fastening them in the blades 
will be understood at a glance. 

Pig. 4596. 

Insertable Teeth for Circttlar Saivs. 

a, Krauser. 
6, Colsen. 

c, Emerson. 

d, Clem son. 
ty Lippincott. 
y, Spaulding. 
g, Emerson. 
A, Neale. 

f , Emerson. 
;', Brown. 
is Olemson. 
/, Woodruff. 
wi, Emerson. 

n, Disston. 
o. Shoemaker. 
p, Emerson. 
<i, Emerson, 
r, Emerson. 
5, Dis-ston. 
t, Disstoa. 
w, Hoe. 
r, Strange. 
«', Humphrey, 
ar. Miller. 
y, Disston. 
z. Miller. 

See under the following heads : - 

Annular saw. 

Bench -saw. 



Brier-tooth saw. 

Broken-space saw. 







Cure ass-saw. 



Chair-maker's saw. 

Chair-web saw. 


Chuck- saw. 

Circular saw. 

Comb-cutter's saw. 

Comb-sawing machine. 

Com pass- saw. 


Cross-cut saw. 


Cylindrical saw. 


Double saw. 





Endless saw. 


Ex sec ting-saw. 


Felly -saw. 









(J rub-saw. 





llawks'-bill tooth-saw. 

lley's saw. 


Indicator for saw-teeth. 


Inserted-teeth saw. 

Ivory -saw. 




Live-gaug saw. 


Marble hand-saw. 



Metacarpal saw. 






Perforated saw. 



Pit saw, 






a circular saw is 
secured and by 
which it is ro- 
tated, a bj Fig. 
4597, are two 
different forms. 
In the first, the 
pulley which 
drives the saw is 
placed between 
the journal- 
boxes d df and in 

Re-sawing machine. 












Saw-filing machine. 




Saw-grinding macbiae. 





Sa wing-block. 




Saw-mill dog. 

Saw. Perforated 





Saw-tern periDg. 


Saw-tooth indicator. 

Saw-toothing machine. 

Saw-tooth upsetting. 


Screw-head saw. 


Scroll samng-machine. 





Skip- tooth saw. 


Slabbing- saw. 

Spherical saw. 



Stave sawing-machine. 

Stocker's saw. 



Subcutaneous saw. 








Trepan -saw. 





Two-handled saw. 

Veneer saw. 

"VVii.shing-tub saw. 

Weather- boarding saw. 



Wood -saw. 

Yankee gang-saw. 

Fig. 4597. 

Saw Arbor and Box. 




tlie second outside of theia. The device has tlanges 
by which it is bolted to tlie table. The saw is held 
between a gland ami a nut c, and an e,\i)andiiig device 
operated by a screw at the end adapts the arbor to 
saws having ditl'erent-sized holes. A jiin-lever/ pre- 
vents the arbor I'roTn revolving while removing or re- 
placing a saw. The journal-boxes have a chamber 
at each end connected by a diagonal recess, in which 
a piece of cottou-wicking is placed for the purpose of 
lubrication, as shown at c. 

SavF-bench. (Wuod-icorking.) A table on which 
stutf is fed to a saw. The examples are several forms 

Kg. 4598. 


of circnlar-!5aw benches, with gages -and fences for 
sawing dimension stutf. 

Donkin's saw-bench (English) has a hinged plat- 
form in front of the saw, with qviailrants by which 
it may be fixed to any bevel within its range. The 
parallel rule is available for setting out the widths of 

Fig. 4599 

Saw-BeiKh for Miured and Beveled Work. 

the work. The saw is mounted upon a swing-frame 
of cast-iron, shown separately in the other figure, and 

is adju.sted by the cam, so as to project the required 
distance through the slit in the table. 

Sa-vsr-buck. Anotlier name for the Saw-hokse 
(which see). 

SaTW-clamp. A device, also known as a horse, 
for holding saws while being tiled. The standards 

Fig. 4600. 

Saw-Filing Clamp. 

Saw-Filing Clamp. 

a a' are hinged together, and are spread apart so as. 

to open the jaws c at the up|ier end, in order to hold 

the saw. This is pinched 

tightly by pressing down the Fig. 4601. 

treadle 6, which forces tlie 

feet apart and shuts the jaws. 

Fig. 4601 is a form adapted 
for tlie bench or talile. 

SaTw-doc'tor. An in- 
strument having an angular 
punch for cutting pieces out 
of the edge of a saw-blade, to 
increase the depth of the in- 
terdental spaces. A saw- 

(JFood-wor/c'hiy.) A trough 
or tube by which the sawdust 
is conducted away from a cir- 
cular or other saw. See F.'VN- 
BLOWEK, yi, Fig. lOlS. 

Saiw-file. A tile adapted for saws ; triangular 
in cross-section for handsaws and flat for mill-saws. 
See File, Fig. 1S»65. The fineness of the file depends 
upon the character of the work. See list and table, 
page 840. 

Saw-fil'ing Ma-chine'. One for sharpening 
the teeth of saws. Sec also Saw-sharpeniN'g. 

The teeth of saws are usually made by a punching 
action in a saw-toothing vmchine. 

The example (Fig. 4602) has a suspended frame B 
on which the file and ojierative mechanism are ar- 
ranged. The axis of suspension is also the arbor of 
the countershaft pulley, connecting by belt with the 
driving-pulley F. The vertical shaft I is rotated by 
bevel-gearing G U, operating the pitman 2> and cross- 
head q, and teciprocating the file-carrier. The saw 
is temporarily placed on a mandrel on the iM'nch. 

Fig. 4603 comprises a standard a having a pulley 
from which a belt jiasses to a pulley on the movalile 
frame c, attached by a ball and socket joint to the 
m.ain frame d. The pulley-shaft carries the grind- 
ing-wheel h, which, hy means of a handle, may be 
presented to the work at any desired angle. It is 
driven at the rate of 1,500 to 2,000 revolutions per 
minute, and is counterpoised by a weighted lever e, 
so as to be manipulated by a slight pressure. See 
"Art of Saw- Filing" (56 pp. ), John Wiley, New York. 




Fig. 1602. 

Saiv-Filins Machine. 

Saw-frame. 1. The frame in which, a saw-blade 
Fig. 4603. 

Fig. 4605 i.s a Fig. 4606. 

form of standaid 
saw - gage, also 
adapted for sheet 
metals and wire ; 
the central space 
is open, rendering 
the gage lighter 
and alTording 
ready means for 
hanging up. 

h. A test for 
the straightness Saw- Ga^e (draum to i Scak, Luuar}. 
of the line of teeth. 

Fig. 4606 is a gage to be laid over the line of teeth 
so as to indicate tlie 
e.xactlyproperleugth FiS- lljOS. 

of a tooth. In the 
illustration, thegage 
lies upon two teeth, 
and at its notch ex- 
poses tlic middle 
tooth, which is un- 
der treatment. 

c. A test for the 
range ofteeth-points 
relatively to their ! 
^distance from the ; 
'tii center of rotation. 
" See Fig. 4643. 

2. An adjustable 
device for governing 
the width of the 
scantling or board 
cut and its angle of 
presentation to the 
saw. In Fig. 4607, 

the former is determined by the position of the gage 
in the slot n. The 

is stretched. 

Fig. 4604, 

Saw-FUing Machine. 

In the illustration, this is effected by 
a stout metallic spring 
attached to the part 
which serves for a 
handle. See Fr.AME- 
S.WV, page 913. 

2. The snsh or gate 
of a mill-saw. 

Sa-vr-gage. 1. 
{Sa,r.) a. A t.-st for 
the thickness of saw- 

Saw-Fiting Gage. 

angle is varied by F'g- 460^ 

adjusting the 
piece A, and any 
desired slope is 
given by inclin- 
ing the links c. 
Set-screws are pro- 
vided I'oi' securing 
each part in the 
position to which. 
it is adjusted. 

Fig. 4608 is a gage for circular saws. 

Saw- Gage. 

The dis- 

Fig. 4508. 

Ga^c/or Circular Sates. 
tance of the rollers from the plane of the saw's mo- 

tion determines the thick- 
ness of the plank. 

3. A loose back, which is 
adjusted toward or from the 
blades or the width of ! edge of tlie saw, to limit the 
saw-tooth points. | depth of the kerf. 

Pip. 4609. 




Sawr-gate. The rectangular frame in whicli a 
mill-saw or ganj; ol' mill-saws is stretched. See Fig. 
ItiOl. >See alsu .S.wv-MILL, Plate LIV. 

Saw-gin. (t'uttim.) The original form of cotton- 
gin, in whicli the libers are drawn through the grid 
by the teeth of a saw. Fig. 148(3, page 634, and 
Fig. 2222, ]iage iHiil. 

SaTv-grind'tng Ma-chine'. A machine for 
dressing llie sides of saws, so as to give the blade a 

Fig. 4610. 


saw is so constructed as to permit the center of the 
saw to advance to the edge of the grindstone. Thus 
every portion of the disk is brouglit in turn to the 
oiieration of the grindstone. See also Disston's pat- 
ent, November, 1874, in which a pair of giindstones 
grind the face of the saw, and have mandrels so ad- 
justable as to give any required taper, increasing or 
decreasing from the edge to tlie eye. 

In Fig. 4(il2, the tlat mill-saw blade is placed 
in position upon the reciprocating bed and beneath 
the rollers, the force of the levers being then exerted 

Grinding-Machine /or Circular Saws. 

uniform thickness, or impart a uniform taper from 
center to circumference. 

Saw -grinding machines were among those supplied 
bv Sir S.amuel Bentham to the British Admiralty, 
before 1800. 

In Fig. 4610, the saw is hung on a spindle, and 
is caused to rotate between two grindstones in a 
plane at right angles to their axes. By means of 

Grinding-Machine for Gate- Saws. 

to raise the bed and cause the blade to bear 
against the rotating grindstone. The rollers con- 
fine the blade and its sujiporting plate to the bed. 
Fig. 4613 is for grinding band or riblion .saws, 
which are ]>laced over tlie drums B D and passed 
beneath the grindstone C above a bearing-roller 
which sujiports the blade. 

Fig. 4613. 

hand-wheels and gearing the grind- 
stones ai-e moved alti'rnately toward 
and from the renter of the saw until 
it is reduced tn the ilesired thickness. 
In Fig. 4611, the saw is on a hori- 
zontal mandrel, and receives a motion 
in two directions, — one upon its axis, 
and the other by the reciprocation of 
tlie carriage that supi)orts tlie .saw. 
The circular arbor or bearing for the 

Grinding-MacUine for Band- Saws. 




The machine may also be used for grimling other 
saw-blades ; the metallic apron, in connection with 
the feed-rollers, moving the saw-blade to the action 
of the grindstone with a force not greater than the 
grinding capacity. The flange or collar at the eye of 
the grindstone may be set in position, or at an incli- 
nation corresponding with that of the side of the 

Fig. 4614. 

Fig. 4615. 

GriTtding- Machine for Cylinder Saws. 

Fig. 4614 is a machine for grinding cylinder or 
tub saws. The revolving grindstone or wheel is 
brought in contact with the surface of the cylindrical 
saw, which slowly revolves and 
traverses longitudinally from end to 
end, when its motion is reversed 
by suitable mechanism. The saw- 
mandrel has a friction-roller and 
gage, and the grinding-wheel is 
adjustable in position. 

Saw-guide. A piece with an 
adjustalile/'r/uv, wliieli may direct 
< the saw in cross-cutting .strips, 
against which tile piece is laid. 

Sa'w-gum'mer. An apparatus 
for cutting away the jilate of a saw 
to deepen the intei'dcntal spaces. 
This is sometimes done by punch- 
ing, sometimes by grinding. 

Saw-Guide. In Fig. 4616, the punoh-holiler a is piv- 

oted and depres.^ed by a lever n' operating 
the cams 6 6', and ttirown upward, after malting the cut, by a 
spiral spring beneath. 

Fig. 4616. 

Fig. 4617. 

^^ Saw Glimmer 

Fig. 4618 is a view of a portable form which is held by one 
hand ag.tinst the blade of a 
mill-saw, the set-screws A' A' 
resting against opposite sur- 
faces of the blade, while the 
cutting cylinder D is rotated 
by the crank-handle E. 

There are many other forms 
of the tool, some of which em- 
ploy the emery-wheel, com- 
monly known .a.s tnnite See 
Emerv-whf.el, and specific in- 
dex under Geinding, 1017. 

Saw-han'dle. Va- 
rious forms of handles 
are used for the ditferent 
kinds of .saws, — hand, 
cross-cut, etc. 

Fig. 4619, 



Portable Saw- GiimmnT. 

In Fig. 4619, the wings of the handle-socket have 
elongated slots through whicli, and thiough a cor- 
responding slot in the saw-blade, is ]iassed a holt, 
cam-shaped in section ; this can enter the slot in 
only one way, and on being tinned strains the blade, 
causing its ends to bear against the rivets, which 
unite the wings, while a projecting lip draws the 
wings together, and tends to prevent displace- 
Savr-hang'ing. The devices by which a mill- 
Hoe^s .Saw-Gummer. g,nv js strained in its gate. In the exanijile, strips 

of steel are riveted on each side at each end of the 
In Fig. 4617, .4, the s,iw is clamped between the jaws of the ^.j^. ^„^l 4]^^;^ dovetailed edges. Hooks with curved 
(rummer bv the screws « a ; rapul rotation is iniparteil to the , j. i 3 .. m j 1. .1^1 

cHtterbvmei.nsofawinch,anditisadv.inced to .leciH^n thecut ^^'} correspondniglv dovetailed lips eng.age the steel 
bv the h.and-wheel and screw 6. In B, a lap or emery wheel is strips, and form a means of adjusting the strain at 
tiirned by belt .and pulley c ; the sawis held on a stan.l -/, whose .,„y p^^ of the saw nearer to or farther from the 
distance from the laii mav he varied to suit diirerent-sized S.TWS, ' l* * c 1 Qttt m-i 
and which may be tilted to vary the angle of the cutting edges eilge. r>ee also .-ilIKM. 1. 
of the teeth. I Fig. 4621 shows Snyder s muley-saw hanging. 





rig. 4G20. 

rig. 4621. 


Sawing- LluLk. 

at riglit angles with 
the a.\is, aiui two 
others forming op- 
posite angles of 45° 
tlierewith. Tliese 
serve respectively 
as guides for cut- 
ting ofi' square the 
enils of a piece of 

wood ]ihiced within tlie box, and for making miter- 
joints. See MrrEi:-B(jx. 

Saw'ing-ma-chine'. A mechanical contrivance 
liy which tlie power — of the man or an engine — 
is applied to the work of driving tlie saw. 

Tlie applications of the saw in sho]is are very 
numerous, and are considered under their various 
heads. Among them may be here cited : — 

Fig. 4624. 

Drag-Saw for Cross-cutting Logs. 


The saw is destitute of a gate 
or sash^ but plays between 

Saw-horse. A kind of rack 
on whiih sticks of cord-wood 
are laid for sawing. Its two 
ends each form a St. Andrew's 
cross, and are connected by 
longitudinal stays. Also called 

Tliat shown in Fig. 4022 has 
a curved clamp C pivoted and 
sliding on the upper connec'ting 
round of the lianies, anil which 
is held to or released I'rom the 
log by turning the pivoted 
frame or lever D D. 

Sa-w'ing-block. {Joinery.) 
through the upright sides of which a saw kerf is cut 

Fig. 4622. 


Circular saM 






Veneer-saw, etc. 

See also specific index under Saw, page 2035. 

Fig. 4625 is a domestic saw for making short fire- 
wood ; the pieces are laid in a V-shaped trough, 

Fig. 4625. 


A wooden trough. 


Saw for Stove-Wood and Kindling. 

held by the notched lever L, and the saw is recip- 
rocated by the double rack, the teeth of the upper 
and lower portion being alternately thrown into gear 
with the pinion by automatic devices. 

A handy workshop-lbrm of the circular saw. In 
the form shown (Fig. 4626), either of several saws is 
brought into cutting ]iosition at the slit in the table. 

Saw'ing-ma-chine' Gage. See Saw-oage. 

Sa-w-mau'drel. A hold-J'ast for a circular saw 
in a laflie. See Saw-arbor. 

Savr-mill. Wood-saw mills, driven by water, 
were erected as early as the fourth century in Ger- 
many, on the river Roer. Stone, marble, and grain 




Fig. 4626. 


mills had been used many centuries previously in 
Pontus, Caria, and in Eome. 

Saw-mills were driven by water at Augsburg in 
1322. Indeed, a saw-mill with a complete self- 
action and driven by a water-wheel is found in a 
MS. of the thirteentli century, now in Paris. 

Saw-mills were erected by tlie Spaniards in the 
island of Madeira in 1420. Erected in Breslau, 
1427 ; in Norway, 1520 ; in Rome, 1556. 

Saw-mills driven by water afterward became com- 
mon in Europe. In the year 1555, the Bishop of 
Ely, ambassador from Mary Queen of England to 
the court of Rome, visited a saw-mill in the vicinity 
of Lyons, which he thus describes : — 

" The saw-mill is driven with an uprig:ht wheel, and the wa- 
ter that niaketh it go is gathered whole into a narrow trough, 
which dc^ivereth the same water to the wheels. This wheel hath 
a piece of timber put to the axle-tree end, like the handle of a 
broeh, and fiistened to the end of the saw, which, being turned 
with the force of the water, hoi^^teth up and down the saw. that 
it continually eateth in, and the handle of the same is kept in 
a rigall of wood from swerving. Also the timber lieth, as it 
were, upon a ladder, which, is brought by little and little to the 
saw with another vice.*' 

In 1575, a miU having a gang of saws, capable of sawing.sev- 
eral boards at once, was in operation on the Danube, near R-it- 
isbon. In 1596. the first, it is said, in Ilnlland was erected at 
Saardam. In England, one erected in lt!K.3 by a Dutchman wa<! 
abandoned on account of the opposition of the populace ; and 
more than a century later (1767), when James Stansfield estab- 
lished a wind saw-mill at Limehouse. East London, it was de- 
stroyed by a mob. A similar mill had previously been in oper- 
ation for some years at Leith, Scotland. 

In 1802, Oliver Evans of Philadelphia constructed a double- 
acting high-pressure engine for a boat to run between New Or- 
leans and Xatchez. On reaching the Mississippi, the boat was 
high and drj-, and could not be floated till the periodical rise 
of the river occurred. The engine was, therefore, set up in a 
saw-mill, and sawed at the rate of 3,0(X) feet of boards per day. 
This mill, also, was burned by hand-sawyers, who thought their 
craft was in danger. 

The illustration (Fig. 4627) is taken from a tract published in 
London in lt>50, entitled " Virginia's Discovery of Silk Worms, 
with their Benefit and the implanting of Mulberry Trees. Also 
the dressing and keeping of Vines for the rich Trade of making 
Wines there. Togetlier with the makinj? of the Saw Mill, very 
useful in Virginia forcuttingof Timber and making Clapboards 
to build withall,and its Conversion to other as profitable Uses."' 

In Michig:in and Wisconsin, Canada, Maine, and Pennsyl- 
vania, the lumber business is carried on upon a large scale. An 
instance may be given. 

Perley and Pattee's saw-mill is one of nine situated at the 
Chaudiere Falls of the Ottawa River, just above the city of Ot- 
tawa, the capital of the Dominion of Canada Five of these 
mills are on the south side of th^ river and four on the north 
side. One, Wright and Batson's, is driven by steam. 

The united production of the nine mills is about 1,500,000 
feet, board measure, in twenty-four hours, running day and 

Virginian Satv-Mill (1650). 

night for six months in the year. A general idea of the arrange- 
ment of one of these mills may be obtained by a description of 
that belonjring to Messrs. Perley and Pattec,"above referred to. 
It is a composite stone and fr:ime building, the main part of 
which is 84 X 112 feet, with an L 48 X 121 feet, and two wings, 
20 X 122 and 20 x 40, respectively. 

Beneath the main floor is the heavy sub-frame in which the 
water-wheels and their at^uncts are secured, and arranged upon 
the floor are two sets of machines. 

It may be here mentioned that each of those gangs is driven 
by a reaction water-wheel, known technically as the Rojre nnc- 
tion-ivheel, the same being 5 feet in diameter and having an area 
of discharge of something over iOii square inches. The head of 
water is 14 feet, and the quantity unlimited. The power upou 
each wheel is computed to be equal to 70 horses. 

The ed^frs and are driven by a direct-action central- 
dischai^ wheel. The volume of water passing to each wheel 
is graduated by a wicket in (he chute. 

The logs are obtained in the Ottawa Country at various points 
as far as 200 miles above the falls. At the various rapids log- 
slides have been made, toward which the Ings are directed. 
The saw-mill owners have conihined to improve this water-way 
for logs, and have expended S 130,000 in the slides, booms, piers, 
and other improvements. 

Perley and Pattee employ about 700 men in the bush (as the 
forest is called in Canada) and .3im> spans of horses. 

The logs are marked, floated down the river tfl a point about 
30 miles above the city, are then sorted for the mills on the 
north and south sides of the river, respectively, and at a point 
above the Chaudiere Falls are sorted to the separate owners and 
collected in the ponds, whence they pa':s by races to the respec- 
tive mills. The ponds are formed hy booms or more permanent 
structures. The water runs from the icy north, and never slacks 
except in winter. The amount " running to waste " is immense, 
but there is no more land around the falls to set mills upon. 
About 300 men are employed in the mill-yard and in shipjiing. 
As a precaution against fire, a large " Ilolley '" pump is rigged 
in a fire-proof building in the vicinity. It is driven by an 80- 
horse-power water-wheel, called into action should occasion 
require. It delivers four 11-inch streams through four ho*e. 

The capacity of the mill is from 250,000 to 3)10.000 feet, board 
measure, per 24 hours, running day anrl night for 6 months of 
the year. The mill contains two sets of machinery. A set can- 
siS'ts of 3, sfnhbin^-gans, stock-stJu^^^xid Ynnkee-i;nns, succeeded 
by a douhle-erlser ami floubh-huttrr. The stahbing-s^ns and 
stock'gatis act consecutively upon logs over 21 inches in di- 
ameter. The Yankee-gnug is similar to the two former, but 
the respective gangs are in more immediate proximity, for the 
sake of compactness and convenience. 

The logs are drawn from the fore-bay by prapples attached to 
an endless chain. Being placed on the ways, each is dogged 
between a head and tail block on an endless chain, which ad- 
vances it to the slabbing-gang. Thus they pass continuously, 
there being no s'^Z'^g-back The saws are arranged to leave a 
central balk of a width equal to the width of the boards to be 
sawed then*from in the suceee*ling operation (the stock-gang). " 
The sides of the log are ripped into boards by the slab-saws, the 
result being a central balk and two sets of slab-boards with 
wany edges. This is delivereil behind the gang of saws, and 
another log advances to the saws. 

The balk is then transferrcfl to the sinrk-sang^ lying upon one 
of its flat sides, and is ripped into boards by the gang of saws 

The work on the Yankee-gang is similar, but, the logs being 
lighter, the gangs and ways are placed nearer to each other. 


Plate LIV. 


See page 2041. 




The slab boards or wany stuff from the sides of the log are 
then taken to the doubleniilging machine, which has two saws, 
one being permanent and the other adjustable on its mandrel 
by means of a lever, the saw moving on a spline in the usual 
manner. This adjustability is for the purpose of edging boards 
of varying width. Tlie boards are then lifted on to a double- 
butting machine, which squares the ends and brings them to a 
uniform length, 12, 14, 16, etc., .as the case may be. Logs are 
cut 13 feet long for 12-feet lumber, and the mill works for a 
while on IG-feet and then on 12-feet stuff. 

The double-butting machine has a pair of endless chains trav- 
eling in parallel planes, and having Jogs at equal and coincident 
distances. The board is advanced by them to the two saws, and 
the ends are butted simult,aneously. 

The slabbing-.saws are of No. 9 gage, and 5, 6.^, or 7 feet long. 

The stock-saws are No. 11 gage, aud 4^ feet long. 

The gage is the Stub's wire-gage. 

Four hundred saws are used or in reserve, and eight men are 
employed in gumming, swaging the points, and filing. 

The edges of the slabs are worked into sash, blind, and door 
stuff, aud the refuse ground np in a machine to chips, which 
are passed with the sawdust into the river. The authorities do 
not allow larger stuff to be thrown into the river, as it tends to 
obstruct navigation. In some mills, the pieces obtained by but- 
ting the boards are sold to be worked into matches. 

The Basin Mill at Orono, Maine, is 410 feet long, 6tJ feet wide, 
has 4 gang-saws, 5 single saws, 2 circular saws, 5 lath-niarhlnes, 
1 shingle aud 1 clapboard machine. It saws daily 20(t,r)0(l feet 
of long lumber, 200,01X1 laths, 10,000 shingles, aiid 4,000 clap- 
boards, and by requirement of law burns up about 120 cords of 
waste wood each day. 

Plate LIV. represents a European gang-saw mill. 

For many centuries none but the reciprocating 
saws were used, and it was only during the latter 
half of tlie last century that the circular saw was used 
for its present purpose. This guarded expression is 

Fig. 4629. 

Lane and Bottlet/^s Circular- Saw MiQ. 

adopted because circular saws or disks hare been 
used for many centuries in lathes and lapidary work. 
Miller's English patent of 1777 describes tlie circular 
saw, and such were made at the coniuiencenient of 
the century by (Jeneral Sir Samuel Beuthani for the 
British Admiralty. At present the circular-saw mill 
is the favorite in the woods, where the location is to 
be occasionally changed to comport with the supply 
of logs. Circular saws of very large diameter are also 
used in some of the great mills on the Mississippi. 
See also Cii;c-ri„\u Saw. 

SaTW-mill Dog. A device for holding logs on 
the carriage while being sawed. 

Fig. 4629 has a swivel joint to permit the point 
to be turned in any direction. 

Fig. 4629. 

Saw-Mill Dog. 

Fig. 4630 has an arrangement of two dogs that 
hold the log while it is being .sawed, and are adjust- 
able by means of a screw passing through the dog- 
heads. Two parallel rods also pass through the dog- 
heads to keep them firmly in position, and all turn 
or swing upon an upright rod passing through a 
swinging head, and are again adjusted by a screw- 
rod pa.ssing through the swinging head and bearing 
on the toj> nf the head-block. 

Sa^-mill Gate. See Saw-gate. 

Saw-pad. A contrivance for conducting the web 
of a compass-saw or lock-saw in cutting out small 

Fig. 4630. 


Saw-pit. The 
pit beneath a log 
inwliich the low- 
er sawyer works. 

The rectangular 
frame in which 
a mill-saw is 
stretched. A 

Saw^-set X 
tool or imple- 
ment to slant the 
teeth laterally 
from the plane 
of the saw, alter- 
nately to the 
right and left, in 
order that the 
Iccrf may be wider 
than tlie thick- 
ness of the blade, 


Saw-MiU Head-Elock. 

and friction be reduced. In some cases, the edge of 
the tooth is spread to widen its cut, instead of bend- 
ing it laterally. 




" Green wood fills the intervals between the teeth of the saw 
with siiwdiitit, rendering it;! edge uniform and inert ; it is for 
this reJisori that tin- teeth are made to projeet right and left in 
turns, so that the sawdust is di.schargcd." — Fliny, a. ». 7y. 

The saw-uiakcr geneniUy employs a small hammer «, the saw 
being laid nearly tiat, with its teeth along the ridge of a rounded 
edged anvil or stake b b held in the tail vise ; the angle ia in 
great measure determined by the curve of the stake, which is, 

Fig. 4631. 

Saw- Sets. 

for fine-toothed saws, considerably pointed. Half the teeth hav- 
ing been bent, the saw is turned end for end, and the interme- 
diate teeth similarly treated. 

The set c d is conmionly employed by the users of saws, re- 
quiring less skill to give the proper inclination to the teeth, c 
is used for large, and d for small saws. It consists of a narrow 
blade of steel, with notches of various widths, to acconiniodate 
different thicknesses of blades. The saw is held between clamps, 
the alternate teeth inserted a little way into the notch which 
they most nearly fit, and bent over to the proper angle by press- 
ing the handle of the tool ; the operation is then repeated on 
the intermediate teeth 

Sometimes saw-set pliers e are used. These require two ad- 
justment-s: one for setting the jaws to the thickness of the teeth, 
which is effected by a .'stop held by the thumb-screw /"; and the 
other for determining the angle to which the teeth shall be 
bent, which is regulated by the thumb-screw g. 

rig. 4632 is a form to be stuck in a hole on the work-bench. 
^ The punch C is pivoted to tlie 

Fig. 4632, 

stock, and is struck by a ham- 
mer. The gage D, against 
which the points of the teeth 
rest, graduates tlie position of 
the saw in accordance with the 
length of the teeth and iu re- 
lation to the hammer. The 
blaile rests on H, whose vertical 
adjustment determines the de- 
gree ot set. 

Fig 4333 is another form of 
bench implement, in which the 
punch is placed in a socket of 
the ailju.stable spring. The 
saw-rest has an inclined lower 
side, and the brackets vary in 
elevation to suit, so that the 
rest can be moved endways to 
alter its elevation and the set of the saw, such movement not 
destroying the horizontality of the upper edge of the rest. 

Fig. 4633. 

Fig. 4634. 

Saw Set'ting and Fil'ing Ma-chine'. The 

machiiiL' (Fig. 4t>35) lor sutting and liliiig l)and-sa\vs 
has two llaiigt'd lotatable disks a b jiivotcd on tlie 
ends of adjustable aims passing thiough a olanip- 
piece c ; the saw is slipped over the disks, and kept 
tense by extending and clamping the arms. Turn- 
ing the hand-wheel d actuates the pawl f, advancing 
the saw the distance of one tooth at a time ; the same 
movement causes two small hammers, one on each 
side of the longitudinal opening in the part/, through 

Fig. 4635. 

on .B, 

4G34 is 
and the 

a hand-tool for small saws. The blades rest 
teeth are driven by the jaw d upon the anvil- 

Saw Setting and Fitiug Machine. 

which the saw passes, to strike a tooth on either side, 
alternately bending one to the right and the next to 
the left to a distance determined by a gage. 

At ]no|>cr inti'rvals, the motion is suspended for 
the pur]iose of tiling the teeth at that part of the 
saw^ within the claniji g, which prevents vibration 
and also serves to avoid too dee]) a cut. 

Sa-w-sharp'en-ing Ma-chine'. A machine for 
giiiidiiig, tiling, or 

swaging teeth of Fig. 4636. 


In Fig. 4636, a 
disk of consolidated 
emery is enijdoyed. 
This is jounuded on 
a counterbalanced 
arm, so as to he jne- 
sented to thfi teeth 
at any requii-ed an- 
gle, and rotated by 
band and pulley. 
The saw is held by 
a vise with wooden 
jaws, clamped to the 
table. For sharpen- 
ing circular saws, 
this is removed and 
replaced by another of different form. See also Saw- 
grinding Machine. 

The angles at the points of saw-teeth are in general more 
acute in proportion to the softness of the material to be oper- 
ated on, varying from 90" for metals and very hard woods to 
fiO° or less for soft woods. To insure the action of each tooth, 
their points must be in the same straigiit line (in rectilinear 
saws), and for this purpose they are tofi/ird by laying the file, 
without its handle, flatwise upon their points, and reducing 
them tfl the same level by a few strokes of the tool. 

More force is applied to the file in sharpening the teeth near 
the ends of the saw than at the middle, where they are more 

There are five different methods usually employed, depending 
on the charnctcr of the teeth. 

The first (Fig. 40.37) is applicable to the smith 's frame-saw, 
the teeth of wliich have no set. The saw being held in a vise, 
face upward, the teeth are lightly hammered, by which they 
are slightly spread or upset anil reduced to the'same gcnci-sil 
level. The file is then applied, heint; held so as to form a right 
an^le. both vertir-ally and horlTinntally, with the saw-blade. 

2. Pcf;, M,and mill-saw teeth In general, arc sharpmed, as 
shown at t, by applying the file to the faces of the teeth in the 

:<uu'-^harpfnit}g Machine 




direction indicated by the dotted line ; several of the teeth are 
thus treated, operating from one side of the saw ; the work- 
man then operates from the other side, applying the tile to the 
alternate face^, which have been left untouched, in diametri- 
cally opposite direction ; this process is continued a few teeth 

Fig. 4637. 


' ^ - 11 


Sajv- Teeth. 

at a time throughout the entire length of the saw, after which 
the two remaining faces of each tooth are filed in a similar 

3. Hand-saw and other teeth , having angles of 60°, are sharp- 
ened by first filing the oblique faces until they coincide with 
one dotted line, next the backs of the same, then the other 
oblique faces and their backs. 

4. Wood-pruning saws i1, which are made thicker on the 
face than at the back, are sharpened by a triangular file applied 
very obliquely in a horizontal direction, sometimes at an angle 
exceeding 4.5°, as shown by the oblique lines. 

5. In sharpening gullet or brier teeth e, the gullets are 
first filed with a round-edged file, somewhat smaller than the 
gullet, which gives a concave face to the tooth : it is then em- 
ployed on the back of the preceding tooth ; the top being filed 
last with the fiat .«ide of the file. The setting (see Saw-set) is 
afterward performed. 

Sa-w-spin'dle. The shaft upon which a circu- 
lar saw is secured. This is orilinarily eirectecl by 
means of a collar a, between which anil the flat face 
of a swell on the spindle the saw is clamped by 
screwing up a nut 6. A steady pin, passing through 

Fig. 46.38 

Saw- Spindle. 

the saw and into the spindle, prevents slip and vi- 
bration. Rotation is imparted by a cone-pulley hav- 
ing a series of grooves for receiving a circular band, 
enabling it to be run at difterent velocities. See also 


Sa'w-s'wage. A form of punch or striker by 
which tlie end of a saw-tooth is flattened to give it 
width and set. 

The swage A has a movable rod a having a tooth 
b by which the points of the saw-teeth are spread 

Fig. 4639. 



out previous to filing ; for swaging and filing 
are inserted within the notch c. 

B. The split end of the adjustable bar a is placed 
on the saw-collar ; the ends of the tectli are succes- 
■sively inserted in the notched piece d and swaged by 
a tap with tlie hammer. 

C. The saw-tooth is inserted in the opening x and 
slightly raised by a blow ; it is afterward filed to the 
proper bight. 

Sa-w-tem^per-ing Ma-chine'. One for hold- 
ing a saw-blade to prevent buckling when plunged 
into the bath. The studded and perforated plates 

Fig. 4&i0. 


Saw-Ptate Tempering-Machine. 

are adjustable in distance from each other, and the 
studs impinge upon the opposite sides of the plate, 
while the same is lowered into the bath in a liori- 
zontal position to insure all parts entering the oil at 
the .same time. See Tempering. 

Sa'W-tooth. Saw-teeth are generally cut out by 
the fly-press. Those of the forms d to /( (Fig. 4641) 
renuii-e but one punch, the sides of which meet at 
an angle ofr 60°. Two studs are used to direct the 
edge of the saw-blade to the punch, the required 
angle depending on the pitch or inclination of the 
teeth ; and an adjustable stop determines the .^pnce 
or interval from tooth to tooth by catching against 
the side of the last tooth jireviously made. Gullet- 
teeth and the other kindsshown 
require punches corresponding 
to their peculiar shapes and 

After the formation of the 
teeth, the blade is ground u| on 
a grind.stone of considerable 
diameter, and (in the case of 
straight saws) principally cross 
ways, so that it may be thicker ^ -^ '\_'\AA/> a 
at front than at back. "— \' \ % s^a 

When, by means of hammer ii_!_^_J;jl}_y35 " 
ing, the blade has acquired a ^ <> i \ ^ -^ 
unifomi elasticity, the ti th c ' ^^ ^ -L JS f 
are sharpened with a file and , ^ -n -t ^ ^i-- 3 g 
set, that is, bent to the right /^-C.^^^^ 1 L h 
and left alternately. ^ — ■ 

The word pitch (prefenbly f-j^t^'l 14^ j 

ral-e) is employed to designate '"^ ""= - 

the inclination of the fact of ^ — =^ ^ 
the tooth, and not the distance fLrt/^l^\/\A k 

from tooth to tooth, as in gear ^-^ — . ^^—^ 

ing. The distance between the J/p "i^l^T^^^ I 
teeth is expressed in narrow ^~°/ -7 ^ '/\ef^ 
spaced saws by the number of F j'__j - SM^ m 
pnints to the inch ; when the ^ ,sz,j? ^ 

distance between them is \ ('^^-^ -''■ -*»^7i 

inch or more, the saw is said ^- 

tobeof ^-inch, j-inch,etc.,s;M(X. Tenh of Sa-xs. 




Fig. 4641 shows various forms of saw-teeth : — 
a, petr-tooth or fleam-tuotb. 
6, M-tooth. 

c, half-uioon tooth 

d, cross.futtinf; tooth. 

e, sli^lit pttrk or cross.outtinK tooth, generally used in small 
saws: the pitch exceeds that of the foruier by about 15*. 

f, hanii-saw. or orilinnry pitch tooth- 

^, tooth having the euttiug-face set forward at an angle of IB", 
used in niill-.saws for soft wood. 

h, tootlt u..*fd in some circular saws ; also occasionally for pit- 
saws, cross-cut i«iws, and saws f<^r cutting soft stone. 

t, shouldered tooth, employed in some rectilinear saws. 

j, a similar tooth, having greater pitch; used in circular 

k I m n, gullet or brier teeth : the first is better adapted 
for cross-cuttiug and for hard woods, such as mahogany ; the 
two next for pit and mill saws ; and the last for ripping and for 
soft woods. 

Fig. 4642. 

edges alternating, and slender clearing- teeth interposed between 
each pair of cutters, as shown in the figure. 

Kmerson's saws (c c' r" c'". Fig. 4ti42) have series of semi- 
circular openings in the blade, back of the gums. These serve 
to prevent a crack between the teeth from extending farther in 
case it should occur, and also obviate the neccs.sity of ii-moving 
much metal with the tile in the process of gumming. 

Lil)liiii(-'ott'.s;ut saw d d' lias slot.s or inden- 
tations having ]iai"alk»l sides, and extending into tlie 
blade below the root or termination of the inelineil 
side of tlie teetli, for the jinrjtose of serving as a 
guide in dres.siiig the saw with a tile, so as to pre- 
.serve the original shape and relative distanee apart 
of the saw-teeth, and enable it to be kept in order 
without gumming. 

Drake's stone-cutting saw c has diamond points, 
constituting or afti.xed to the teeth. The illustration 
shows an elevation of a circular saw on this plan. 
See Stoxe-saw. 

For iusertable - teeth Fig- *6*3. 

saws, see Fig. 4596 ; for 
varieties of teeth, see 
Fig. 4641. 

SaTV-tooth In'di- 
ca'tor. A deviiM* for 
insuring the tiling or 
setting the teeth of cir- 
cular saws to an eipial 
distanee from the center. 
It consists of a hollow 
shaft «, having a V- 
shaped point and two 
curved arms b c, whiih 
are adjusted to a groove 
in the saw-collar. The 
movable branch d, whose 
outer end has a knife- 
edge, is set to the proper 
distance from the center, 
and held in this position 
by a screw. 

The points of the 
teeth, if projecting beyond this distance, are filed 
down, or if they are too low and movable, they may 
be adjusted to proper hight by filing away the 

SaTv-tooth'ing Ma-chine'. The machine (Fig. 
4644) has a g;ite 1/ leeipiocated by an eccentric and 

Fig. 4644. 

Saw-Toot/t Indirator. 


In Boynton's saw (a a' rt". Fig. 4G42), the teeth ar* all clear- 1 
ers, as well as cutters : the cutting-edces of the teeth are alter- ' pitman, and has at one end two plain .shearing- 
natcly on each side of the blade, and they are set alternately to lilajes J J', and at the other two toothing-blades 
"'a''Ms Bo"v'nton-s perforated saw. I ^' -S-". Secured to blocks attached to the gate and 

Hoe's cross-cut saw b has double cutting-teeth, their cutting- 1 frame C, respectively. Two saws are cut from a sin- 




gle sheet at each operation, the projecting teeth of | provided with a set of keys. They are seven in 

one col-responding to the interspaces of the otlier 
The blades have a slight inclination, so that tin 
cutting action is gradually ellected. Adjustable 
gages are secured to the shearing and toothing ends 
of the gate, traveling down along with the cut plate 
or saw, and on the return stroke the work is released 
and sticking prevented. 

Pj ^^5 Saw-tooth Swage. Au anWl block 
used in connection witli a punch or wedge 
of some kind to tlatten the edge of a saw- 
tooth. .See also S.\\v-s\v.\(;e. 

Saw-tooth XTp-set'ter. A tool to 
spread tile edge of a saw-tooth. In Fig. 
4646, two steel wedges are socketed in a 
J, stock, their faces adapteil to form the 

"^ edges of the tooth ; the tool is driven upon 
I the tooth, upsetting and displaying it to 
I widen its kerf. See S.\%v-.swage. 
L— 111 Sa-w-vise. Aspeciesof clamp for hold- 
ing saws while filing. A has two jaws, 
one of which is seen at a ; they are of metal 
lined with wood, and are closed or unclosed 
by turning the handle b. The temporary mandrel 
of the saw may be placed in either of the holes of 


for Saw- 


Fig. 4646. 

Fig. 4647. 


iSaic- Vises. 

Tool for Upsetting 

the perforated standard, 
according to the diame- 
ter of the saw, so that 
its periphery or edge 
shall be in the required 
pro.\imity to the jaws 
of the vise. 

B is secured by screws 
to any convenient sup- 
port, and tlie upper part of one leg carries a fixed 
jaw. A movable jaw a is pivoted in the other leg, 
the lower end of its shank being in contact with a 
cam-lever b. Depressing the lever closes this jaw, 
which is thro\vn outward by a spring when the lever 
is depressed. 

Saw-wrest. A tool to bend saw-teeth to give 
thein a sii. .See S.vw-SET. 

Saw'yer's-dog. A timber-dog, raft-dog, saw- 
mill dog. An iron bar with a bent-over end, which 
is pointed to drive into a log. 

Sax. A slate-maker's axe, for trimming slates to 
shape. It is 16 inches long and 2 broad, and has a 
point at the back for making nail-holes in the slate. 

Sax'horn. (Music) -A. wind-instrument of metal 
with keys and valves, and ma<le en suile, that is, of 
various sizes and compass. See Hop.x, f f t'. 

Sax'o-phoue. (Mnsic.) A musical instru- 
ment with a single reed and a clarinet mouthpiece. 
The body of the instrument is a parabolic cone of brass 

number, the hi'jii, soprano, alio, tciiur, barytone, buss, 
and doublc-biiss. The compass of each is nearly the 
same. 8e(! HimN, b. 

Sax'o-trom'ba. {Music.) A brass instrument 
with a moutlipiece and three or four cylinders. It 
is, like the saxhorn and sa.rophone, made en suite, 
but, its tube being a little more contracted, it gives 
a shriller sound. 

Sax-tu'ba. {Mu.iic.) An instrument with a 
mouthpiece and a mechanisni of three cylinders. 

Say. (Fabric.) A thin woolen cloth. Tlie name 
is obsolete, but exists in old authms. 
" Thou say, thou serge, nay thou buckram [biirnican] lord." 


Commoner goods for each succeeding e|iithet. 

Say-ette'. (Fabric.) A mixed fabric of silk and 
wool. Soijiitlnj. 

Scab'bard. The sheath of a cutting weapon or 
bayonet, made of metal, wood, Icatlier, raw hide, or 
jiaper. The first mentioned is the material 
for the purpose. So said Captain Nolan of the Eng- 
lish Dragoons, killed in the heroic but wanton cav- 
aliT charge at Balaklava in the Crimea. 

In early times men had cases for their knives ; and, 
associated with the earliest history, the swords are 
seen in their scabbards, as in the sculptures of Niin- 

Scab'bard-plane. An abbreviation of Scale- 
BOAim I'l.ANK (wliich see). , 

Scab'bled. (Masonry.) Stone dressed with a 
hue axe, in contradistinction to plain-faced. Scap- 

Scab'bling-ham'mer. (Masonry.) A mason's 
tool used in reducing stone to a surface. It has two 
somewhat pointed ends, whereby the stoni- is jiickcd. 
The face of the stone is left in lines, and is said to 
be nigged or nidged. The roughly dressed block is 
termed a nigged ashlar. It succeeds in weight and 
order of usathe spalliny-hammer or kevel. 

Scaffold. 1. (Building.) A platform tem- 
porarily erected during the progress of a stnicture, 
lor the sujiport of workmen and material. 

The ordinary bricklayer's scaflbld consists of up- 
right poles called standards, supporting the horizon- 
tal poles which are lashed thereto and called ledgers; 
these support the outer ends of the putlogs, the other 
ends resting in holes in the wall. Tlie scaflbld 
boards rest on the putlogs. 

Square timber-scaffolding with a traveling-crane was intro- 
duced into England at the^ building of Euston Station of the 
Northwestern Railway. London, and .subsequently was used at 
the riusing of the Nelson Column, Trafalg;<r Square, London, 
and the new Uou.=cs of Parliament, Westminster. See Over- 
head-crane ; TRAVELI^G-CRA^■E. 

The square tiniber-.'^caffolding was, however, used on the 
Cologne Cathedral from the commencement of its building, a. d. 
124S, and probably will be for several hundred years to come 
on the same structure, in the rebuilding and extension which 
seem to be progressing simultaneously. 

A precedent for the Nelson Column erection is found in the 
more complex and difficult work of raising the Eg\ pti:iii Obe- 
lisk in the Plaza of St. Peter's at Kome, by Domenie i'ontano, 
A. n. 1586. 

The Arc de TEtoile and the Eglise de la Madeleine are tri- 
umphs of the first Napoleon, on which the same style of scaf- 
folding was used. 

The tendency in the United States is to the use of the derrick- 
crane, whose simplicity and efficiency leave little to be desired. 
The extension of the Treasury Building in Washington, under 
the conduct of A. B. Mullet, was made by colossal stones; its 
monolithic character is said to be second only to the Churcli of 
St. Isaac's at St Petersburg, Russia. The derrick-crane was 
used on this building, and on the Capitol Extension also. 

Fig. 4648 represents a hanging scaffold contrived 
by Perronet for the workmen employed in dressing 
and pointing the masonry of tlie arches of the bridge 
at Orleans. It was suspemlcd from a frame which 
straddled the parapet, and was rolled from place to 




Fig 4648. n place as required. Tlie platform | 
uould be raised and lowered and 
lield at any desired liiylit. 

C'lirioiis turning sealt'olds have 
been used in domes. See Ci-esy. 

F'l'oiu the nuniei'ous viirieties, 
three representative e.xainples 
may be shown : — 

a. Suspoidcd from spars or 

upright tunbers. Tlie uprights 

have base supports and braces at 

their lower ends. The platform 

is connecting to sliding Irames 

wliich are raised by ropes pivssing 

over sheaves at the tops of the 

„ . „ „ uiunghts and wound by windlasses 

Hanging Scaffold. , . " i i * ti t- 

° " ■" attached to the Irames. 

b. Propped against the building. In the example, 

the platform is sustained against the wall by the 

rig. 4649. ^ 

fig. 4651. 

Suspended Scaffold. 

2. (Mining.) A platform affording a temporary 
resting-place for an ascending or descending load. 
Scaf'fold-brack'et. An implement to form a 

Fig. 4652. 

Fig. 4650. 

Builders^ Su^ytended Scaffold. 

extensible props reaching I'roni the ground to the 
inner angle between its horizontal and vertical parts. 

c. Suspended 
from trrstk.'!. The 
platform is 
anced by ropes 
passing over pul- 
leys secured to the 
upper cross-pieces 
of the trestle- 
frame, the said 
ropes having a 
weight attaclied 
to one end. The 
platform is sus- 
tained in any 
fixed position by 
bars, whicli are 
passed through 
holes in the up- 
rights of the tres- 
Propped Scaffold. tie. 


footing for a board to support a person in roofing. 
In the example, the tang of the lower plate is pn.shed 
up beneath the course of .shingles, and its claws en- 
gage the rafter. The upper i)ivotcd claw-plate is 
brought down upon the shingles by the vibration of 
the lever. 

Scaf'fold-ing-pole. One of the vertical poles 
wliicli support tlie putlogs and boards of the usual 
buihler's .scafl'okl. 

Scagl-i-o'la. A hard, polished plaster, colored 
in imitation of marbles. 

Scnfrlinla \s prepared from powdered pyp.''um mixed with isin- 
gla'S). .alum, and coloring matter into a pa-'^te, wiiich i.* beaten 
on a prepared .^lurface with fragments of marble, ete. The sur- 
face prepared for it has a rough coating of lime and hair The 
colors arc laid on and mixed liy hand, in the manner of fre.^co, 
and in imitation of various kinds of marbles When hardened, 
the surface is pumice-stoned and wa-shcd ; it is polished succes- 
sively by tripoli and charcoal, tripoli and oil, and oil alone 

Scald'ing. a. The last boiling or bucking of 
cloth with ^vhite soap after bleaching. 

h. The soap itself. 

Scale. 1. A measure divided into equal parts, 
usually main divisions and subdivisions ; as inches 
and octonary fractions for carpenters' work, decimal 
divisions and subdivisions for chain-work, duo- 
decimal for plotting carpenters' work which is in feet 
and inches. The meter and its decimal subdivisions 
are also sometimes employed. 

Used by surveyors, architects, and draftsmen for 
laying down work on paper. 

Among the kinds may be cited the following, but some of the 
names are synonyms : — 




Architect'8 scale. 
Engineer's scale. 
Guoter's scale. 
Mathematical scale 

Protract! Dg-scale. 
Tailor's scale. 

Some of these arc 
made of 

considered under these heads. 






Ebony. Palladium. 
German-silver. Paper. 
Glass. Silver. 
Horn. Steel. 

They are 

Scales are variously graduated, so that certain 
simple relations between numbers, trigonometrical 
I lines, etc., may be ascertained by inspection. To 
this class belong the sector (which generally forms 
part of a case of mathematical instruments) ; Gun- 
ter's scale, and Dr. WoUaston's scale of chemical 

See list under Calculatisg and Measuring 

2. A balance for weighing ; in this sense the 
word is usually employed in the plural. 

They frequently receive sjiecial names, as — 

Coin-weighing machine. Spring-balance. 

Counter-scales. Steelyard. 

Platform-scales. Weighing-machine. 

Some of which are considered under their respec- 
tive heads. See also B.i.LANCE, page 213. 

Weighing-machines and scales, measures, and 
weights have, in some form, been in use from time 
immemorial. Pliny states that they were invented 
by Phidon of Argos, or, according to Gellius, by 
Palamedes. Many centuries before this time, how- 
ever, Abraham, 1860 B. c, weighed out " 400 shekels 
of silver, current money with the merchant," to 
Ephron the Hittite, as payment for a piece of land, 
including the cave and all the standing timber in 
the field and the fence. This sale was made in the 
presence of witnesses, and is believed to be the 
earliest transfer of land of which record survives. 

In ancient Egypt the superintendence of weights 
and measures belonged to the priests until the privi- 
lege was removed from them by the Romans. The 
scales were in the public market, and recourse was 
had to them by buyers and sellers. The practice 
still prevails to a great e.xtent in modem Egypt. 
The same mode was adopted in Greece, as we read : 
" As the civil magistrate weighs bread iu the market- 

The scales were erected temporarily, and had the 
ordinary " beam suspended from a stirrup at its mid- 
length." The weights, like the money, were iu the 
form of rings, as may be seen in a number of places 
on the Theban tombs. See Coining. 

Large scales were flat wooden boards, each at- 
tached by four ropes to a ring at its respective end 
of a beam, which was sujiported by a middle ring, 
suspended from the standard post. 

The steelyard is a Chinese invention. AVilkinson 
failed to find it at Thebes 

Pig. 4653. 

E^pltan Scales. 

or Beni Hassan. 

It was used in Rome 
under the name oi stalcra. 
See Balance ; Weigh- 

The illustration is from 
an ancient Egyptian papy- 
rus in the British Museum, 
re|ireseiiting the " Ritual 
of the Dead " of Henuefer, 
superintendent of the cat- 
tle for Sell I., about 1350 
B. c. Tlie heart of the 

deceased is being weighed before Osiris in the Hall 

of Perfect Justice. It will be noticed that the bal- 
ance-beam is not suspended from the middle with a 
series of weights, like the modern scale, nor in the 
manner of the statera, or steelyard ; but it has a 
shifting fulcrum, by the adjustment of which the 
ditt'erences of the weights of the articles may be as- 

The lever-scale, on the principle of the steelyard, 
has for 40 years been used in the United States, 
for all purposes, from that of a letter-weighci- to 
that of the weigh-lock scale. The former weighs to 
half-ounces, and the latter to 1,200,000 pounds. 
Here this principle is supreme ; in England it is yc!t 
far otherwise. The ordinary balanced beam, with a 
number of iron weights, 112 pounds each, in one 
scale and the hogshead of sugar or what not in the 
other, was the ordinary means of weighing in the 
London Docks, a few years since, and may be yet. 

Platform-scales were probably in use in England 
in 1796, one being patented in that year by Salmon. 

In the ordinary platform-scale (.4, Fig. 4654), the platform a 
has a downwardly projecting steef-faced plate at each corner, 
which rests upon the knife-edges b of the levers c ; the dowa- 

Piat/orm- Scales. 

ward motion of the free ends of the levers is limited by loop.< c. 
The platform is steadied by cbeck-rods d connected to it and 
to the scale. 

Fig. 4655. 

Platform and Scoop Scale. 




The ilow« scale B has adjustable beariogs e at the corners of 
a framework resting upon tlie knife-edges b : bails /" are inter- 
|i iseii betwei-'u this framework and platform fcr obviating 
jar and friction on the knife-edges when a weight is placed on scale and the cbe<-k-rods are dispensed with. See Weigu- 
INU-MAC llNr., for the lar^-r kinds. 

Fig. 4(>j5 is H combination of the platform and scoop scale, in 
w'.iich one graduated beam is connected to both the platform 
and scoop, so that the weight of articles placed on cither is in- 
dicated on the beam, without the necessity of adjusting any part 
01 the scale. By the prnportin lin ; of tlie leverages, the weight 
uu the beam will balance mucu heavier articles on the platform 

than in the scoop. 
Fig. 4G5C. Fig. 4656 s ho ws 

three forms of scale 
for factory purposes, 
a is a yarn scale for 
sizing. Oue Ita or 
cut of 120 yards is 

6 is a iap scale to 
weigh quantities of 
cotton or wool, to be 
spread on the feed- 
apron of the carding- 

c is a form of scale 
for weighing yam, 
roving, drawing sliv- 
ers, eto. See also 


3. (Cullery.) 
One of the side 
plates of iron or 
brass wliich form 
the main portion 
of a pocket-knife 
handle, and to 
which the sides of 
ivory, bone, wood, 
etc., are riveted. 

4. A metallic 
i^ plateworn instead 

of an epaulet by 

5. (Metal-work- 
ing. ) The lilm of 
o.xidewhich forms 
on the surface of 
iron or other met- 
al when heated. 

6. (Steam.) 
The hard deposit which gathers in steam-boilers. 
See Lsxiiu.sTATlON, page 1177. 

Scale'board. 1. A thin veneer of wood, used 
for covering,' the surfaces of wooden articles of furni- 
ture ; as backing for pictures and looking-glasses, 
for making wooden boxes, and for very many other 

2. (Printing.) A thin slip of wood, used for ex- 
tending pages of type to the proper length, tilling 
out matter, etc. Si-e Reglkt. 

Scale'board-plane. (Joinery.) One for plan- 
ing oH' wide chips, for fruit, hat, and bonnet boxes 
and other objects. It is a plane the width of a 
board, is loaded with weights, ami dragged or driven 
over the surface of the board or balk, the degi'ee of 
protrusion of the plane-iron determining the thick- 
ness of the scale. A converse arrangement is that in 
which the plane is fixed and the board is driven 
past it. 

Scale-bor'er. .\n implement for removing the 
scale from bniler-tubcs. Keener's (Fig. 4657) is ar- 
ranged to be readily taken apart, so that it may be 
introduced through the man-hole. The bed-plate 
A is secured to the boiler-sheet by screw-clamps ; 
the cutter-head 11 on the shaft G is rotated by bevel- 
gears through the medium of the crank L, and is 
advanced by the lever / adjustably fulcrumed in 
the standard J. Extensions may be fitted to the 

Counter- Scales. 


shaft (?, enabling it to bore through tubes of any 

Scale-mi-crom'e-ter. A graduated scale in 
the field of a telescope for measuring distances be- 
tween o)ijects. A linear micrometer. 

Scale-pi-pette'. A tubular ]>ipette having a 
graduated scale on the side, enabling various I'.'fi- 
nite quantities of liquid to be taken up. The bulb- 
pipette has a swelled bulb and but a single mark. 

Scal'er. A dental tool for removing salivary cal- 
culus (tartar) from the teeth. They liave various 
shapes, — as chisels, scrapers, gouges, with straight, 
oblique, curved edges, to enable them to penetrate 
to deep-seated parts. 

Scal'ing. 1. (Metal -vorlcinri.) A preliminary 
process in the manufacture of tin plate. The rec- 
tangular plates are bent so as to stand when placed 
on edge, pickled in dilute muriatic aciil, heated in 
a furnace to remove the scale, cooled, flattened on 
an anvil, and rolled cold. See Tin Plate. 

2. (Nautical.) Tlie process of adjusting sights to 
the guns on shipboard was formerly so termed. 

Scal'ing-bar. (Steam.) A rod for detaching 
scale in boilers. 

Scal'ing-fur'nace. (Metal-working.) A rever- 
beratory I'urnaee in wliich plates are exposed in the 
process of scaling. 

Scal'ing-ham'mer. (Steam.) A liammer with 
an edge peen, used in loosening scale formed in 

Scal'iag-lad'der. A ladder used in the assault 
of fortified places. 

The parties represented as attacking fortified cities, in the 
paintings of ancient Egypt, are provided with scaling-ladders. 
One shown in the Memnonium has 34 steps ; it was probably 
is feet long. 

It has played a much less important part in sieges since tlie 
introduction of artillery : the use of whicli is continued when 
practicable until the rubbish detached and broken up by its 
tire has formed a slope, over which the storming parties may 
pass. Its principal modern use is to faciliUlte the descent into 
the ditch, as the countersctirp cannot be demolished by the 

tool. (Saddlcnj.) 
A tool for giving an 
ornamental edge to 
leather straps. 

Scal'pel. (Sur- 
gical.) .\ knife 
used in operations 
and dissections. 

Fig. 4568 shows 

Fig. 4658. 





two forms in fixed handles, and one in a sheath like 
a lancet. 

Scalp'er. {Surgical.) A tool for rasping bones. 
A sC'iliiiiiq-iron. 

Scalp 'ing-ir'on. (Surgical.) See Scalper. 

Scalp'rum. (Surgical.) A rasping instrument 
used iu trepanning ; or removing the roughness from 
the edges of bones, or the teeth. 

Sca-mil'lus. (Architecture.) A small plinth 
below- the bases of Ionic and Corinthian columns. 

Scam-pa'vi-a. (Fcsscl.) A fast-rowing war- 
boat of Naples and Sicily ; in 1S14- 15 they ranged 
to 150 feet, pulled by 40 sweeps or oars, each man 
having his bunk under his sweep. They were rigged 
with one huge lateen at one third from the stem ; 
no forward bulwark or stem above deck ; a long 
brass 6-pounder gun worked before the mast ; only 
2 feet above water ; abaft a lateen mizzen with top- 
sail. — Admir.vl Smyth. 

Scant'Ung. 1. (Carpentry.) Lumber under 5 
inches square, used for studs, braces, ties, etc. It 
is expressed in terms of its transverse dimensions ; 
as " a timber having a scantling of 12 x 8." 

2. (Masonry.) The dimensions of ashlar stones. 

3. (Shipbuilding.) The transverse dimension of 
pieces of timber, etc. The respective sides are known 
as molding and siding. 

Molding is depth or dimension which lies in the 

Siding, the thickness in a direction perpendicular 
to the molding-plane. 

i. A trestle or horse in a cellar for holding casks 
on tap. 

Kg. 4^9. 

Scantlin^/oT Casks. 

5. The rough draft of a work or plan. 

Scape. (Architecture.) a. The shaft of a col- 

h. The apophygee of a shaft. 

Scape'ment (Horology.) See fecAPEME>n'. 

Scape— Twheel. (Horology.) The wheel in an 
es&ipement whose teeth escape one at a time from 
the pallets. 

Scap'ple. (Masonry.) To reduce a stone to a 
comparatively level surface by hammer - dressing 
witliout smoothing. 

Scap'pling - hatn'mer. (Stone - working.) A 
hammer for dressing the face of a stone. 

Sca'pus. (Architcdure.) See Scape. 

Scarce'ment. 1. (Mining.) A ledge of a stra- 
tum left projecting into a mine-shaft as a footing for 
a ladder. A support for a pit-cistern, etc. It is so 
fashioned below as to form a corbel or bracket. 

2. (Building.) A ledge or footing formed by the 
setting back of a wall. 

Scarf. 1. (Carpentry.) A joint uniting two pieces 
of timber endwise. The ends of each are beveled off, 
and projections are sometimes made in the one cor- 
responding to concavities in the other, or a corre- 
sponding cavity in each receives a joggle ; the two 
are held together by bolts, and sometimes also by 
strape. Also written scarpk. 

The rods for the pumps of mines are sometimes 
made in wooilen sections joined together by scarfs 

and bands, a, Fig. 4660, is from a pump-rod in a 
German mine. 

It is common, but not universal, to Bcarf the timbers to- 
gether without making a bulge at the junction. In «ome ca^es 
the parts are simply laid or driven together, and in others they 
are lorced to their =e-its bv means of a wedge. In a.l ciises the 
notches of one uave couiitT(art projectious on the ether fticc, 
and the surfaces fit snugly ag.iiQSf eatu otaer without locgi- 
tudinal or lateral play. 

The mode of scarfing which has the appeirance of a regular 
zigzag, when viewed in elevation, is called by the Frerch, tratlx 
de Jupiter (i), from a fancied resemblance to forke-l lig itning. 

The timbers are secured by bolts, straps, side plates, stirrups, 
or other devices, according to circumstances and the nature of 
the strain' 

Fig. 4660 illustrates various modes of scarfing. 

a, pump-rod scarf 

b c, scarfs with wedges and fish-plates. 

rf, scarf with wedge 

«, scarf without wedge. 

y", another form showing the two pieces apart and united. 


S A. different ways of making the joint. 

t. trait* de Jupiter. 

j k. end scarfs 

1 7ti n, .square and bevel scarfs. 

0, hook and butt. 

p, square scarf with iron fish-plate. 

q, bevel scarf with bolts. 

r, hook butt scarf 

s, scarf joint secured by fish-plates, bolts, and keys. 

(, plain rabbeted scarf with bolts. 

2. (Melal-irorking.) The flattened or chamfered 
edges of iron prepared for welding. The two sur- 
faces being drawn out or cut obliquely, a larger con- 
tact is given to them, which fortifies the junction. 

Scarf-bolt (Shi/nrrighiing.) One used by ship- 
builders for .seoiirins the false keel. 

Scarf'ing-ma-chine'. A machine for tapering 
or shaving the ends of leathern belts where they lap 
to form a joint. It has an upper or "hand-wheel 
shaft," having right and left screws at its enils. play- 
ing in wedges which act upon the vertically sliding 




boxes of the upper or gage roller, so that the leather, 
which IS led with a drawing luotiou against the 

Fig 4661. 

Fig. 4662. 

Bf;U-ScftrJin^ Mnchine. 

knife, may be tapered or scarfed to an edge, — 

Scarf-ioint. See Sc.\rf. 

Scarf-loom. A narrow-ware figure-loom of such 
width and ('iipaeity for variety of work a-s to adapt it 
for ornaniiMital weaving of fabrics of moderate breadth. 
Scar'i-fi-ca'tor. (Surijcrti.) a. An instrument 
used in dental surgery in separating 
the gum from the teeth. 

b. All instrument used in cup- 
ping. It has a number of lancets, 
wlinse protrusion beyond the face 
ot tlie case is adjustable. These 
.lie set in a retracted position, ami 
simultaneously discharged by a pull 
on tlie trigger, so as to protrude 
thiough the apertures in thi^ plane 
lace and make a number of incis- 
ions through the skin. 

c. A lancet for .scarifying the skin 
or an engorged membrane. 

Dr. Battle's uterine .scarificator and leech (Fig. 
4664) is used for abstracting blood from the engorged 


Fig. 466.3. 


Desmarrc^a Scarificator. 

cervix-uteri. The handle portion, shown detached, 
acts as a cover for the needle when in the pocket. 
In use, the elastic-bulb handle is attached to the 

Fig. 4664. 

Scarificator and Leech. 

hilt end of the instrument, and, being compressed, 
aflbrds a means of withdrawing blood through the 
hollow needle and stock. 

Scar'i-fi'er. 1. {Surriical.) An instrument for 
hiiiciug lu-eparatory to cupping. A scarifirator. 

2. (Jqrictilturc.) An agricultural impjement used 
in Britain for stirring the soil. It is a wheeled cul- 
tivator, but the teeth are long, sharp, and compain- 
tively thin. Its construction will be readily under- 
stood fiom the illustration. 

Fio;. 4666 has a .series of cutting-disks, like colter- 
W'heels, pivoted in standards attached to the inclined 

Fig. 466ab 

Henry^s Scarifier, 

bars of a frame which is vertically adjustable upon 

Fig. 4666. 


Wheel- Scarificator. 

Scarp. (Fortification.) The interior slope or 
wall of the ditch at the foot of the pnrnpct. It is 
hidden from the enemy by the glacis. See Farapet ; 


The scarp and counterscarp were used by the early 
Egyptian.s, and also the parallel wall in the ditch. 
They were originally contrived against the movable 
towers of assailants ; but favorable banks or recesses 
in the ground must always have been welcome to 
those wiio fought with missiles. 

Scatch. (Fr. cscachc.) {Menage.) A kind of 

Scav'en-ger - roll. (Cotton Manufacture.) A 
roller in a spinning-machine to collect loose fiber 
and flulf which may gather on the parts with which 
it is placeil in contact. 

Scen'o-graph. (Drafting.) The general view 
of a building, etc. 

Jrhnograph, the ground plan. 

Orthograph, the front elevation. 

Sciograph, a section, or a profile showing the inte- 

S-chi8'el. A well-boring chisel whose cutting- 
face has a doubly curved form, like the letter "S." 

Scbmelze. (Glass.) A composition of silica, 
500 ; minium , 

800 ; niter, 100 ; 
potash, 100. 

To 500 parts of 
which add : — 

43 parts pris- 
matic borax ; 4 
parts oxide tin ; 
4 parts oxide an- 
timony ; and a 
small portion of 
solution of gold in 
a(|ua regia. Heat 
for 12 hours in a 
crucible and an- 
neal. The mix- 
ture is used for 
making a ruby 
glass for fl/ishing 
colorless articles. 
See Flashi.s'o. 

Fig. 4667. 

Folding School-Desk. 




School-desk. One of compact form, usually 
having within it.^elf a seat for om- row of boys, backed 
by a desk lor the next rear row ; as ill the illustra- 

In Fig. 4667, both seat and desk are folded, while 
the room is being swept ; a convenient condition for 
stowage also during transportation. 

Fig. 4668 is a form in which a flap of the desk 
only is folding, covering up the other half, which has 

Fig. 4668. 

School Desk and Seal. 

recesses or drawers. See also Desk, Fig. 1618, page 


Schoon'er. (yaiiiica!.) A two or three masted 
vessel wtiose sails are of the forc-and-nfl class, i. e. 
extendf-d on booms. The masts have but one splice, 
the topgallant, if any, forming part of the topmast 

When a schooner has none but fore-and-aft sails, 
she is termed a. fore-and-aft schooner ; if carrying a 
6i|uare foretopsail and fore-top-gallantsail, a topsail 
sc ooner. This latter rig, formerly common, has 
now become rare. Square-rigged vessels have also 
lower fore-and-aft sails, denominated spencers or 
trysails, but these are small and are brailed up to the 
giitf when furled, instead of being lowered like those 
of a schooner. 

The first constructed was built by Captain Andrew 
liohiiison in Gloucester, Ma.'is., in 1713, and was so 
named from her scooning or sailing over the water as 
she was launched. 

A Ballahore schooner has a foremast raking for- 

Schwan-pan. The Chinese abacus. It is very 
extensively employed by that people in their every- 
day business transactions, and enables computations 
to be made with great rapidity. 

The method of the abacus gives an idea of position 
value in calculating, as in the Indian system, but 
was long unfruitful with the Greeks and Romans, 
because the idea of position was not carried into the 
recording of values. This first obtained general ex- 
tension in the Middle Ages, especially after the zero 
sign had superseded the vacant space. See Abaci's. 

The Tn'liaD numbera and the value from popition must be 
more raoleru than the separation of the Indian and Zend, one 
or both, from the parent Aryan stock, for the Zend nation use 
the far les.s convenient Pehlevi numbers. 

*' Tile Arabs in Persia and on the Euphrates, a-s well as in 
Arabia, received in the ninth century the knowledfre of the In- 
dim numerical characters, through channels similar to those 
w'lich had led to their acquaintance with the Indian alffcbra. 
Per^inns were employed at that period as revenue-collectors on 
the Indus; and the use of Indian numbers became general 
among the Arab revenue-officers, and extended to Northern 
Africa, opposite to the coast of Sicily." 

Scim'i-ter. An Oriental form of saber. It is 

generally made much heavier towaid the point than 
the saber of Western nations. Chnclcr. 

Sci'o-graph. (ArddUxturc.) The profile or si'C- 
tion of a building, to show the inside.. See also 
ScF,X0Gr..\PH or list under 'GitAi'ii. 

Sci-op'tj-con. A magic-lantern adapted for the 
exhibition of photographed objects. See M.\gk- 


Scis'seL {MelaZ-wdrking.) a. Clippings of n;e- 
tallic plates. 

6. Remainder of plates after planchets have been 
punched therefrom for coin. 

Scis'sors. A cutting instrument consisting of 
two portions pivoted together and having blades 
which cut from ojiposite sides against an olject 
placed between them. The shears is on a laiger 
scale, but the action is similar. 

The scissors of .^trojios were made like sheep- 
shears, the bowspring at the junction of the bladed 
handles. Fosbioke says that **/o?;^ccs were thus 
made," and were common among the Britons and 

The blades with loops for the fingers and pivoted 
together b)' a rivet is of later date. Isidore, in the 
filth century, refei-s to them as the tools of the bar- 
ber and tailor. 

A pair of bronze scissors, Ipng in a lady's work- 
basket, were found in an ancient tomb lately opened 
in Egj-pt. The handles were formed in the shape of 
a sphinx. The basket contained many articles of the 
toilet and work-basket, — needles, pins, combs, 
false hair, etc. 

Scissors (forfcx, axicia) and knives were u.sed by 
the Roman cutlers. 

In order to cut effectually, the blades, instead of being per- 
fectly plain, as shown at /,and parallel to each other, are bowed 
and touch at two points, — the cutting part, which moves 
firom bilt to point as the blades close, and the riding part 
nj, a protuberance behind the screw-pin. The blades have 
a certain elasticity and 

touch at the shifting and Fig. 4669. 

constant parts as the 
rivet draws the two por- 

tions toward each other 
with a certain degree of 

Wilkinson's patent' 
(English) n, instead of a 
riding part, has a spring 
pin, which bears upon 
the shank of the blade, 
near the rivet, with suffi- 
cient power to force the 
edges into cutting con- 


n^r-^ i 


Common Pcissor? are made of ehear-steel, with the blades 
hardened. Tailors' shears have the blades only of steel : the 
remainder is iron. Formerly only the edge was steel. Some 
pcissors are made of pood cast-iron, called run or vir^n Pteel. 
Of these many are sold at seven cents a dozen There are some, 
on the other hand, made with bows or shanks of gold, that sell 
for fifty dollars a pair. 

The screw which unites the two blades has a head, neck, and 
I thread. The bottom of the countersink, which receives the 
I head, is called the shelf or twiilfr-bit. 

I The cutting-edges of scissors for ordinary purposes slope at an 
I angle of about 4^'" : those of finer Fci?sors are thinner, having 
an angle of about 30° ; in most garden scissors the angle is from 
40=^ to 50°. 

Scissors are made from a bar of flat steel ; the end for the 

I bow is flattened, and punched with a small, round hole, which 

in gradually opened upon the beak-iron of the anvil. A shallow 

gioove around the beak-iron serves to round the inside of the 

' bows. The blade and joint of the scissors are made upon the 

1 flat of the anvil by means of the hammer, punch, and s^v.iges 

' After softening, the shank and bow are improved by filing, 

i the joint is squared, and the hole bored and fitted for the rivet. 

The blades are then ground, smooth filed, burnished, matched 

in pairs, screwed together, and made to icfilk- and talk well, as it 

is called The blade-* are bound together with wire, the rivet i^ 

removed, and the blades are hardened .md tempered. The wire 

is removed, and the blades are ground into shape and fitted to- 

I get her 

I The bows and shanks are rubbed with fine emery and oil, the 
I blades and shanks are fine ground, and the instrument is glazed 





anj polished. The blades are whetted, and certaiu parts are 


Sobsors euibrate a number of varieties of construction, spe- 
cially adapted lor 
4C70. cutting ffibrics, trim- 

uiiug plauLt, and for 
BurgiL-ul and anatomi- 
cal purposes. 

Flower and grape 
scia-sont have one of 
the blades made in 
two parts riveted to- 
gether, 80 thut after 
the stuui id divided, 
it is held a« in a pair 
of pliers. The edges 
are also rounded, to 
prevent iiyury to the 
plant. a shows a 
section of the scissors 
as closed, when not 
in use, aud &, closed 
with tue stem of a 
plant between the 

c. Button-bole 
shears are notched 
out near the joint- 
screw to enable the 
blaJes to cut at a 
little distance from 
the edge of the ma- 
te rij.1. 

Lamp-scissors have 
one blade very broad, 
and provided with a 
rim to prevent the 
snuff of the wick 
filling on the carpet. 
Nail-scissors have 
short blades, aud are 
made in pairs, one 
adapted for the left, 
and the other for the right hand. 

(/. Pocket-.-icissors have blades which may be locked by the of one eng igiug a spring catch near the bow of the otUer ; 
it ii released by pressure with the nail, and turudd into the po- 
sition shown by the dotted lines for use. 

e. The pruning scissors or shears have one broad hooked 
edge, which is often rougiientid, to prevent the twig from slip- 
ping; or they are madeasat /', where the cutting-blade is slotted, 
so OS to sliJe ou the joint, moving forward as the blades are 
opened, and retr icting so as to give a draw cut when they close. 
The handles, beiug unprovided with bows, are separated by a 

in ^ h I the blades have notches o, by which a wire or cord 
may be severed, and one or more (/>} back of the joint for hold- 
ing or pulUng needles, wires, etc. 

Tiie scissors k h;ive a knife r at the back of the blade, which is 
covered when not in use by a pivoted guard 

Surgical scissors are used in Jividing soft parts which it is 
difficult to reach with a bistoury ; also for renewing the edges 
of pirt-* to be unitel by suture, removing excrescences, etc. 
Ttiey are made straight or curved, long or short, heavy or slen- 
der, to suit the form of the part to be used upon They gen- 
erally have long slender handles, and the blades are frequently 
curved or twistt;d. 
g, Dr. Emmett's double-curved scissors for operations on 

Fig. 4671. 


Fig. 4672. 

Surgical Scissors. 

vecico- vaginal fistula and 
cleft palate. See aliso Sta- 

/j (iiredissecting-sciaaora 

j, Uower and frujt scis- 

k, rowel ing-scissors for 
veterinary uses. 

Fig. 4ti72 shows a group 
of Tiemauu's surgical scis- 

a, Mannoir's canalicula 

b, angular strabismus 

e. conjunctiva sebsors, 
curved on the flaU 

d, Althofs iridectomy 

e, Sinirock's scissors for 
operatingon the tympanum 
and bones of the ear. 

/', harelip scissors. 

^, Chadivick's pterigium 

h, strabismus scissors. 

Of the numerous varie- 
ties of scissors and shears, 
some have peculiarities of 
structure, others merely 
differ in size and purpose. 

Button-ho.e scissors. 

Cutting-out scissors. 

Dissec ting-scissors. 

Draper's scissors. 





Horse-trimming scissors. 





Scobs. Ra.s]tinp;.s. 

Sco-li-o'sis Brace. (Surgical.) 
treating laleiiil eiuvature of the 
spine. Two elastic crutches are at- 
tached to tlie pelvic belt, ami a 
strong upright bar lelieves the spine 
of the weight of the trunk ]>osteri- 
orly. To the bar are connected two 
adjustable pads for the scapulse, and 
just below these is a leathern band 
terminating in a number of strong 
elastic rubber webbings. This is 
passed around the jnotuberance 
obliquely and buckled to the pelvic 
belt in front, an inch or two beyond 
the linea all)a, so as to exercise a 
gentle and continuous clastic 
ui-e, at the same thue rotating the 
ribs around their vertebral axes, to restore the spine 
to its normal position. 

Sconce, a. A candle-holder fixed to or project- 
ing from ft wall. 

b. Tbe tube in an ordinary candlestick in which 
the candle is inserted. 

Fig. 4674 

Tiewann'*s Surgical Scissors. 

Stationer's scissors. 
Surgical scissors. 
Tailor's scissors. 

A brace for 
Fig. 4673. 


Sculiosis lit ace. 


Scoop. 1. a. A wooden shovel. 

b. A tliin metallic shovel with hollowing, ca- 
pacious sides for handling grain. A grain-shovel. 

c. A familiar utensil (d. Fig. 4676), usually of tin- 
plate, for handling sugar, flour, etc. 




2. A tool (a 6) for scooping out potato-eyes from 
the tubers. The object is to save a part of the 

Fig. 467S. 

Fig. 4676. 



root for food. There are several varieties of it. A 
bent blade or a sharp-edged spoon will do for the 

3. A bailing device used where the lift is moder- 
ate. Scoops are used for dipping liquors, for baling 
boats, for wetting sails in racing, c is a bailing scoop 
for use in ditching. 

Fairbairn's bail- 
scoop is worked by 
the single-acting Cor- 
nish engine. It is 
pivoted to a structure 
a on the bank, and 
adjustably connected 
by a rod b to the beam 
of the engine, so that 
the amount of its dip 
may be regulated. 
The other end of the engine working-beam is weight- 
ed to assist in raising the scoop when fiUeil. Valves 
c in the bottom open when the scoop dips in the 
water and fall when it begins to rise. It is employed 
for raising water in draining, etc. 

Fig. 4678 is a box shovel suspended from a tripod 
or pole, and used to dip water over a low bank. For- 

Fig. 4678. 

Fairbairn^s Bail-Scoop. 

Dutch Scoop. 

merly much used in Holland. Now sometimes used 
in bailing accumulated water from excavations for 

4. {Uiidraulic Engineering.) The bucket of a 
dredging-machine. That shown (Fig. 4679) is in 
two parts, firmly attached to their respective han- 
dles, which are pivoted. They are opened to enter 
the mud by hauling In the bifurcated rope H G O, 

and closed to retain and lift 
it by meansof a rope attached 
to the rod R. 

5. {Surgical.) A spoon- 
shaped instrument for ex- 
tracting foreign bodies, as a 
bullet from a wound, calculi 
from tlie bladder, objects from 
the meatus auditorius exter- 
nus, nasal fo.ssse, etc. 

Scoop-w^heeL A form 
of the tympanum water-wheel 
in which the buckets are so 
curved as to scoop up the 
water into which they dip, 
raising a portion of the same 
and conducting it toward or 
into the axis, where it is dis- 
charged. See Tysipanum. 

Another form of the scoop-whfel 
ia also adapted to raise water to an 
elevation equal to about half the 
diameter of the wheel, but delivers 
it at the periphery, instead of near 
the axis. Some of the scoop-ivhrel.^, 
used so extensively in draining the 

Fig. 4680. 

Fig. 4879. 

Scoop- \neel. 

fens of Lincolnshire, England, are 
made of cast-iron with wooden floats 
which form an angle of 45° with Dred^in^- Scoop. 

the horizon at the point where they 

deliver the water. The floats are otherwise like those of an 
undershot water-wheel, and move in a curved trough of ma- 
sonry called the " hreasliiie:^''^ into which they fit exactly, the 
lower end of the trough being in the drain, and the upper dis- 
charging into the chute, which carries olT the water on a higher 
level. It is just the converse of the water-wheel, being c/rirfn 
by steam and lifling the water. The diameter of the wheel is 
so proportioned to the lift, that the surface of the water at the 
outfall is below its axis. The speed of the surface of the wheel 
is 6 feet per second ; a wheel of 35 to 40 feet for a 15-feet lift . 

One machine at Deeping Fen has a steam-engine of 80 horse- 
power, a water-wheel 28 feet in diameter, float-boards b\ feet in 
depth, 5 feet wide, moving 6 feet per second, discharging 105 
cubic feet of water per second. The float-boards dip 3 feet 4 
inches ; the average consumption of coal was 10^ pounds per 
horse-power per hour. A better duty is now attained, probably. 
This engine of 80 horse-power and another of 60 take the place, 
but much exceed the former efficiency of 44 windmills, 

Littleport Fen has 2 steam-engines of 110 horse-power, to 
drain 28,000 acres ; superseding 75 windmills. The scoop-u-het I 
is 35 feet in diameter, and weiglis 54 tons. The pinion is 4 feet 
in diameter, weighs 3,696 pounds, and makes 13 revolutions per 
minute. When the tide is high this pinion works into a cog- 
wheel 24 feet in diameter, having internal teetli : the floiit- 
Boards on the scoop-wheel then move with a velocity of 212 let t 
per minute, and discharge in that time 3,.519 cubic feet of 
water. When the tide is low, and so great an elevation of 
discharge is not required, the pinion is made to work in a 
cog-wheel 16 feet in diameter, and having external teeth ; the 
float-boards then move at the rate of 318 feet per minute, and 
deliver 5,278 cubic feet in that time. 

In that wet district it is estimated that 7,260,000 cubic feet of 
water are annually raised and carried off from every 1 ,000 acres. 
A 10-horse-power steam-engine can remove this in 232 hours. 
The rainfall is estimated at 3 inches per month, of which two 
thirds is to be lifted and removed artificially, which is 7.260 
cubic feet to the acre. In the district referred to, this quantity 
was formerly increased by the natural drainings of 12,0<'0 acres 
of highlands, amounting to 40,000 cubic feet per minute in a 
rainy season. By catch-water drains this is now intercepted 
and carried off by a special channel and outlet. 

Glynn, C. E., England, makes the dip of his float-boards 6 
feet, the axis 5 feet above the level of the outfall, the rate 6 feet 
per second at the circumference. 

Fig. 4681 shows a scoop-wheel employed at Lough Foyle, The 




Fig. 4681 

Scnop-Wied at Loitgh Foyle {Section of Wheel and Bank). 

enginu fly-wlu-el a carries a pulley connected by a belt to the 
puUcy b. whose shtift' \< provided with a pinion meshing with a 
spur-wheel on the shaft of the scoop-wheel c. d is the curved 
chiLse up which the water is driven into the chute e, passing 
through the embankment/, and conducted into the dmia. 

'Scope. A coinniou termination for the names 
of" mstrunit'nts which m;ike visual indications. See 
uiuicr tlie t'ollowiuK heads : — 





A u to- 1 ary nt;oscope. 

A u to-oph thnl moscope. 










En gi- cope. 





















Scorch'ing. {Mctahicorhing.) A ro)(</hi7iff out 
ul" tools on the dry grindstone before they are har 
ened and tempered. So called from the great heat 

Score. {Nautical.) The groove around a hlock 
o^ a ih-'ul-eyc for tlie strapping, shroud^ or backstay. 
Till' lioles in the block are for the lanyard. 

A Jicart has one large hole with scores at the ends 
for tlie turns of the lanyard. 

Scored Pul'ley. {Machinery.) A pulley grooved 
anuind its perimeter for 'a round 

Scor'er. 1. A too] for marking 
timber. It has two scoop-shaped tools, 
one for straight lines, and the other 
adapted to revolve on a pivot for arcs 
or circles. Of these, two forms, read- 
able figures are made to number logs, 
scribe the gage-marks on barrels, etc. ; 
as shown in the figure. A r^cc-knife. 
2. {Joinery.) An instrument em- 
„*, - Q ployed to cut transversely the face of a 
\2.ii^i>t,ju^^ board to enable it to be planed without 
Scorer. slivering. 

Sco'ri-a. Slaggylava; drosathrown 
off fioui metals in fusion. See Slag, 












P h osph oroscope . 















S t e reom o n oscopo. 









Fig. 4682. 

Sco'ri-fi'er. {Assaying.) A saucer of refractory 
clay for containing a charge of lead and the metal 
to be assayed. It is placed in the niutllc of an assay- 
furnace. Also used in burning off inHanimable mat- 
ters from the sweepings of jeweler's shops, or to 
obtain the metallic portions from golddace, etc. 

Scor'ing. {Founding. ) The bursting or sjilitting 
of a ciusting, due to the strain caused by contraction. 
A term generally applied to cylinders and similar 
work, in which the core does not give way when the 
casting cools, and thereby causes its destruction. 

Scor'ing-ma-chine'. ( Wood-ivorkiny.) A ma- 
chine for cutting scores or grooves in blocks. It 
forms the groove around the longest diameters of the 
blocks for the reception of the ropes or straps by 
which the blocks are slung. The blocks a are clamped 
between pillars b on the table c, and exposed to the 
action of revolving cutters d above. These cut- 
ters rotate ou a spiudle pivoted in a swinging fraiuG 

Fig. 468a 

Scoring- Machine. 

f, which is moved up and down hy the handle/, be- 
ing guided by a curved plate (/, situate between the 
hlock.s. A curved plate attached to the frame e rests 
upon the guide g, and incloses but does not touch 
the pulley i by which the spindle is driven. The 
table itself is poised upon centers k, and is tilted up 
on either side so as to bring the blocks up to the 

Scorp'er. A gouging-tool for working in a de« 
pression, as in hol- 
lowing bowls, butter- Fig. 4684. 
ladles, etc. Ahso used 
in removing wood or 
metal from depressed 
portions of carvings 
or chnsint^s. 

Scor'pi-on. A 
militaiy engine for- Scarpa-, 





Fig. 4685. merly used for throwing 

stones, etc. 

Scotch. A prop, 
shoulder, strut, or support, 
as of a wheel, or of a log 
on inclined ground or on 

A slotted bar which slips 
upon a rod or pipe, and 
fomis a bearing for a 
shoulder or collar thereon, 
so as to support it while a 
section above is being at- 
tached or detached. Used 
in boring.and tubing wells. 
Scotch Car'pet An ingrain, two or threeply 
carpet, so named from the country wheiv it is so 
extensively manufactured. Also called Kiddermin- 
ster, from a town of that name, noted for its pro- 
duction. See Two-ply Carpet. 

Scotch'man. (Xautical.) StiflF canvas wrap- 
ping or battening of wood around standing rigging 
to piTitect from chafing. 

Sco'ti-a. (Architeciure.) A hollow, curved mold- 
ing. It occurs in the base of the Ionic column, and 
also in the projecting angle of the Doric corona. 
Synonymous with cavitto. 

Sco'to-graph. An instrument to assist in writ- 
ing in the dark or without seeing. 

Sco'to-scope. An optical instrument by which 
objects may be discerned in the dark. 

*' The scotoscope he [>Ir. Reeve] gives me, and is of Talue ; 
and a curious curiositv it is to discover objects in a dark room 
with." — Pepis's Diary, \mL 

Scots 'man. {Xautical.) See Scotchman. 

Scovir'ing. 1. ( I roolcn Manufacture.) The pound- 
ing of woven woolen cloth by mallets in a trough 
provided with a detergent and water, in order to 
remove the oil and acij^uired dirt incident to its 

manufacture up to that point. As a proces.s, scour- 
ing comes between wcaviiiy and burling. The pro- 
cess is sometimes termed braying, pounding being 
the action. 

2. (Metal.) A process in the cleaning of iron- 
plate for tinning ; or of metal in general for plating 
by electro-deposition or othenvise. 

3. {Hydraulics.) The cleaning of a channel or 
sewer by a flush of water. See FLrsHiNG. 

Scour'mg-ba'sin. (Hydratilic Engineering.) A 
reservoir in which tidal water is stored up to a cer- 
tain level, and let out through sluices in a rapid 
stream for a few minutes, at low water, to scour a 
channel and its bar. 

Scour'ing-ma-chine'. ( Woolen Manufacture.) 
An apparatus consisting of two large rollers placed 
over a trough, through which cloth is passed after 
being woven, and is treated with stale urine and 
hog's dung. 

Scour'ing-etock. ( TToolen-manufacture.) A 
machine like a lulling-mill, in which woven woolen 
cloths are pounded by heavy mallets in troughs juo- 
vided with water and a detergent. The latter con- 
sists of urine, hog's dung, soda, or fuller's earth. 
The mallets are of oak, and oscillate on an axis, being 
raised by tappet-wheels acting upon their shanks. 
Semiring follows weaving, and is for the purpose of 
remoring the oil added to the wool before carding, 
and also to rid the cloth of dirt or soil acquired in 
the coui'se of manufacture. Burling and fulling 
succeed the scouring. 

Sco'veL {Baking.) A mop for cleansing ovens. 
A malk-in. . 

Scow. {Nautical.) a. A flat-bottomed, square- 
ended boat, usually propelled by poles, or towed ; 
being very cheaply and easily constructed, scons are 
employed in still watei-s for almost all purposes ; 
they are made of all size.s, and often have decks. 

b. A form of lighter or barge for canying a heavy 

Fig. 4686. 

deck -load. The example shows one .strongly trussed, 
to prevent sagging or hogging. 

Scrap. 1. The integuments that remain after 
the rindering of fat. 

2. Broken iron, cast or wrought, for remelting or 

Scrap-book. A blank-book into which cuttings 
from pijier are pasted, or extracts written. 

Scra'per. A tool or implement for removing 
material by a paring action. The term has many 

1. {Wood-working.) A steel plate, frequently 
made of a piece of saw-plate, with a square edge 
made sharp-angled, and burnished to raise a small 

Fig. 4687. 

rig. 4688 


Wood- Scraptrs. 

Caiiiaet-MahtT^s Seraptrs. 

bnr or wire edge. The edge is used in giving a final 
dressing to wooden surfaces, veneers, etc. See Fig. 
4687. It is held at an angle of 60*. 

A piece of window-glass is frequently used where 
the wood is curly, knotty, or cross-grained, so as 
to plane with difficulty. 

2. Allied to the former are a number Fig. 4689. 
of implements used in cleaning wooden 
surfaces of tar, paint, ink, and what not. 

By the sailor, mast and deck scrapers ; 
triangular tools on the ends of shanks. 

By the warehouseman or porter, bowed 
and with two handles, or else like the 
mast-scraper, to remove old directions 
from boxes and casks for reshipping. 

3. A form of cutring-tool for taking 
shavings from the edge of a blade. The 
illustration (Fig. 4*90) is one for sharp- 
ening the edges of sickle-sections for 
harve.sters. The cutters have facets 
of different angles adapted to the faces , 
of the objects from which shavings are 
to be cut. 

4. {Engraving.) A three-sided cutting-tool (Fig. 
4691) fluted, to make it more easy to sharpen. It is 
used in taking otf the bur left by the etching-nee- 
dle or dry-point, in obliterating lines, or working 

5. A large hoe for cleaning roads and streets. 





Fig. 4690. 

Fig. 4693. 

Harvester-Sickle Scraper. 

6. An iron plate at a door to remove mud from 
the boots. 
Fig. 4691. 7. (Blasting.) A 

iji»i III iim [■■ _ spoon by which the 

Eit^raver^s Scraper. 

detritus is removed 
from the liole made 
by tlie jumper or drill. 
See Blasting-tools. 

8. A thin piece of wood shaped like a knife-blade 
and provided with a handle, used to scrape the sweat 
from horses. 

9. (^Lithography.) The board in a lithographic 

press whose edge is lowered on 
Fig. 4692. to the tympan-sheet, to bring 

I(\ f\ the requisite pressure iipon the 

11 \c I'^P^'"' which lies upon the inked 

B n stone. 

10. (Stone.) a. A toothed and 
steeled instrument for sinking 
flutings in marble, etc. 

b. A tool used by stucco- 

11. A two-handled scoop (a. 
Fig. 4i)93), drawn by cattle or 
horses, and used in making and 
leveling roads,e.'ccavatingditches, 

Sione- fforker's canals, and cellars, and generally 
S:rapers. jjj raising and removing loosened 

soil or gravel to a short distance. 

The usual moiie of using it is to plow up the ground to be 
moveti.iiud tlien to remove it by the .scraper; if it be road- 
ni iking, the soil at the sides is plowed, ami then moved by the 
serapcr to the miildle of the road, where it is dumped by up- 
setting the scraper, to give the rounded shape to the road. It 
is leveled by a hoe, or by another scraper, to bo described. 

The Flemish use a siinilar implement. 

Another form of scraper (b) is used in leveling heaps dumped 
from carts or the scrapers just described ; it consists of an iron- 
shod board drawn witli its edge along the ground and presented 
obliquely to the line of its draft, so as to give the soil a tendency 
to move toward the rear end. This scraper is drawn along on 
one .side of the nuddle of the road and returns on the other, 
keeping the rear portion of the scraper toward the middle of 
the road, and tending to ronnd it up so as to shed water. 

A large machine, consisting of a frame snpported near its 
midlength by an axle and a pair of wheels, and in front by a 
caster-wheel, was invented by Boase in England about 1830, 
and used in scraping mud from roads. It hJd a series of me- 
tallic plates, obliquely presented, and acting nearly indepen- 
dently . each being kept to its work by springs. It took a width 
of an ordinary carriage-track. (IjOUDon, page 3749 ) 

Harriott's road-scraper c (English) is designed to fill up the 
ruts of roads, and consists of a small harrow followed by a pair 
of converging scraper-boards. The toeto loosen the ridges of 
earth, gravel, or stones on the sides of the ruts, and the boards 
drag them into the ruts. It is managed by a man, and drawn 
by one or two horses. 

The scraper is cited by Loudon {Ency. Agrl., 1844) as an in- 
genious Dutch implement {(i) for leveling soil and removing it 
short distances. The loud, as with our own, is dumped by upset- 
ting, but it has a long handle, recovered by a cord instead of by 
a pair of h.andles in continuation rearward of the side-boards. 

The road-scraper (Kig. 4^94) has an iron bottom fastened at 
the front, by chains a, to the transverse shaft 6, and hung on a 
crank-shaft c behind. 

In driving along, the earth is thrown up naturally into the 
bottom of the scraper, and when full the whole can be raised 
clear of the surface and carried off to any desired point. The 
levers rf and e enable the driver to elevate the scraper ; the 
wheels in front, over which the chains pass, are eccentric, so 
th It they lift like arms ; and there is a ratchet-wheel and pawl 
at the end of the shaft the wheels are on, to hold the front edge 
of the scraper at any angle or desired bight. When the load is 

Road- Scraperx. 

to be dumped, a vertical rod /"is rotated, releasing the rear end 
of the scraper and allowing it to upset. 

Road- Scraper. 

Fig. 4695 is a revolving scraper which dnmii.s 
without throwing over handles. The shovel is re- 
leased by a latch. 

In Fig. 4696, the ^ Fig. 4695. 

scoops are pivoted by 
end gudgeons to pedes- ' 
tals beneath the wagon- 
frame, and are rotated 
and discharged by 
cliains and winches op- 
erated as reqnired by 

Fig. 4C97 is an exca- 
vator for removing from 
the sides of railways 
earth that may have been washed down near or 
upon the track. The device is carried npon a car. 
The scoops project below it, and are operated by 
means of a windlass and lifting apparatus, so that 
the scoops can be raised and discharged when 
desired, the power of the locomotive operating 

Revolving- Scraper. 




Fig. 4696. 

Excavator on Wagon-Frame. 

Scra'per-press. (Lithograph;/.) The old form 
of lithographic press, ia which the stone and the 
paper for the impression, with a backing of parch- 

Fig. 4697. 

Screed. (Plastcrimj.) 
a. A strip of mortar 6 
to 8 inches in width, 
and of the ri'ijuiied 
thickness of the 
coat, a])iilied to tlie 
angles of a room or t'd;e 
of a wall. They are laid 
on in parallel lines at 
intervals of 3 to 5 fict 
over the surface to 1 e 
covered. When these 
have become siittieient'y 
hard to withstand tl e 
pressure of a straight- 
edge, the interspaces be- 
tween the screeds shoii'.d 

be filled out flush with them, so as to pioduce a 

continuous and straight, even surface. 
b. A wooden strip .similarly placed. 

Screen. 1. A movable framewoik to 
keep oii' an excess of light or heat or cold ; 

Fig. 4699. 

Excavator on Railway-Car. 

ment or paper, was run beneath a gate or straight- 
edge pressed violently upon the object p^issing be- 
neath. It is now substituted by the roller-press. 

Scrap'ing-plane. A plane used by workers in 
iron, steel, brass, ivory, and hard woods. It has a 

Fig. 4698. 

Scraping- Plane. 

vertical cutter or bit, with an edge ground at an 
angle of 70° or 80°, adjusted by a vertical screw, and 
held in place by an end screw and block. 

The sci-aping-plane for veneers, used in roughing 
the surface to be glued, has a notched bit, and is 
called a toofhinci-]i\Aue. 

Scrap-ir'on. (Foundincf.) Irregular masses of 
iron spattered about or run through in pouring, are 
known as scraps, and all old metal which has at 
any time been cast, wiwters, etc., accumulated for 
remelting, receives the general name of scrap-iron. 

Scrap wrought-iron is piled, heated, and reroHed Tt ron- 
gists of cuttinff.s, clippings, and worn-out small articles, such as 
horse-shoe nnils, etc., which may be hailed and worked over; 
when carefully selected and rewrought, the product possesses 
superior toughness and malleahility. 

Scratch-brush. A bundle of wires, whose pro- 
truding ends are used to clean files and for other 

Scratch'er-up. A bookbinder's tool. 


a separation ; a partition. In ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture, a screen denotes a partition of stone, wood, 
or metal. 

The screen (Fig. 4699) is hinged so that it may be 
opened out more or less as required, or be folded up 
to occu]iy less space. 

2. A sifter for coal, sand, grain, etc. The screen, 
sifter^ sieve^ rid- 
dle, vary in size. Fig. 4700. 
mode of applica- 
tion, and purpose. 

a. Fig. 4700 
shows theinclined 
screen, used in sift- 
ing sand and lime 
for mortar or plas- 
tering. The ma- 
terial is thrown a 
shovelfulata time 
on the upper part 
of the grating ; 
the finer parts pass 
through the 
meshes, while 
those which are 
toolargeroll down 

the incline, the side of the screen being occasionally 
tapped to dislodge any which may stick. 

b. A wire-grated screen is employed for sorting 
crushed ores. In some cases it is made flat, and 
operated by a reciprocatory shaking movement, ns in 
a. Fig. 4701 ; in others, the wire grating is stretched 
around the periphery of a drum b, which is caused 
to rotate, and is tapped by a knocker c, after the 

i manner of a flour-bolter. 

Sand- Screen. 




c. The grain is led in at the liigher end of the in- 
clined cylinder C (Fig. 4702) ; the small gi'ain and 

Fig. 4701. 

^\yJ offal fall through and are 
removed by the con- 
veyor / helow, while 
the plump grain is dis- 
charged at the end into 
a separate spout. 

Brushes I) are em- 
ployed to keep the in- 
terspaces clear. 

3. (Photography.) 
That part of a camera- 
obscura upon which the 
vi.sible image fall.s. It consists of a jiiece of plate- 
glass, one surface of which is finely ground, set in a 
wojdcu frame. The picture is rendered visible by 

Fig. 4702. 

Screen/or Comminuted Ores. 

Pompeian Clothes-Press. 

Grain- Screen. 

the reflection of the rays of light which form the 
pii'ture, from the minute aspei-ities upon the grovmd- 
glass surface. This screen, placcl at right angles to 
the axis of the lens, is used while focusing the image, 
and is then removed to give place to the plate-holder. 

4. (A'aiitical.) a. A partition made of canvas, 
used in place of a wooden bulkhead, where the latter 
would re(|uire to be frei[uently removed. 

b. A kind of curtain, having an opening covered 
by a flap, placed in front of a magazine in time of 
ad ion, or when the magazine is open. The cartridges 
in their passing-boxes are handed through the open- 
ing h)v distrit)ntion to the guns. 

Screen Bulk'head. (Shipwrighting.) A bulk- 
head under the round-house. 

Screen'ing-ma-chine'. {Mining.) An appa- 
ratus for sifting stamped ores, coals, etc. 

Screw. 1. {MacldiKri/.) A cylinder surrounded 

by a spiral ridge or groove, every part of which 
forms an ec[ual angle with the axis of the cylinder, 
so that if developed on a plane surface it would be 
an inclined plane. It is considered as one of the six 
mechanical [lOwers. 

A careful examination in Lepsius, Champollion, 
Rosellini, Wilkinson, and other authorities, followed 
by a critical search among Egyptian antiquities in 
Dr. Abbott's and other collections (Museunj of His- 
torical Society, New York), has fiiiled to reveal any 
screw in ancient Egypt. 

Instances of the screw in nature are found in variou.i orders. 

The weapon of the nant'lial is spiral, though it may not t>e 
immediately apparent what purpose is subserved 

Some of the smaller animals are furnished with 
screws or gimlets, by which they penetrate the hard- 
est woods, and even stone. 

The vegetable world ha^s its screw-like or spiral ten- 
drils, which are mostly riglit-kaiuled. The hop, how- 
ever, is an exception, as it takes the left-handed whirl, 
against the jun, as it is called. 

Screw-presses for clothes, wine, and oil 
were known to the Romans of the Empire. 
A clothes-press, shown in 
the accompanying cut, was 
represented in a mural paint- 
ing of the Chalcidium of 
Eumacliia, at Pompeii. It 
has two u|iright screws with 

Vitruvius and Palladius 
mention the fruit-presses for 
wine anil oil (cochlea). 

Tlie Archimedean water- 
elevator is mentioned by 
Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, 
and Vitruvius. See Archi- 
medean SciIEW. 

The helix of the Greeks was a spiral for draw- 
ing ships on shore or launching them. Appar- 
ently a screw, and ascribed to Archimedes. 

** And when there was great enquiry as to the best 
method of launching the great ship of Hiero of Syracuse 
into the sea. Archimedes the mechanician launched it by 
himself witli the aid of a few persons. For having pre- 
pared a hitix [screwj, he drew this vessel, enormous as it 
was, down into the sea. And Archimedes was the first 
person who ever invented the helix — MoscHlON, v«o(fd 
in the '* Deipnosophists " by Athen^eus, a. c. 220. 

The differential screw was invented by John 
Hunter, the celebrated surgeon. It is a com- 
bination of screws, so arranged that the motion 
of the object to which the device is applied is 
eipial to the difference between the pitches of 
the screws. See Differkntial Screw. 

The endless or perpetual screw is a screw with- 
out longitudinal motion, acting upon the cogs 
of a wheel. See Woum-wheel ; Perpetual 

The parts of a screw are the head, barrel, or stem, 
thread, and point. The head has a slit, nick, or square. 
The threads are convex or external, concave or in- 

In number they vary, as single, double, triple ; the 
numliers representing the individual threads, and 
those abovesingle being known as multiplex-threaded. 
In pitch ; as coarse, fine. 
In shape ; as square, angular, round. 
In material ; as wooden, iron, brass, etc. 
In direction ; as left hand, right h/ind. 
In purpose ; as binding, set, viood, adjusting, at- 
tachment, regulating, feed, micrometer, projieller, 
water (Archimedean), endless, differential. 

Known by attachments ; as winged or thumb screw. 
Screws are east, turned, ehnscd, swaged, spun, as 
may suit the purpose or material. 




The word also gives names to devices or machines ; 
as screw-bolt^ screw-jack, screw-plug, screw-prcsSj screw- 
propeller, scrcw-tapy etc. See in/ra. 

Pappus Alexandrinus, a Greek mathematician of the fourth 
century, describes a method of forming screws by means of a 
templet of thin brass iu the shape of a right-angled triangle, to 
be wound around the cylinder which was to be cut, tracing the 
spiral line of thread along the edge of this templet, and subse- 
quently removing the metal between the threjids. Directions 
are also given for setting off and forming the teeth of the cor- 
responding worm-wheel 

One of the earliest attempts to obtain extreme accuracy in 
originatfng screw-threads was by Ramsden, in his dividiug-en- 
gine, 1766. See D.tiding-engine. 

Great attention was subsequently devoted to the subject by 
Maudslay, who, on entering upon his distinguished career as a 
mechanician, found the screws, which perform so many impor- 
tint functions in mill and machine work, in a very imperfect 
state. In his efforts to produce screws with perfectly uniform 
t'lreads, he employed various modifications of the chain or band 
of steel; the inchned knife, the inclined plane, and all othei: methods. He gave the preference to the inclined knife, 
applied agiinst a cylinder revolving in the lathe, by means of a 
glide running upon the bar of the lathe. — a process which, be- 
sides being very rapid, reduced the mechanism to its utmost 
simplicity. The knife was adjusted by set-screws, and the cor- 
rectness of the thread cut by it was tested first upon rods of 
wood, and afterward upon cylinders of the softer metals, until 
a screw was produced which was consid- 
ered suRiciently accurate to serve as a 
guide-screw, in an apparatus similar in 
principle to the more modern screw- 
cutting lathe. 

During the course of Maudslay's ex- 
periment.*;, his friend. Mr., afterward Sir 
J, Barton, succeeded in originating 
screws of equal correctness, by employ- 
ing a chain or flexible band for travers- 
ing the tool. Maudslay made many 
improvements in the system of taps and 
dies, and, in the opinion of Holtzapffel, 
between the jears 1S(X)-1S1I>, effected 
nearly the whole change from the old 
and imperfect method to the modern, 
systematic, and exact method now gen- 
erally practiced. He pursued the sub- 
ject with more or less ardor and at great 
expense until his death, in 1835. 

l-'ig. 47W represents sections of va- 
rious .=ic re w- threads, a has angles of 
about 60^, and is used for most screws 
made of wood, and in many made of 
metal and employed for uniting metals. 

b, a shallow-threaded scre.v, having 
angles of nearly 90^, used for the thin 
tubes of telescopes. 

c, a deep-thre ided screw, having 
. angles of 45', used iu mathematical and 

some other instruments. 

(/, the threads are truncated, the bet- 
ter to enable the bolt to resist with- 
drawal . • 

e, angular thread with rounded top and bottom, sometimes 
called round thread ; much used in engineering. 

f, angular thread, truncated at the bottom ; used for joinery 

g, rounded thread ; used for the same purposes. 

A, the lower sides of the threads are beveled at a compara- 
tively small angle to the axis ; the upper side is perpendicular 
thereto, giviug~a firmer hold : this is used iu joinery work. 

Fig. 4705. 

Fig. 4704. 

AWVvV c 

"VA/\yV\A/ d 

\y\/w\/\/ e 

^7VAAAAi / 



i_n_rLn A: 


o p q 


i, German screw, for wood ; the lower side of the thread is 
hollowed out, leaving more of the wood to support the screw. 

k, square- threaded screw; the space and thread are usually 
of equal width, and the depth is either equal to -the width or a 
trifle more. 

I is derived from the preceding by the truncation of its 

wi, the angles of the former are entirely obliterated, forming 
a rounded ttiread. 

A steep-threaded screw is used for rapid turning ; it has a 
single shallow groove, which may be of angular, square, or cir- 
cular section, leaving much of the original cylinder remaining. 

o to r are screws specially adapted to various specific pur- 

Fig. 4705 shows a cluster of screws of various forms and sizes 
for carriage-makers and carpenters. Of the screws at the lower 
part of the cut, abed have peculiar threads to lejid in readily 
or oppose endways retraction, e is a dowel-screw, having a 
head at midlength, and right and left screws which draw two 
pieces together 

Fig. 4706 illustrates various forms of screw bolt-heads, tech- 
nically known as, — 

Fig. 4706. 

d ^ f ^ -h i 



o, square. f^ oval. 

6, hexagon. ?, conical, 

f, capstan. A, pan. 

d, cheese. », countersunk. 

e, snap. 

Screw-bolts are designated a.«, — 
A-, machine. 9, coach screw. 

I collar. T, machine-screw. 

in, cotter-bolt. s, wood-.screw. 

n, carriage. (. double-nut. 

0, tire. w. check-nut. 

j7, set-screw. r, stud 

The more usual forms of screw-thread are known as, — 
IV, V-thread. a', ratchet. 

X, English standard. 6', squtire. 

y. United States standard. c' , wood-screw thread, 

z, bastard. 

A watch contains forty-four screws. Little automatic ma- 
chines convert steel wire into minute screws, pare down and 
nick their heads. They are polished, and then brought to 
" spring temper" by heating, which leaves them of a blue 
color. ^ 

Machines in a watch-factory will cut screws with 500 threads 
to the inch ; the finest used in the watch have *250. These 
threads are invisible to the naked eye, and it takes 144.nCK) of 
the screws to weigh a pound. A pound of them is worth six 
pounds of pure gold Lay one upon a piece of white paper, and 
it looks like a tiny steel filing. 

Screws for the best compensation-balances are of gold A 
ten-<lollar piece will furnish material for fioO of them. The com- 
pensation-balance comes from the punching-room a solid piece 
of steel as large and heavy as a new penny, and inclosed in a 
rim of brass. 

It is ground down, crossed out, and polished till it becomes 
a slender wneel, — the outer rim hrn.'ss, the inner wheel and 
cro=s-bar steel. Through the double rim twenty-two holes are 
drilled for the screws. A chuck whirls the wheel around 4.F00 
times a minute, while a lad makes each hole by npplying thrre 
tiny drills, one after the other. Screws of gold or brass are then 
put in, and the balance is completed. 

In France, as long ago as 1844, soles were secured to shoes by 
, Bcrews. 




Selleks's Pkopoktions for 





















































































a tc 







- 1 1> 



















= .2 

(8 ^ 



*j ■^ 



W b 










































































.> -1- 
o J ^ 




























































































.2 = 
s • 












































9 A 


























3 A 













J- I <o 
■1 I 


^ ] b 

f;1 > 


RouRh nut = one and one-half diameter of bolt + ^ f,. 
Fini.shed nut = one and one-half diameter of bolt ■{■ i/jg. 
Rough nut = diameter of bolt. 
Finished nut = diameter of bolt — ^'in. 

Rough head = one and one-half diameter of bolt -f i g. 
Finished head = one ami one-half diameter of bolt -f- i ,„. 
Rnuffh head = one-half dist-anre between parallel aides of head. 
Finished head = diameter of bolt — i ,«. 

2. (fff/drauUcs.) The first screw may have been 
the water-screw of Archimedes, about 236 b. c. 

" The Egyptians have an easy way to water the land by means 
of Ji certain engine invented by Archimedes, the Syracusan, 
which, from its form, is called coc/Uca.''^ — Diodobos Siculds (60 
B. c). 

It 13 believed that Archimedes designed the wheel to be moved 
by the current of the Nile, and it is certainly capable of being 
moved by a current of sufficient speed, or one deflected by wing 
dama to act upon the floats of tlie wheel. 

Extending through the inclined shafi; is a spiral passage, 
which may be compared to a large tube wound around an axis. 
The lower end of the shaft is submerged, and the end of the 
Fpiral tube thus dips up the water as the shaft is revolved by 
the wheel, 

if the spirally fl.inged shaft be revolved with sufficient speed, 
fic pitc'i may be very steep, and yet raise the water, as shown 
unler tlie heail Pumps, Ckntrifi'G\i, : but this is not the prl- 
m^irv idea of the Archimedean water-.«crew. the pitch of which 
|fl slight, and the water flows natumlly along the spiral canal as 
the shaft revolves, flowing with a rapiility proportionate to the 
ppeed, pitch, and capnclty. or sectional area. It is not forrtfi, 
as in the centrifugal pumps of Gynne, Querick,aDd others. 

These are the converse of the turbine-wheel ; the shafts being 
rotated by power to elevate the water. In the Archimedean 
screw, the water is lifted ; it is a question of pitch and inclina- 
tion of the shaft. 
Vitruvius gives the proportions substantially as follows : — 
The central core ia a cylinder, whose diameter in inches is 

Fig. 4707. 

Archimedenn Seretv. 




equal to its length in feet. Eight spiral flanges are carried 
aruuDd tain core of such a width that the diameter of the screw 
18 wjual to i of the length. The pitch is equal to the diameter. 
The barrel is inclined, and had pivots at the ends, which turn 
in gudgeons proportions and forms have been variously modified. 
For iust-ince, — 

1 A pipe has been twisted around an axle and suitably sup- 
ported in bearings, at a proper inclination. 

2. The number of channels has been multiplied, several dis- 
tinct p.irallel passages winding around the central core. 

3. Instead of building pas.sages between the newel and the 
cylinder, a screw with one or more threads has been made to 
revolve in a eemiKrylindrical, inclined trough 

The steeper the pitch of the screw, the gre.lter must be the 
inclin.ation, as the channels must decline from the plane of the 
horizon, that the water may, as the screw turns, continually 
descend in its course. 

3. {Steam Navigation.) A propeller with spiral 

wiiig.s, and hav- 
Fig. 4708. ingan a.\i.s paral- 

lel with the level 
lin£ of the vessel. 
See Screw-pro- 

screws have been 
suggested or used 
for maneuvering. 
4. A tool work- 
ing by means of 
a screw. See 

(Shipwriijhling.) A passage-way along the shaft of 
a screw-propeller, allowing access for the men who 
examine and attend to the bearings. 

Screvr-blank Feed'er. In the screw-blank 

feeding - ap|iai'a- 

Fig. 4710. 


Fig 4709. 

tus (Fig. 4; 

the blanks 

placed in 

hopper A. 



means of an an- 
I gular roller ro- 
tated by the belt 
D D, a, shaking 
motion is im- 
parted to the 
hopper and 
trough B, down 
which the blanks 
pass one by one 
on their way to 
the thread-cut- 
ting dies. 

(Blower.) A 
form of blowing- 
engine, in whicli 
the blast is driv- 
en through the 

cylinder by a spiral vane rotating rapidly on its 


Scre^-bolt. One having a screw-thread on its 

shank. See Bolt, Fig. 76S. 

Fig. 4710 illustrates various carriage 


Serew-B^ank Fted/r. 


Screw-TTtrfaffs, Boll-Hfads, and Nuts, as liHerminttt and rec- 
ommended by Vommittte of Franklin Institute of Philadel- 
phia, 1864. 

Numberof Threads per inch. Angle 60*. 








t- , 




1 = 



5 = 
















. a 

^ 1 




: IS 





, 2 





















Scre^y-box. (Wood-WoTkii\g.) A device for 
cutting the threads on wooden screws. It is similar 
in construction and operation to the screw-plate u.sed 
for metallic screws, as is also the tap for cutting in- 
terior screw-threads in wood, a is the tap, b the box. 

Scre'w-cap. 1. A cover to protect or conceal 
the head of a screw. 

Fig. 4711. 

Fig. 4712 



Screw -Box. 

In Fig. 4712, the cap has a 
small screw-stem in its center, 
which is screwed into the head 
uf the main screw after the lat- 
ter has been driven into the 

2. A cover for a fruit-jar. 
Sec Fki-it-jak, Fig. 2131, page Scmv-Cap. 


Fig. 4713 is a machine for threading srvew-caps 
of sheet-metal. The sheet-metal cap is placed ui«n 
a threaded head upon the .screw-threaded man- 
drel. Rotary and advancing motion being conmm- 
nicated to the mandrel, the cap is brought under 

Fig. 4713. 

a, axle-clip. 
6, carriage. 

c, step. 

d, pointed tire. 

See Fig 7SS, page 322. 

e, elliptic head. 

/ T-headed, or shaft. 

g, cone-headed bolt. 

Machine for Threading Screw- Caps. 




/ ^^''^^^^a. 

Fig 4714. the action of the screw-threaded 
roll - (lies surrounding it and a 
thread formed thereon. 

Screw-clamp. A elampwhieh 
acts liy means of a serew. Dill'er- 
ent varieties are used by sliipwrights 
for holding planking to the knees 
while driving the treenails, by 
house-carpenters, harness-njakers, 
and other artisans. That shown 
(Fig. 4714) lias an expanding nut 
t^ having pivoted levers l> by which 
Q it is opened out to allow the screw 
to be placed nearly to its position 
before connnencing to turn it. 

fin Fig. 4715, the arm has a 
serrated foot b, which holds firndy 
against the knee while the plank is 
Scrno-Clmnp. pressed home by the screw. 

In Fig. 4716, the fulcral screw 
has a free nut and the clamping screw a jam nut. 
Screw-col'lar. {(Jplics.) The means of adjust- 

Fig. 4715. 

Planking- Screw. 

ment for relative distance between the front and the 
posterior pairs of an achromatic objective, designed 

Fig. 4716. 


•*•■■'''■'■' ''t'^r 

Hftnd-Screw Clamp, 
to secure perfect definition with differing thickness 

Fig. 4718. 


Screw-coup'ling. a. A 
device for joining Ihu ends of 


two vertical rods or chains and giving them any de- 
sired degree of tension. The ends are secureil to the 
looi)s a a swiveled to the nuts b b. The cylindrical 
couj)ling-nut c hiis a pivoted, weighted arm d, which 
insures its verticality and serves as a spanner. 

b. A screw-socket for uniting pipes or rods. 

Screw - cut'ter. An imjdenient for cutting 
screws. As a hand-tool it is known as a die, and 
the complete device as stock and die. 

In Fig. 4718, the revolvable head has radial bear- 
ing-blocks or cutters, which are adjustable from the 
outside. See also Screw-pl.atk. Machines for the 
]iurpose are known as screw-cuttimj lathes, screiv- 
cullinij machines, turret -Inihes, etc. 

Screw-cut'ting Chuck. A lathe-chuck adapt- 
blanks. In the 
example, the 
chuck is made 
in two parts, 
one hinged to 
the other. They 
are held togeth- 
er by a handle 
and a spring 
ting Die. The 
cutting device 
in a ScuEW- 


STOc K, or 


Screw-cut'ting En'gine. See Slkew-cutting 

Screw-cut'ting Gage. A device having angles 
by wdiich is determined the 
inclination of the point of 
the cutting-tool, and also the 
inclination of the tool when 
arranged in the jjost for cut- 
tini; the thread. 

Screw-cut'ting Lathe. 
A machine of this kind was 
invented by Besson in France 
as early as 1569. It embraced 
a guide - screw, which was 
caused to advance the cutting- 
tool at the same time that the work was rotated by 
means of a series of cords, pulleys, and weights. 
Screws of any pitch might be cut by using ]iulleys 
of ditfei-ent diameters, and right or left hand threads 
by cro.ssing or uncrossing the belts. 

It was farther improved by Hindley, a watch- 
maker of York, England, about 1741. It was a 
watchmaker's and bench instrument for many years 
before it had any place in the machine-shop. 

Fig. 4721 illustrates Varley's screw-cutting apparatus, appli- 
cable to the liand-lathe. Tiie mandrel a is surroundeil by a 
tube on which four threads of different pitch are cut. The bar 
b carries at one end a piece r filed to correspond with the thread 
to he used as a guide, and has at the other a soc-ket, in which 
is inserted a screw tool e corresponding to the thread to be cut. 
The bar 6 is held to the mandrel and the \York by hand, the 
piece c being supported on the horizontal plate '/ parallel with 
the mandrel, and the tool f upon the lathe-i-est /. 

The gnide f and .srrew-tool are travec^ed siinultjineonsly to 
the left by the screw guide and when the tool meets the shouMer 
of the work, the bar is withdrawn and shifted to the right for a 
repetition of tlie cut, and so on until the screw is coniplete. 

I'encatli the tool is a screw wliich rubs against the lathe-rest 
nrd acts as a stop, serving to make the screw either cylindrical 
or 1 onical, as the rest is placed parallel or obliquely. 

For the internal screw the tool is placed paralh'l *" itli the bar, 
as at B, and the check-screw is applied on the side toward tho 
center, against a short bar parallel with the axis of the lathe 

Devices of this kiud are not adapted fur cutting accurate 

Screw-Cutting Cliuck. 

Fig. 4720. 


^ /v_ 




Screw- Cutting Gage. 




Fig. 4721. 

Screw- Cutting. 

ployed ; these are susceptible of many modifications, three of 
which are illustrated at C D E, Fig 4T23. 

a a a represent the wheels upon the mandrel, and b b b tho?e 
upon the slide-rest. . 

The rectangular bracket at C has two straight mortises, by 
one of which it is bolted to the bearers of the lathe, and iu tht 
other it carries a pair of wheels pivoted in a short piece, whii-h 
may be fixed at any angle or hight in the mortise, so that either 
or both may be employed. 

In D theintermeiliate wheel or wheels are carried by aradi:il 
arm, which has partial rotation around the mandrel, and Is 
fixed to the lathe-head by a bolt passed through the curved 
mortise. . 

In £ a similar radial arm is adjustable around the axis of the 
slide-rest screw in the fixed bracket Sometunes the wheel b is 

screws of considerable length or great diameter. For these a lathe ' carried by the pedestal or arm fixed to the bed or headstock ot 

is employed, in which the traverse of the tool is effected by a long i the lathe, in order that a shaft or spindle may proceed trom 

guile-screw connected with the 

uiandrel, which carries the work p^tr 4724. 

by a system of change-wlieels ^ 

The most simple application 

of the.'!eis8hownatv4,Fig 4722. 

The work is attached to the 

lathe-mandrel by a chuck, to 

which is secured a wheel a 

gearing with a wheel on t'le 

guide-screw, which moffs the 

slide-rest c that carries the 

Bcrew-cutting tool. T le wheel.-- 

n b, being equal, will rotate 

with equal velocity in opposite 

directions, so that the screw- 
thread cut will be preci>ely sim- 
ilar to that of the guide-screw. 

but reversed ; consequeotly, to 

produce a riglit-hauded screw, 

a left-handed guide-screw must 

be emplrtyed. To enable the screw which moves the slide- I this wheel, and be coupled to the slide-rest screw by a socket, 

Screw- Cutting Lathe. 

rest to produce either right or left hand screws, and to cut 
Fig. 4722. 

Screw- Cutting. 

threads of varying pitch, intermediate wheels, called chan^^- 
wheals, are introduced between a and b. Thus one intermediate 
wheel between the two causes them to move in the same direc- 
tion, cutting a thread corresponding in direction to that of the 
guide-screw, while the introduction of a second, causing them 
to move in opposite directions, makes the tool cut a reverse 
thread. The diameter and number of teeth in the intermediate 
wheels also being varieJ, causes a difference of velocity in the 
rotation of the guide-screw and mandrel, so that they do not 

advance with equal 
Pig. 4723. rapidity, and the 

thread cut may have 
a pitch of any deter- 
minate proportion, 
either greater or less 
than that of the 
guirie-screw. For this 
purpose, with the bet- 
ter class of lathes, a 
large varie ty of 
change-wheels is em- 
ploy ed, enabling 
threads of any size 
usually occurring iu 
practice to be cut 

Screw- Cutting 

enabling the rest to be placed at any point of the bearer for 
cutting a screw on the end of a long rod. or for cutting a screw 
which exceeds in length the traverse of the rest, which may 
then be performed at two operations. 

In the larger and more improved class of lathes, specially de- 
signed for cutting screws, nearly the entire length of the bed i« 
used as a slide-rest, the tool-carriage traversing diiectly upon 
the bed. A change-wheel arrangement, similar to F. Fig 47i;3, 
is frequently adopted. The guide-f^crew extends through the 
middle of the bed, projecting at one end. The slide-rest is at- 
tached to the screw by a clasp nut, so as to be detached there- 
from and moved independently when required. The train of 
wheels is placed at the left extremity of the lathe, and the in- 
termediate wheels are journaled upon a radial arm which has 
one or two straight mortises which receive their journals, and 
two circularly curved arms which permit its partial rotation 
around the screw, and enable it to be fixed at any required 
angle by means of set-screws. 

'1 he lathe (Fig 4724) has screw-cutting and turning feeds, so 
arranged that one may be instantly exchanged for the other, 
when both are in gear with the sp'indle. The turning feed is 
adjustable to any speed between the fastest and slowest. The 
slide-rest is compound ; the puppet-head has an improved hold- 
down, insuring its center being in line with the axis of the live 
spindle, and is provided with a concentric hold-fast. 

The lathe (Fig. 4725) is adapted for cutting screws, and also 
for boring cylinders, turning and cutting shafting, and for mis- 
cellaneous work. The system of change-wheels is more compli- 
cated than those described, admitting a great variety of relative 
graduations of speed between the guide-screw and the mandrel. 
Such lathes are made of lengths up to 22 feet, or 18 feet between 
centers, enabling threads of nearly that length to be cut. 

Scre-w-cut'ting Ma-chine'. A niacliiiie on 
the principle of the lathe, the rod to be threaded 
being suspended between the head and tail centei-s, 
and bein^f dogged to a face-plate on the mandrel of 
the former. 

The motion is derived from a bevel-pinion which engages one 
or the other of the bevel-wheels to rotate the feed-screws in one 
or the other direction ; for feeding or returning the slide-rest 
to the commencing point; or for cutting right or left banded 
screws The feed-screws are shown a little within the ways of 

^ ^ ^^ the machine, and are turned by pinions into which me.^hes the 

The depth" and form «;pur-wheel on the mandrel of the lathe-head. By the interven- 
of the teeth are, of tion of suitable gearing, such a proportion is established be- 
course regulated by j tween the rotation of the rod on which the screw is to be cut, 
the shape of the cut- ' and the feed-screws themselves, as to obtain any required pitch 
ting-tool of thread on the rod The rate of rotation of the rod being as- 

In order to support sumed as permanent, an equal rate of the feed-screws will cut a 
the axes on whi'-h the thread of a pitch equal to that of the feed-screws. If the latter 
change-wheels re- are rotated at a slower rate, the pitch of the screw will be less; 
volve a pedestal sup- if the feed-screws are rotated fester than the rod under treat- 
ported by the hearers nient. the pitch of the screw on the lathe will be proportionately 
or a bracket at the increased. See Bolt-cltter ; Rolt-tuR£HDING Machine; Tub- 
lathe - head, is em- I eet-latse ; Scaew-corrLNG Lathe. 





Screw- Cutting Lathe. 

General Sir Samuel Bentham made machines forcutting wood- 
Bcrews by means of rotary cutters. 

In Royon'8 macliiue (Fig. 4?27), the die-chuck E is hollow, 
and is turned by the hollow shaft B, rotated by a pinion mesh- 
Fig. 4726. 

Scre'w-down Cock. A cock provided with a 
valve whicli is screwed down to its seat to prevent 
tlie How of liquid, and raised more or less to permit 
the passage of a determinate qnantity. 

Screwr-dOTvii Valve. A valve whose stem has 
a thread by which it may he screwed down to its 

Screw-diiv'er. A tool for turning screws iu or 

Fig. 4728. 

Fig 4729. 

Screw-Cutting Machine. 

ing with the bevel-wheel C. The dies if iC are rotatable, have 
Federal sets of threads adapted to screws of different sizes and 
pitch, are secured within the chuck by screws Z., are caused to 
approach or recede from each other by moving in the eccentric 
plots i' i" upon turning the ring /, and are fixed at the proper 
distance apart by a movement of the lever R. Tis the earri.ige 
on which the screws or bolts are held between the jaws (" ('", 
approached by a right and left hand screw. In tapping nuts, 
the DUta are held by a hollow-ended mandrel inserted through 


Screw-Down Cock, out of their places. It has an 
end like a blunt chisel, which en- 
ters the jitci- in the screw-head. 

In that shown (Fig. 4729), the handle is slotted to 
receive pivoted blades of different sizes, which, ex- 
cept the one in use, are turned hack within the 

The screw-driver for taking apart and re-assembling 
fire-arms is composed of two blades of steel, one of 
which turns on a pivot, passing through the otlier, 
or it may have an additional pivoted arm. The 
longer arm has a perforation at one end fitting the 

Screiv- Cutting Machine. 

an opening in the chuck E. into the hollow shaft, while the tap 
is gra.spcd by the jaws (" t'" of the carriage. 

Screw-dock. (Hi/draulic Engineering.) A 
contrivance for lifting a vessel out of the water, in 
oriler thattlie bottom maybe examined and cleaned. 

The vessel to be raised by this apparatus is floated over a 
platform of wood, sunk to the depth of about 10 feet below the 
surface of the water, and suspended from a strongly built wooden 
framework by iron screws from 4i to 5 inches in diameter. This 
platform has several shores on its surface, which are brought to 
bear equally on the vessel's bottom, to prevent her from heeling 
over on being raised out of the water. The platform is grad- 
ually raided to the surface of the water, cnrrving the vessel 
high and dry, suspended between the wooden frames. 

Hullihen^s Screw-Forceps. 

square of the "cone" or nipple, for the purpose of 
unscrewing the nipple from its seat. 

Scre'wr-for'ceps. (Surgical.) A dentist's in- 
strument. Between the jaws Ls a screw which is 
protruded into the nerve-canal, so as to fill it and 
prevent the crushing of the tooth when the pressure 
of the jaws comes upon it. 

Screiv-gear. (^fachinfr!l.) The worm and 
T-onn-irhfri, or endless screw and pinion. 

Screw^-head Pile. A feather-edged file for 
nicking screw-head.';. 

Screw-head Saw. The saw for cutting nicks 
in screw-heads is strength- 
ened by a back-plate like 
a tenon-saw. 

In machine-made 
screws for carpenter's use, Screw-Htad Saw. 




And known as vrood-scrcws, the nick is made by a 
circular saw of small diameter. 

Screv?-hook. (Surgical.) An instrument for 
withdrawing foreign bodies from the ear or nostrils. 
It has a shank with little S-shaped prongs at the 
end. It is introduced into the opening and laid 
alongside the object ; being then slightly rotated, the 
hooks become engaged with the object, which is then 

Screw^'ing-ma-chine'. A machine-tool for 
cutting screws. See Sckew-machine ; Screw- 
cutting Lathe, etc. 

Scre'w'ing-ta'ble. A kind of screw-stock, used 
for forming the threads of screw-bolts or wooden 

Screw-jack. A li/ting-jack, in which the 
power consists of a screw rotating in a nut in the 
body of the tool. See J.\ck-scre\v. 

a, screw-jack, with wooden case. 

6, screw-jack, with malleable iron case. 

c, windlass screw-jack, sinfrle purchase. 

rf, windlass screw-jack, double purchase. 

In these, additional power is obtained by multiplying gears 
interposed between the lever and the nut which turns the screw. 

e, tripod-jack. 

/, bottle-jack. 

"So termed from the form of the case. They are operated by 
a removable lever inserted in the head. 

It is by no means an uncommon thing for a house to be lifled 
bodily from its site and removed by machinery to a new one, 
without disturbing the inmates, but in Chicago the operation 
was extended to almost the whole city, in 1867 - 68 The early 
buildings were generally erected without any regard to the laws 

Fig. 4732. 

Fig. 4734. 


of drainage, and eventually, as the city increased in siw, the 
evil became intolerable. By means of screws acting under balks 
of timber, one of the largest hotels, known as the Briggs House, 
was raised in 27 diys to a hight of 4 feet 2 inches above its pre- 
vious level. The building a frontage of 180 feet, a depth 
of 80 feet, weighed 22.00<"t tons, and was 5 stories high, present- 
ing accommodation for 4-50 guests, none of whom were disturbed 
during the operation Tremont House, another hotel of a simi- 
lar size, was also raised without accident The .screws employed 
were about 2 feet long, 2i inches in diameter, with a pitch of 
half an inch They worked in cast-iron sockets, and were 
moved by handspikes ; 1,450 such screws and 600,000 cubic 
feet of timber were used in nxising the Briggs House. A similar 
plan was adopted in .Tuly, 1838, at Boston, when whole streets 
of houses were raised in blocks of 6 houses together. 

Screiw-key. A spanner for the articles which 
socket upon the mandrel-screw. 

The lever of a screw-press. A form 
of key used with lock-faucets. 

Screw - lock. (Locksmitliinq.) 
This loi^k has various forms, and is 
used for hand-cujfs, fillers, jnnnnc'cs, 
and also as a padlock. The essen- 
tial feature is an opening bar, which 
is detained by a screw when in a 
locked position. 
Screw^-ma-chine'. (ilachinery.) A machine 
for making from bar-iron screws and studs such 
as are used in a machine-shop. It is of the na- 
ture of a bolt-machine. The various sizes of dies 


are stocked in the circular head, and such one 
is presented to the blank, which rotates with the 
mandrel of the head-stock, as may be of the sizif re- 
quired. It has also a rest with a transversely sliding 
tool-post, whereby a screw 
may be cut off or dresseil. 
The rest also affords a bearing 
for a chasing-tool. The coun- 
tershaft is shown dismounted 
and placed upside down upon 
the floor, resting u])on the 
plates of the hangers. 

2. (IVood-Screws.) A ma- 
chine or series of machines 
for shaving, nicking, and 
threading screw-blanks. The 
blanks are placed promiscu- 
ously in a hopper and sorted 
" and fed therefrom to the first 

of the series of machines. The 
blank falling into a socket or 
being seized by a forceps, according to the mode of 
feed adopted, is presented to the shaving-tool, and 

Fig. 4735. 

Fig. 47a3. 


then dropped, to be again selected and fed to the 
nicking-tool, the process being repeated to the threail- 




er ; or it is conducted through the consecutive oper- 

Screvy-mold'iug. 1. A process of molding 
screws in s.uid tor casting. In Fig. 4730', a plain 
cylindrical mold is first made, and afterward the 

Fig. 4737. 

thread is formed by screwing a pattern-screw through 
the mold. 

2. A process of making sheet-metal screws for col- 
lars or caps by pressure upon a former. See ScKEW- 


Screw-pile. A pile having a .screw-thread at its 
lower end to enable it more readily to penetrate 
hard ground and to hold it (irmly in position. 

Screw-piles of small diameter are usually made of 
wrought-iron and solid ; those of larger size are fre- 
quently hollow and made of cast-iron. 

They were invented by Mitchell, in England, and 
are principally employed as foundations for light- 
liouses, for beacons, and for mooring buoys. 

They were used in the foundations of the Maplin 
Sand Lighthouse at the mouth of the Thames, and 
the Fleetwood Lighthouse, at Fleetwood, in Lanca- 
shire, botli erected A. D. 1840. 

a a a, mooring-pile, 

6 6, mode of sinking the piles into position. 

c c, piles for signal, mile, or telegrapli posts. 

Mitchell'^ Screw-Pile, 

ft ff, piles for tethering animals, or, on a larger scale, for at- 
taching guvs or crnb moorings. 

Fig. 473.S is a viuw of the screw-pile lighthouse on Thimble 
Shoal, near the entrance to Hampton Roads. This was de- 
signed by JIajor Peter C. Hains, to replace the light-vessel on 
Willoughby Spit The shoal is of firm, hard, compact sand, and 
the time employed in fixing the piles was rather less than two 
months. The light is of the fourth order. 

A mooring-pile 3 feet 6 inches in diameter gives a resisting 
surface equal to 30 square feet, double that of a large anchor. 

Fig. 4738. 


i J^O: IBDi . - SB "-! 


Screw-Pile Lighthouse, Thimble Shoal, Hotnptnn Eoads, Virginia. 

Thev nre nUn more dpeplv imbedded thnn the Utter, and thn« 
ax^quire additional rp^istanco. Thev are screwed into ttir irmnnd 
by vertical rods, and a lever above operated by men on barees. 
A chain or buoy is attached to it. 

Tbe shfifts of the east iron screw-piles nsed in the piers of 
bridgres in the Indies were c\ linders 1 inch tliirk, 3() inches 
in external diameter, and in lengths of 9 feet. They were con- 
nected by internal aanges and bolts. The lowest section formed 




the screw of the pile, having a thread 54 inches in diameter. I 
The cylinders were cTentuallv filled with concrete. | 

These piles were screwed into the ground by means of 4 levers, j 
each 40 feet long, and having 8 bullocks joked to it. They j 
penetrated from 20 to 45 feet. 

Screw-plate. A steel plate having a series of ; 
hollas of varying sizes, with worms and notches for 
cutting threads. 

It is usual to bore a smaller hole on each side of that in 
which the screw is cut, and connect them with the latter by a 
slit, forming angular cut ting -edges, which remove the metal, as 
shown at a 6 c, Fig. 4739. The wire i.« commonly held by a 
hand-vi:e in the left hand, and the plate operated with the 
right hand, several holes, of gradually diminishing diameter, 

Fis. 4739. 


Screw- Eates. 

bein? emploved to produce the desired thread. In some cases, 
for very short and small thread? the holes are merely threaded, 
and not notched, as shown at rf. f is a folding device formerly 
emp-ovel for cutting screw-thread^ ; the larger holes are near 
the joint, so to allow greater holding power. 

For screws exceeding i ,« iuch diameter, it is customary to use 
a die-stock with movable dies ; several arrangements have been 
adopted in these for holding and adjusting the dies ; in/ the 
edges of the dies have triangular 
notche= .«liding on corresponding 
ribs In the opening of the stock, 
and are held by one of the han- 
dles when scre-ved in. The lower 
figure has a pin on eich side, 
which in one position fiLsa semi- 
cylindrical groove in the die, so 
as to hold it ; when rotated half 
round, it presents a plain side to 
the die, permitting its removal. 

Screw-post. ( Sh ip- 
wrijkliiig.) The inner 
stern-post, or that through 
which the shaft of the 
screw-propeller passes. 

Screvr-press. A press whose platen is operated 
by a screw, in contradistinction to one which is 
worked by a toggie, as in the Stanhope printing- 
press ; by a wedge, as in some fonns of oil-presses ; 
by hydraulic pressure, as in the flaxseed- press ; by 
a lever, as in the primitive form of cheese-press. See 
Fig. 1263. 

The screw-press was used for coining in the reign 
of Henry II. of France, being introduced by Brucher. 
It was linally established in the French uiint, 1645. 

1. Screw-presses are vertical or horizontal ; the 
screw above or beneath the platen, which is usually 
calletl a follower in this class of machinery. An 
understanding of the matter will be as readily at- 
tained by a few examples as by a labored description. 

a. The old screw-press of the plantation or farm 
\\.vX a vertical screw in the upper cross member of the 
fnini'', and a follower which rose or fell, according to 
the direction of motion of the sweep which rotated it. 

b. In another form, the screw came up from below 

and left the top of the box more clear for charging. 
In the illustration shown, the screws G C are in du- 
plicate and are actuated by the same gearing. 

In Fig 4740, the follower D is attached to the smaller screw, 
which works axially in the socket- thre;id of the larger screw. 
The latter passes through the nut in the slidiog-framc. and is 
stepped in a metallic block. The revolution of the lever causes 
the hollow screw c' c' to rotate in the lower bar of the frame, 
and thus lower or raise the box, according to the direction in 

Fig. 4740. 


which the lever is moved. The threaded stem c at the same 
time rotates in the sleeve-screw c', and raises or lowers the fol- 
lower D. Thus the foUow-block and the press-box move fimul- 
taneously and in opposite directions. See Balisg-peess ; Coin- 
ing-press, etc. 

e. Horizontal screw. In the example, the follower can be 
operated by a slow or by a quick motion. The slow motion 
arises from a hollow screw-spindle F which screws into a worm- 
wheel G gearing with a worm. A rod E passing through said 
screw-spiodle and connected with it by a key unites it with the 
follower. The extreme end of the rod forms a toothed rack 
which gears in a pinion rf : and if the key which unites said rod 
with the screw-spindle is withdrawn, the pinion and rack form 
the quick motion for the follower, which can be u^ed inde- 
pendently of the slow motion. 

Fig. 4741. 

Jiorizonlal Srreic-Press, 

The press has a slow, powerful motion when compacting the 
bale : a quick retraction to free the bale and to open the cham- 
ber for another charge. 

Fig. 4742. 

Screw and ToggU Press. 




d Screw and toggle. Tho involution of the right and left 
kaud screw drawa together the heads J and expands the togglea 
K, forcing tuo followers toward the platens of the press. 

e. hereto and lever. The lever id fconuected to the follower at 
ODe end, and has u cylindrical nut ut the uther, which rocks in 
l>eariQgs ut the other end of the lever, and is eug iged hy a bcreff 


Screw and Liver Press. 

which is stepped in the frame. The mule U hitched to the end 
of the sweep, and aa he walks around, tiie out /climbs (or uinks) 
on the screw H, tipping the lever A and depressing or raising 
the follower Jin the box. 

/. The rotating prtss. As the box rotates, the vertical screw 
feed^ through its nut and depresses the follower. Kotation in 
the other direction raises the follower. 

Boohbindfr' s Screw-Press. 

Rotary Screw- Press. 

Chollet-Champion's screw-press (French) has three arbors to 
which the crank can be applied, each producing a different 
Telocity of movement in the platen. The upper two of these 
are the axles of pinions which can be thrown into gear with a 

Fig. 4745. 

Chollet-Championys Screw-Press. 

larger wheel c below them ; the third is the axle of this larger 
and lowfr wheel itself. Upon the same arbor with this wheel 
is a bevel-piuiou which engages a large hori^outal wheel / cor- 
respondingly geared. The vertical arbor of thin horizontal 
wheel carries a pinion which acts on an internal geuriug in the 
last wheel d of the series, which is the nut applying the pOMcr 
to the platen. The base of the construction larrying this ^\s- 
teni of gearing is firmly secured to the platen, and the whole 
apparatus rises and falls \Yith the movements of the press. 

The smallest of the pinions to which the crank can be di- 
rectly applied has 9 teeth, and the larger one 15. The wheel c 
into which these pinions gear has 45 teeth. The bevel-pinion 
has 10 teeth, and tiie bevel-wheel which it actuate342 tietli. Tho 
pinion on the vertical axis of this whtel has again 10 teeth, and 
the internal gearing 65 teeth. The length ol the crank is 13 
inches, the diameter of the screw 4 inches, and the distance 
between the threads about an inch. 

The force is applied first directly to the large upper wheel d \ 
then by placing the crank on the ajiis of the lower vertical 
wheel c, which, by the conical 

gearing and the gearing of the Fig. 4746. 

internal pinion and the wheel 
(/, gives one turn to the nut of 
the press for 27 turns of the 
crank. For a greater power, 
the crank is placed, as seen in 
the cut, on the axis of the 15- 
tooth pinion, «hich gives one 
turn of the nut to 81 of the 
crank. As the last resort, the 
crank is transferred to the axis 
«i of theU-tooth pinion, which 
gives one turn of the nut to 
l'SG\ of the crank. A pressure C 
of 3'2 pounds on the 9-tooth 
pinion is equal to 50 tons on 
the surface of the body compressed. 

2. A small stitching-press employed in attaching the head- 
bands, etc., to books. It consists of two plain jaws, through 
which guide-pins pass near each end ; their distance apart is 
adjusted by means of a central screw See also Fly-prls» ; 
iCoiNlNG, etc. 

Scre^w-pro-pel'ler. A spiral blade on an axis 
parallel with the keel of the vessel, and revolving 
beneath tlie surface of the water, usually at the stern 
of t!ie vessel. 

Screws have been used at bow and stern ; at mid- 
ships, over the keel, or alongside ; twin screws at 
each side of the dead-wood at the stern. 

In the early ajiplications of the screw as a jiro- 
peller it consisted of a spiial blade, whiuh made one 
convolution around its stem. Then two half-con- 
volutions of a double-threaded screw were used. 
Since that time the tendency has been to reduce the 
length of the spiral. 

We find notices of the suggested or experimental 
fZ-^ "se of the screw-propeller by Hooke, 1680 ; Duqvu-t, 
'-» 1727 ; Pancton, 1768 ; Watt, 1780 ; Seguin, 1792 ; 
Fulton, 1794 ; Cartwright, 1798 ; Shorter, 1802. 

The idea of propelling vessels by a screw in lieu 
of oars is mentioned in the '* Machines et Inventions 
approuvees par TAcademie Royale des Sciences de- 
puis 1727 jusqu'a 1731." 

Franklin suggested the same thing. 

Lyttleton's English patent, in 1794, for an 
"aquatic propeller " consisted of a screw of one, two, 
or more threads wrapped around a cylinder, and re- 
volving in a frame placed at the head, stern, or side 
of a vessel. 

The credit of the first application of the screw-pro- 
peller for marine propulsion is undoubtedly due to 
Colonel John Stevens, of Hoboken, N. J. In 1804, he 
constructed a boat with twin screws, which ^'attained 
a very considerable speed." The machinery of this 
boat {ii, Fig. 47-17), which was 50 feet in length, is 
still preserved in the Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology at Hoboken. The boat itself is shown at b. 

In 1844, this machinery was placed in a vessel 
modeled on the lines of the boat, wliich, in the 
presence of a committee of the American Institute, 
it propelled at the rate of 8 miles an hour. 

In 1806, he built a second and larger boat called 
the "Fhcenix," with which he made a successful trip 




rig. 4747. 

ton," was built by the Lairds of Birkenhead, and 
launched July 7, 1838. This vessel was built for 
Captain Stockton, of the United States Navy. She 
crossed to the United States in 1839, and was pur- 
chased by the Delaware and Raritan Canal Com- 
pany. Captain Ericsson subsequently built tlie 
propeller "Enterprize." He was the hrst to couple 

Fig. 4748 

Stevens's Propeller, 1804. 

to Albany in August, 1807, but a few days after that 
of Fulton, in the "Clermont." This, in which a 
single screw was employed, is shown at c. 

Stevens navigated his proi)eller by sea to the Dela- 
ware, as Chancellor Livingston had obtained a pat- 
ent for the navigation of the Hudson by steam. See 

F. P. Smith, a farmer, of Romney, England, made 
a model boat in 1834, in which was a stern screw- 
propeller driven by a spring. Smith's patent was 
granted May 31, 1836. Though his claims were 
more extensive, the actual novelty of his invention 
seems to have been placing the screw in an open 
space in the dead-wood (see Fig. 3973). He con- 
structed a boat of 10 tons burden, with an engine of 
6 horse-power, which was tried on the Paddington 
Canal, the river Thames, and, the next year, along 
the coast. 

The "Archimedes" was constructed by the help 
of the Messrs. Rennie, in 1838. She was 155 feet 
long, 237 tons burden, 90 horse-power. The screws 
were 5 and 7 feet in diameter, the lengths 7 J and 8 

In 1842, the " Rattler " was built, to determine 
the best proportions of the screw, and the " Alecto" 
was built on the same lines, and with paddle-wheels, 
to compare the modes of propulsion. The propeller 
was preferred, and soon had an important place in 
the British navy. 

Captain John Ericsson's English patent is dated 
July 13, 1836, for a propeller containing several 
blades or segments of a screw, the twist of which 
was determined in accordance with the principle now 
usually adopted. His propeller, the " Francis B. 
Ogden," was tried in April, 1837, and in May of 
that year was used in towing an American packet, 
the ship " Toi'onto," of 700 tons burden, to sea ; 4J 
knots an hour against wind and tide. 

Ericsson's second vessel, the " Robert F. Stock- 


the engine directly to the propeller-shaft. " It will 
thus be seen that Captain Ericsson accomplished for 
the screw-propeller in America and in England what 
Fulton did for the paddle-wheel in the former and 
Bell in the latter country, namely, its practical in- 
troduction." — WOODCROFT. 

Several years before screw-propulsion had assumed 
any commercial importance in England, the carrying- 
trade on our lakes was, to a great extent, conducted 
by screw-vessels. Already, in 1843, the Ericsson 



line of screw -steamers was iu full operation between 

Philadelphia and Haltimore, running through the 
Delaware and Chesaiieako Canal. 

Keiinie proposed to make the screw spiral instead 
of helical ; the form being generated by winding an 
inclined plane around a cone or spire. This pro- 
peller had two blades on a cylindrical hub, and 
strikingly resembled a shark's tail {a, Fig. 4748). 

b shows Hancock's two-bladed screw. The blades 
are removable. 

Bourne prefers three-bladed screws, and gives the following 
data : — 

The area of the circle described by the extremities of the 
blade.< should have one squire foot for every 2.^ 
equire feet in the area of the immersed midship- 
RectioQ. The pitch of the screw should be equal 
to or a little exceeJins the diameter, and should _ 

have about * gof a convolution. The pitch should 
increase gradually toward the leading end of the 
screw, and the pitch of the center be 10 per rent 
le-i'i t.ian the circumference. The blades should 
b»^ inclined backward a little instead of being per- 
pendicular to the shaft, so as to produce a ten- 
dency in the water which they drive backward to 
converge to a point. It is assumed that this con- 
vergL'ut tendency may balance the divergent ten- 
dency ilue to the centrifugal force attending the 
revolution ; so that the two forces being in equi- 
librium wiU cauiie the water to be projected back- 
ward from the screw in a cylindrical column. 

As the screw revolves and thrusts backward 
against the water, the forward end of the screw- 
shaft impinges forcibly against a bearinj;, and 
thereby impels the ve.-isel. Thi^ pressure is very 
Severe, as may be readily imagined, when it is con- 
nidered that the forward pressure is driving the 
vessel through the water. One device for receiving 
this forward thrust is a number of collars or 
disks placed at the end of the shaft and resting in 
a cistern of oil, which is firmly supported in the bed-plate of the 
engine, or some other place sufficiently strong. Between the 
end of the cistern and the sh ift the disks are interposed, and 
are free to revolve by the frictional pressure of the screw-shaft. 
If the end of the shaft press with such violence against the disk 
as to become hot in revolving against it, and engender such 
friction as to carry the disk along with it, then the first disk 
revolves ag;Linst the second, and the surfaces previously en- 
gage.!, no longer rubbing against each other, have time to cool, 
and resume their efficiency. 

The screw is sometimes suspended on a short shaft, carried 
by a metallic frame having a rack on one side, which is engaged 
by endless screws for the purpose of liftmg the screw for ex- 
amination or repairs. See also Fig. 4751. 

Maud>lay's feathering-screw is so arranged that the blades, 
whenever the vessel is put under canviis and the screw not re- 
quired, should be placed in a direction parallel with the line of 
the keel, and form, as it were, a portion of the dead-wood, as 
they cause considerable obstruction, if they are allowed to re- 
main fixed in thL'ir position, even though they be disconnected 
from the engine and allowed to revolve. In auxiliary sailing- 
vessels not titted with a trunk or screw-well for raising the screw 
out of the water, tliis is particularly valuable. 

c and d are modern forms of screw-propellers, having respec- 
tively three and four blades. 

The number of blides of a screw should depend on the area 
of propelling surface in proportion to the length of screw on 
the line of the keel. The width of blades is reduced in pro- 
portion to their number. 

The pitckoi a screw is the distance it should advance in an 
axial line by one complete revolution, provided no force be lost, 
:us would be case in an unyielding medium. The rate is 
the nctuid advance, and the difference or loss is called the 

The slip varies with the angle of the propeller, its velocity, 
and depth of immersion. The coarser the pitch, the greater 
the slip 

The friction of a screw depends on its velocity and the smooth- of finish of the material of which it is composed. 

Tne vibration depends on the form and uniformity of resist- 

The thrust of the screw is the force exerted on its shaft to pro- 
pel the vessel. This thrust is generally taken up by friction- 
collars on the screw-shaft. 

The pitch of a two-bladed screw should in general equal IJ 
diameters; a three-bladed screw, li diameters; a four-bladed 
screw, 1 di.imeter. 

The actual force exerted by a screw depends, to some extent, 
on its depth of immersion. The indinaiion of the screw should 
be such as to overcome the tendency of the body of water acted 
upon to rise to the surface. 

Experiments h ive indicated that paddle-wheels give the best 
result when the vessel is lightly immersed, and the screw when 
deeply immersed. 

Experiments made by the British navy tend to prove that 
the best results are obtained when the screw is entirely free 
from back-JJow or '/ea^/-water ; also that a screw inclosed in a 
pipe or box open at the ends has much less eBective force than 
when it is not so inclosed. 

Many and various devices have been patented in this country 
and in Europe, intended to overcome the loss from slip and from 
friction. Among these may be mentioned the duplex or reverse 
screw, having an inside shaft and aujciliary screw back of the 
one on the main shaft, the two screws moving in opposite direc- 
tions. For some other modifications of the screw, see Pro- 

Fig. 4749 illustrates a new arrangement in use on the steam- 
ship "Britannic," of the White ^^tar line, enabling the pro- 
peller to be raised or lowered, and still be in a position to re- 
ceive motion from the shaft. The shaft is in two parts a b. 

Fig. 4749. 

Propeller of " Britannic " ( White Star Line). 

coupled at c by a universal joint ; and the upward or downward 
movement of the propeller is effected by a pinion gearing in the 
nick d jointed to the rear part of the shaft. Water is prevented 
from entering the ship by a device consisting of a disk e through 
which the shaft passes pivoted within a second disk/, which in 
turn is pivoted within a casing forming part of the shaft-well, 
the joints being suitably packed. When the rear portion of 
the shaft is raised or lowered, it and the disk e turn on the uni- 
versal joint as a center, causing the disk/" to rotate on its axis 
and around the disk e until the propeller assumes the desired 

Mr R. GriflBths, of I/Ondon, well known in connection with 
propellers, has recently proposed to employ a screw placed 
within a tunnel both at the bow and stern ; from trials with 
models he concludes that an increase of nearly 50 per cent in 
speed can be gained with the same power. 

A small boat employed at Burlington, Iowa, for crossing the 
Mississippi, 50 feet long, 7 feet beam, drawing 30 inches aft and 
1 foot forward, and propelled by a 4-foot propeller, attains a 
speed of 10 to 12 miles up stream, and 15 miles down stream. 
She has a locomotive boiler 11 feet long, with fire-box 2A X SJ 
feet, and 27 !^-inch flues, 7 feet long. The two engine-cylinders 
are direct-acting and vertical, of 5 inches bore and 13 inches 
stroke, and are fitted with circular slide-valves. The usual 
amount of steam carried is 80 pounds ; number of revolutions, 
133 per minute. 

Screw-pro-peller Gov'em-or. {Sieam-en- 
gine.) One in wliicli the action of a .screw-propeller 
device, working in a resisting fluid, is employed to 
regulate the throttle-valve. In Huntoon's (Fig. 
4750), the pulley-shaft a, driven by belt connection 
with the engine, carries a gear-wheel b meshing with 
a long pinion on the shaft of a screw c, inclosed in a 
tight box tilled with oil or water, and causing its 
rotation. The apparatus is so adjusted that when 
the engine is workiiig at its normal speed, the lever 
d just balances the tendency of the propeller-shaft to 
move forwai-d under the inlluence of the screw, and 
no movement of the valve e takes place ; should the 
speed diminish, the weight overcomes the resistance 
of the screw, and the valve is opened ; if the speed 
exceeds the regulated amount, the forward move- 
ment of the propeller-shaft, acting the arm 
d\ causes the weight to rise, partially closing the 

Screw-pro-pel'ler Steam-en'gine. A direct- 
action steam-engine, specifically adapted for the ro- 



Fig. 4750. 

Huntoon^s Serew-Propelkr Governor, 

tation of the screw-propeller shaft. The form of 
engine most commonly used for this purpose is the 

Maudslay's direct-action screw-propeller steam- 
engine was especially designed for dispensing with 
the multiplying-wheels, or chains and drums, be- 
tween the engine-crank and the shaft of the screw- 
propeller, in order to give the latter sufficient speed. 

The engines are ranged side by side in a line coincident with 
the line of the propeller-sliaft, and immediately over the engine- 
shaft, which is concentric with the propeller-'^haft, and is con- 
nected thereto by a coupling, by which the machinery and 
screw-shaft may be disconnected when the vessel is to be driven 
by sails alone. 

Fig. 4751. 

The engines have a short stroke, a is the cylinder, sup- 
ported on the upper part of the condenser 6 and on a projecting 
flange on the air-pump c. The engiue-crank is beneath the 
cylinder, and to it is connected one of the cranks d of the shaft. 
The crank is driven by a connecting-rod from the cross-head 
above the piston-rod and piston e. The slide-valve is cylindri- 
cal, and has an oscillating motion, the peripheral depres.«ion 
forming a port by which the ends of the cylinder are alternately 
connected to the condenser 6. while the internal ports of the 
valve form the induction steam-passage leading the live steam 
of the boiler to the alternate ends of the cylinder. 

The foot of the air-pump is inserted in a flat prolongation of 
the condenser ; and the foot-valve / is at the bottom of the 
pump. The delivery-valves in the pump are composed of an- 
nular plates, which rise and fall vertically between guides, and 
admit of the escape of air and water around the periphery and 
at the central aperture. The upper portion § of the air-pump 
lorms the hot-well from which the supply for the boilers is 
drawn by the feed-pump, and the surplus passes off by the 
waste-water pipe. The air-pump is worked from the parallel 
motion, consisting of the working-beam A, connecting-rod i,and 
other associated parts, as seen in the figure. 

Scre'vir-punch. A punching device operated by 
a screw. In that shown, two 
screws C D are used for for- Fig. 4762. 

cing the punch, one screwing 
into the first with a finer 
thread, so that when the 
larger or outer screw is 
turned, the inner one, being 
held from turning by a 
squareshaukpassingthrougli C$ i«, ^ 
a stjuare hole in the stock, '^ 
screws into it, and therefore 
e.ferts a slow and powerful 
downward movement. See 

also PnNCHING-BE.\R. 

Screwr-rud'der. An ap- 
plication of the screw to 
purposes of steering, instead 
of a rudder. Tlie direction 
of its axis is changed, to give 
the required direction to the 
vessel, and its efficiency does Scrrw-PuncJi. 

not depend upon the motion 

of the vessel, as with a rudder, and the vessel may 
be turned on itself even when not under way. 

Screw-spike. A round spike having a shallow 
screw-thread cut on a portion of its stem. It is 
driven partly home and screwed the remaining dis- 
tance. See Spike. 

Scre^-steara'er. One propelled by a screw, 
in contradistinction to a paddle-wheel steamer. 

Screw-steer'ing Gear. A screw on the axis 

Maudslay's Screw- PropelUr Steam-Engine. 

wheel may be 
matle to act 
upon the nid- 
through the in- 
tervention of 
nuts, or nuts 
and rods. 
M 'Williams's 
gear (English) 
operates by 

Fig. 4753. 

Screw- Steering Gear, 

means of a light and a left hand screw d e on the 
axis a of the steeiing-wheel. //are two tiaversing- 
nuts, and h h two traversing-rods, parallel to the 
spindle, and fixed respectively to the two traversing- 
nuts at i i, and each passing through a guide-eye in 
the other nut. k k are two links jointed respectively 
a.tjj, to eyes on the traversing-rods, and at 1 1 to 
the two arras of the yoke, b is the rudder-head. 

A modified form of screw-steering gear was intro- 
duced by Reed (English). It has a similar right 
and left screw operating nut-blocks, which slide on 
parallel guide-bars. Each nut-block has a pin 
which engages iu a slotted lug on the cap of the 




ruddei-liead, and thus turns the rudder when the 
screw-axis is rotati'd. See Steeking. 

Scre'w-tap. An instrument for cutting tlie in- 
terior thread on a hollow surew. For cutting the 
corresponding thread on the screw rod or bolt, a 
screw [date or dies are employed. 

These are held io a dU-stock, aa improved form of which is 
shown at a. This is adapted to receive dies having dilferent- 
sized threads, which are held by a screw ; the sides of the open- 
ing being plaiu at one end for the ready introduction of the 

Fig. 4754. 

threads on bolts or rods. See also Screw-machine ; 


In Fig. 4756, the surew is received in the holder i 
of the feed-head k, and clamped by a gage m'. The 
feed-head is advanced by the bent lever P engaging 
the ratchet-bar R to meet the dies which are held by 
die-holders g secured in the cutter-head A". When 
the thread has been cut to the deteriniued length, 
the end of the screw strikes the end o of the rod n 

Pig. 4756. 

Screw Taps and Dies. 

dies, and having ribs at the other, which fit grooves in the dies 
and prevent their > falling out when fixed, c d illustrate the 
action of the common two-part die on the rod placed centrally 
between its parts, in the first the die has the same curvature 
as the finished screw ; in the latter that of the uncut rod. In 
either ca-«e but a part of the cutting surface acts, and the ten- 
dency is to cut an imperfect thread. 

This is partially remedied by cutting the dies of a curvature 
intermediate between the two. 

To obviate this defect as far as po.ssible. Sir J. Whitworth 
introduced the arrangement shown at e. 

The two narrow dies act as cutters, and are advanced toward 
the center of the rod on which the thread is being cut by turn- 
ing the thumb-nut o, which advances the slide-piece p ; the 
broader die opposite serves principally as a guide for the thread. 

/are tools for chasing exterior threads, and g for interior 
threads on work held in a lathe. 

A is a section, and i k elevations of taps : these have a square 
shatrk fitting in an appropriate holder like the die-stock, or 
sometimes the die-stock itself is adapted for this purpose. 

b is the screw-plat« ; this is principally used for small worK, 
and has a series of screw-threaded apertures of various sizes 
adapted for different-sized wire. 

Screw-thread Gage. A gage for giving the 
proper bevel to the edges 
of screw - cutting tools. 
That illustrated is adapted 
to the system recommended 
by the Franklin Institute 
and adopted in government 
1 establishments. The angles 
are of 60", and the Hat sur- 
faces at the top and bottom 
of threads are equal to one 
eighth of the pitch. 


Saew-nr,id Gagf (am- Ma-ohine'. A machine 
half Size, Linear). for cutting or chasing 

Fig. 4754 

Screw- Threading- Machine. 

within the hollow shaft / which rotates the cutter- 
head, forcing the rod back and permitting the dies 
to open and release the screw. 

In Fig. 4757, the screw blank or bolt is clasped 

Fig. 4757. 



Screvf' Threading Machiiu. 







between two jaws held in the stationary head G by 
set-screws, and i otatiou is imparted by bevels, gears, 
and a winch. The dies are held between the pivoted 
jaw K and movable head M, which slides on the rod 
o aiid advances as the thread is cut. 

Scre^r-tooL For 
Fig. 475S. wood-turning. 

For soft wood : — 

a, outside screw- 

b, inside screw-tool. 
For hard wood or 

ivory : — 

ScTeiD- Tools. c, outside tool. 

d, inside tool. 
Screw-tube Fit'ting Fig. 4759 illustrates fit- 
tings for gas, water, and steam pipes of wrought-iron. 

Fig. 4759. 

a a, Pockets. 
b b b, bends, 
c, nut. 
tf , cross. 
e. main cock. 

Screm- Tube Fating. 

g, elbow, 

h, pipe tongs. 

Scre^v-valve. A faucet or stop-cock whose 
valve is actuated by a screw. See Stop- valve. 

Screiw-ven'ti-ia'tor. A ventilating apparatus 
in the form of a screw, which is rotated by the pass- 
ing current of heated air. It can hardly be said to 
be a mechanical ventilator, as it is only operated by 
the air in the discharge-aperture and does not drive 
the air through. It may be so arranged as only to 
rotate in one direction, and thus to impede the back 
pa.ssage of air while it yields to its discharge. 

Screw-well. (Shipbuilding.) A hollow in the 
stem of a vessel into which a propeller is lifted, — 

after being first detached from the shaft, — when 
the vessel is to go under cauvas alone. 

Screw-wheeL The .same as Worm-wheel 
(which see). 

Screw--wire Fas'ten-ing. (Slwcmaking.) Alao 
known as cable-screw wire. A twisted wire for 
fastening soles and uppers together ; a substitute for 
pegs or stitches. Boots and shoes made by this 
process have their soles fastened by a flexible wire, 
twisted into the form of a screw, which an in- 
genious machine cuts off in proper lengths and 
drives in without the preliminary punching which 
has always been considered necessary. The machine 
is capable of putting on five hundred pairs of soles 
in a day. See Nailing-machise, pag^ 1507 ; 
Wire ; Wip.e-peggek, etc. 

Screw^-wrench. 1. A spanner fitting the 
square head of a bedstead-screw. A turn-screw. 

2. A wrench whose movable jaw is ojiened and 
closed by a screw. 

Fig. 4760 has a sliding jaw adjusted by a screw. 

Fig. 4760. 


Its shape enables it to be applied to bolts in deep- 
seated places, not readily reached by the ordinary 

Fig. 4761 shows several varietie;;, which do not 
need detailed description. 

Scribtet. A painter's pencil. 

Scrib'bler. (Cotton and Woolen ifanufacture.) 
A carding-machine by which fiber is 1 oughly carded 
preparatory to the final carding. A scripliiig- machine. 

Fig. 4761 

Screw- Wrenches. 




Scrib'bling. {Cotton and Woolen Manufacture.) 
The tiist rough carding, preparatory to the final card- 

Scrib'bling-en'gine. (Woolen Manufacture.) 
A form of cardiiig-fngiiie for fine, short wool, hav- 
ing one main cylinder, and having, in lieu of the 
top cards, numerous small rollers lying and rolling 
ujion its vipper surface. 

Scrib'bling-ma-chine'. ( Woolen Manufac- 
lurc.) A machine in which oiled wool receives one 
or more preliminary cardings before jiassing through 
the regular carding-machine. It is a somewhat 
coarser process tlian carding, but of the same nature ; 
its purpose being to bring wool to a broad, thin 
fleece or lap. It corresponds to the breaker lor cot- 
ton. See e'ARDIiNO-MAOllIXE. 

Scribe-awl. An awl used for marking lines to be 
followed in sawing or cut- 
ting out work. Called also 
scribcr, scribing-awl, 

Scrib'er. A carpenter's 
marking - tool. A scribe- 
a wl. 

Scrib'ing. The fitting 
of the edge of a board to 
another suiface, as the 
skirting-board of a room is scribed to the floor, being 

Fig 4702, 




marked in position and then cut to match the in- 
Scrib'ing-com'pass. {Sad- Rr- *763. Fig. 4764. 

dlenj.) A compass with one 
pointed leg to act as a pivot, and 
one scooping edge to act as a 
marker. It is especially used to 
remove the gum on patent leather 
in a line for a row of stitches, and 
is set open to any degree by the 
arc and set-screw. Scrihing- 

It is also used as a scribe in iron. 
making a line near the edge of a 
strap, one leg passing along the guide- 
edge, while the other makes a groove on 
the line required. 

Scrib'ing-ir'on. A scoring-tool for Compius. 
njarking logs and casks. A race-knife. 

Scrimp'ing-bar. (Calico-printing.) A grooved 
bar which spreads cotton cloth right and left, so as 
to feed smoothly to the printing-machine. 

Scrims. Thin canvas glued on the inside of a 
panel to keep it from cracking or breaking. 

Serin. (Mining.) A small vein. 

Script. (Printing.) A kind of type in imitation 
of writing. Called Anglaise by the French. There 
are many varieties, some very beautiful. See also 
Seceet.^iit ; Type. 



^^^/ii-i-^ ^.?Zt-S ^6* gft;>^ ^-ft- ^=^^1?€^^^^ Qz>^>^ZtX-^^ ^^^e<^ /^€'£--*2.-»^-£--f^ in^^ C^^C^C€.^^-CC. 

Wl/ i^ 

Jouv/e- 'Y'i't-nMfp JiofaiifJ. 

Scroll 1. (Joiner]!.) An ornament of a form 
derived from, and yet distantly resembling, a partially 
unrolled scroll of parchment. Instruments arc made 
for laying out scrolls and curves for stair-work, and 
other irregular forms. See Spikal, Instrument 


2. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A spiral or conver- 
ging adjutage around a turbine or other reaction 
water-wheel, designed to equalize the rate of flow of 
water at all parts around the circumference of the 
wheel, by decreasing the capacity of the chute in its 
circuit. See Turbine. 

A double scroll is seen in the cut, the valves of 
each being operated by a single rod, and two worms 
meshing into the segment-racks of the valve-stems. 

Each chute supplies 
one half the cir- 
cumference of the 

Fig. 4766 shows 
by a horizontal sec- 
tion the scroll di- 
minishingin section- 
al area as it passes 
around the wheel. 

3. (Ship.) A 
piece or pieces of 
timber bolted to the 
stem in lieu of a 

Fig. 4765. 




Fig. 47 

Fig. 4767. 

Turbine and Scroll. Scroll-chuck. 

(Lathe.) A de- 
vice for holding and centering work in the lathe. 
The body of the chuck is formed of three pieces abc; 
between these is inclosed a ring tZ, which may be 
revolved independently. In the face of the chuck 
are three radial grooves, each of which has two 
feathers projecting from its sides into the body of 
the groove ; the three jaws slide freely along these 
grooves and feathers. A spiral on the face of the 
ring d enters a counterpart spiral on the inner ends 
of the jaws, so that by revolving tlie ring these are 
caused to approach or recede from the center. 

Scroll-gear. A gear-wheel of spiral or snail form. 
See Scroll-wheel. 

Scroll-saw. A relatively thin and narrow- 
bladed reciprocating-saw, which passes through a 
hole in the work-table and saws a kerf in the work, 
which is moved about in any recjuired direction on 
the table. The saw follows a scroll or other orna- 
ment, according to a pattern or traced figure upon 
the work. 

The band-saw is a scroll-saw, and operates con- 
tinuously. See Band-saw. 

Fig. 4768. 

Fig. 4770. 

Fleetwood's Scrol'-Saw. 

2:iy.'r_i/\s s: '■oU-Saw. 

The example, Fig. 4768 (Fleetwood's), is operated by a treadle 
connected by a pitman a, one part of which slides within the 
other, rendering it adjustable as to length to the friction-wheel 
6, which turns the smaller friction-wheel c and fly-wheel d. A 
pitman on the wheel c reciprocates the saw »*, which is con- 
nected at each end to guides working in collars fg above and 
below the table on which the work is supported. Springs h i 
attached to the guides maintain the tension of the saw. 

Tapley's is operjited by a treadle a which imparts rotation to 
the wheel b and an arm c having rollers at each end The saw 
is strained between the bars d e ; the former attached to an 
upright wooden spring/. The rotation of the arm r opens out 
the endless strnp 
g, which ia made 
fast below and at- 
tached above to the 
saw-sash, causing 
the downward 
stroke of the saw, 
which is immedi- 
ately thrown up- 
w.ird again by the 
spring /I The bar 
d may he raised or 
lowered to suit 
paws of different 
lengths, and the 
throw of the saw 
may be varied by 
the adjustment of 
a buckle on the 
strap ^. 

Fay's scroll -saw 
(Fig 4770) is recip- 
rocated by a pit- 
man on the wheel 
a. The saw-hold- 
ers move in verti- 
cal guides in the 
table-support h and 
hanger c, which is 






»te«died by tension-rods d. Uniform tension is secured at all I Scrutch'er. (Agricullural.) A machine adapted 
points of the stroke. j^ break, beat, or scrape flax, etc., to remove woody 

Scroll-wheel. The scroll-gear acts upon the | matter. See Scutcher. 
pinion, which slides by a feather on the shaft and | Scuf'fle-har'ro'w. (Htisbandry.) A harrow 

with cuttiiif,' shares instead of mere teeth. 
Fig. 4772. Scuffle-hoe. (Agricultural.) A thrust-hoe 

Hljl lllllllimi having the blade in line, or nearly so, with the 

' Scuffler. (Agricultural .) A form of culti- 
vator used in Britain, and not distinguishable 
from the cultivator and scarifiers. 

Scull. (Nautical.) a. A short oar rowed 
with one hand, two being liandled by a single 
man, as in river-wherries and match-boats. 

b. An oar used over the stein by a rocking 
action obli(]uely against the water. 

c. A small boat. 
Scull'ing - pro-pel'ler. See Pf.opeller ; 


Sculp'er. (Eiifirariitg.) See ScunrER. 
Sculpt'ure-cop'i-er. An instrument or ma- 
chine on the principle of the pantograph, for 
copying statuary. 

James Watt was working upon a machine for 

taking reduced copies of busts and statues when 

he was attacked by his final sickness. He had 

produced some good specimens of his work, and 

had distributed them among his friends. 

Scum'bling. Giving a kind of rough dotted 
shadow to objects in a nearly finished diaw ing. It 
is performed with a brush having some dark-brown 
color in it, but nearly dry. 

Scum'mer. A perforated ladle or dish used in 
removing feculences from the surface of boiling so- 
lutions. A sMinmcr. 

Scup'per. (Shipbuilding.) A hole or tube lead- 
ing from the water-way through the ship's side, to 
convey away water from tlie deck. 

Scup'per-hose. (Xautical.) A canvas or leath- 
ern sjiout on the outside of a scupper-hole, to conduct 
the water clear of the vessel's side. 

Scup'per-leath'er. (Kavtical.) A flap-valve 
of leather outside of a lower-deck scupper to keep 
the sea-water from entering, but permitting exit of 
water from the inside. 

Scup'per-nail. (Nautical.) A sliort nail with 
a very broad, fiat head ; used for nailing on .scupper- 
hose, battening down tarpaulins, fastening pump- 
leathers, et>-. 

Scup'per-plug. (Nautical.) A tapering block, 
to close a deck-scupper. 

Scup'per-shoot. (Nautical.) A pipe to con- 
duct deck -water to the sea-level. 

Scutch. A wooden instrument for dressing flax 
or hemp. 

Scutch'eon. 1. (Locksntithing.) A cover or frame 
to a keyhole. A sliding scutcheon is called a sheave. 

2. A name-plate on a cofiin, pocket-knife, or other 
object. An eseatchcon. 

Scutch'er. (Cutton-machinery.) A machine, 
also known as a bntting-maehine or bloiccr, which 
separates the individual fibers that have been 
loosened and cleansed bj' the willou-er or opening- 
machine. See also Batting-iiachine, page 251 ; 
Cotton-cleaner, page 633. 

This machine is fed by means of the cotton being spread by 
hand on the feed-cloth n a. passing over the rollers 6 r, and 
moving slowly in the direction of the arrows. The roller f, 
which is 3 inches in diameter, is driven at the rate of four revo- 
lutions per minute. The cloth is supported by the table rf.ard 
consists of a series of bands, which can be strained more uni- 
formly than would be the if the whole were one cloth At 
r the cotton is caught between the nipping-rollers e. which pre- 
sent It to the batting-.-irm/. revolving 640 times a minute, and 
having arms, at the end of which arc fixed, longitudinally, two 
narrow thin strips of sheet-iron. These, catching the cotton 

TOtates more and more slowly as it slides 
inward. It moves relatively faster as it slides 
outward, when the motion of the scroll-wheel 
is reversed. 

In Fig. 4772, the scroll-wheel J is driven 
by gear and pinion from the main shaft. The [J 
friction-rollers are on the opposite sides of the "=^^^Z 
scroll-wheel and impart motion to the cutter- 

Scrow. Tanners' and curriers' clippings, used 
for tdue-making. 

Scrub'ber. 1. (Gas-making.) An apparatus for 
ridding coal-gas of tarry matter and some remains of 
ammonia. It consists of a tall cylinder filled with 
bricks, paving-stones, or coke, and having an ar- 
rangement by which a stream of water can be admit- 
ted at top and removed at bottom. 

2. (Leather.) A machine in which leather from 
the tan-pit is washed to cleanse it from adhering 
particles of bark, hair, gum, sediment of the liipior, 
and other filth which it has accumulated in the va- 
rioushandlings duringthe ]>rocess of tanning. Scrub- 
bing is preliminary to finishing. 

Scrub'bing-brush. A stitf used for scrub- 
bing. The example has one or more flexible rubbers 

Fig. 4773. 



/ at tlie end, which retain the water around the bris- 

Scrub'bing - ma-chine'. An apparatus for 
scrubbing Moors or caipcts. 

In Fig. 4774, the brushes G G are rotated by bevel- 
gears D F; water is supplied by a pipe from the 


cistern L. The machine rests on rollers, is pu.shed 
forward by handles --/, and has a swab attachment /. 




Fig. 4775. 

Cotton- Scutcher. 

presented to them by the nipping-rollers, tear it off, separating 
the fibers from each other, and letting the dust, etc., fell 
through the grid n. The fibers thus torn asunder are again 
collected upon a second feed-cloth a', where they are pressed 
together by the drum h, and then again caught by the nip- 
ping-rollers e' r', to subject the cotton to a second batting 
operation at y. As only the heavy impurities pass through the 
grid 7i', a sucking action is provided by means of the fan jj over 
the perforated compressing-drum, revolving 150 times per min- 
ute, by which the hght dust is sucked up and conveyed through 
the channel t into the box u, where it is deposited. From the 
second batting-apparatus the cotton fibers are thrown into the 
closed channel x, and are driven through the same by a second 
fan m q, revolving 700 times per minute. At jv is another 
grating, consisting of bars slantingly placed, and at n f are two 
doors through which the cotton is taken out. 

This batting-machine can produce 500 to 600 pounds of 
scutched cotton iu 12 hours. 

2. {Fhx Manufacture.) A machine for dressing 
flax. See Scutching-machin'e. 

3. {Silk-machinery.) A beating-engine, in which 
floss and refuse silk — the fibers having been pre- 
\iously disentangled, straightened, laid parallel, anJ 
cut into lengths — is brought to a downy condition, 
in which it may be treated like cotton by carding^ 
slv^bing^ roving^ and spinniiig. 

The scutcher is also used to lighten up the staple 
and restore the downy condition thereto, after the 
operations of cleaiisi-n/jj washing^ and pressing the 
liber. From the second scutcher the silk staple 
passes to the carding -machine. 

Scutch'ing-ma-chine'. {Flajc Manufacture. ) 
Scutching is an operation succeeding that of break- 
ing^ and similar in its operation. Its effect is to 
still farther separate the woody portions from the 
fiber, the shivcs from the hare, by a beating opera- 
tion, which makes short bends in the stalk, as it is 
crimped between the bars of the descending and 
stationary jaws. 
Fig. 4776. 

Scutchmw IS performed with 
the scute hing-sword a held in 
the right hand, while with the 
left a handful of the bmisod 
stems 13 introduced into the 
groove ? in the stand b. A 
leathern band is stretched be- 
tween the upright of the stand 
and the stake A, which causes 
the sword to rebound after each 
downward blow, thus easing the 
labor of the workman. 

All remaining woody par- 
ticles are removed by a blunt 
knife, the flax being laid across 
' the workman's leg, which is 
covered with a piece of leather. 
In the machine (Fiff. 4777) for 
Scutehins Sic or d and Stand, thrashing and scutching flax, 

the stalks are fed from the table B between two fluted rollers, 
the lower one of which is joumaled in fixed bearings, and the 
upper is yielding, being pressed down by spiral pprings. On 
passing through the roHers the stalks are subjected to the ac- 
tion of a series of swinging beaters pivoted In eyebolts on the 

A small opening in a 
Fig. 47T8. 

drum jD, which rotates at about 10 times the velocity of the 
rollers. The separated seeds drop through the shitted bottom 
G, and the bruised fiber is conveyed to an opening at the rear 
of the machine See also Scutcher. 

Scutch'ing-miU. A mill in which fiber is 
scutched. See ScrxcHixo-MACHTNE. 

Scutch 'in g-s took. {Flax Manufacture.) Tlie 
part of the macliine on which the hemp rests in be- 
ing scutched. 

Scutch-rake. A flax-dresser's implement. 

Scut'tle. 1. (AV?//iV«/.) 
ship's deck or side, closed by 
a shutter or hatch, 

2. {Building.) A similar 
opening in a wall or roof. 

3. {Domestic) A coal- 

Scut'tle-butt {Xauti- 
cal.) A cask having an ojien-- 
in^r, covered by a lid, in itsi 
side or top. It is la.shed on 
deck, and contains the water 
required for immediate use. 

Scut'tle-cask. {Kauti- 
caL) See Sci'TTLE-BUTT. 

Scye. The curve in the 
front and back, or front side 
and back, pieces of the waist 

Coal- Scuttle. 




Fig. 4779. of a gannent, adapted to fit or suit 

flf^ the contour ol' the arm where it 

^',.t,$^'''^''^''^'^%'k joi»s the body of the garment. The 

P.-^ * sleeve i.s adapted to tit this slope. 
' Scythe. {AgrkuhuraL) A 

. itttiui; implement having a long 
.; itirved blade and a crooked handle 

'^i^^__ ; sft nearly at a right angle thereto ; 

»^"f 'V.u;^-v '^ Lised for mowing grass. It is worked 
Scije. with a i>eculiar swinging motion, 

both hands being employed. For 
this purpose, the handle has two oHsets or project- 
ing pieces {nibs) which are grasped by the mower. 
The ini plement is of great antiquity, but was probably 
preceded by the sickle, as the hay crop was not an 
object of iniportance to the inhabitants of those warm 
countries in which the cultivation of cereals was 
first practiced. 

" Of the scythe," says Pliny (a d. 79)," there are two varietiefl, 
— the Italian, which is the shorter and can be handled among 

brushwood ; and the 
\ Fig. 4780. two - handed Gallic 

scythe, which makes 
quicker work of it 
when employed on 
their extensive do- 

ywij y^ mains, for there they 

^ Xr cut the grass in the 

middle only, and pass 
over the shorter blades. 
The Italian mowers 
cut with one hand 
A straight-handled 
Scythes. scythe is used for 

mowing grass and 
weeds on the sides of ditches, and is useful in clipping 
hed;iC3 for those who prefer it to shears. It is not ea\v to 
give the true scythe-motion to this tool, and the title is a 
misnomer, though the implement has its uses. See Prun- 


a is the English hack-scythe 

b is very different from our mowiog-scythea. It more 
resembles our brier-scythe, lacking, as it does: 1, the 
graceful curve and length of blade ; 2, the peculiar curve 
of handle, which enables the mower to swing it in so ex- 
tended an arc ; 3, the nibs so pliced as to afford a con- 
venient grasp not hable to wrench the wrist or tire the 

It is the scythe of the Netherlands for mowing. 
The IlAiiiault scythe c is the general reaping implement of 
Holland and Uelgium. The handle is 14 inches long, with a 
hand-hold of 4.\ inches. The blade is 27 inches in length, 
the point a little raised, and the entire edge beveled upward, 
60 as to avoid the surface of the ground and the frequent use 
of the whetstone. It is grasped by one hand, like a reaping- 

Great exertions have been made to introduce this into Scot- 
land, but without success ; the reaping-hook and sickle main- 
tained their hold until soon after the American harvesting- 
machine made its appearance at the International Exhibition in 
London, 1851. See also Reapikg ; Cradle; Grain-cradle. 

Scythe-fas'ten-ing. The ring and wedge or 
Fig. 4781. 

ef^uivalent device by which the tang of the scythe 
is elamjied to thn end of the scythe-snath. 

Scythe-Stone. A whetstone or rifle. The ex- 
ample lias a steel wire fitted into a groove around 

Fig. 4782. 

Scythe- Hi/ie. 

its edge, by means of which the edge of the scythe 
may be burnished after sharpening. 

Sea-cock. {Marine Stcain-engine.) A cock or 
valve in the injection water-jupe leading from the 
sea to the condenser. It is supplementary to the 
usual cock at the condenser, to be used in the event 
of injury to the latter. 

Sea-gage. {Nautical.) a. An instrument in- 
vented by Drs. Hale and Desagnliers, to ascertuin 
deptlis beyond ordinary deep-sea soundings. It is 
a self-registering apparatus, in which the comlpiisa- 
tion of a body of air is caused by a column of ijuick- 
silver on which the Avater acts. A viscid ma- 
terial, such as molasses, floats on the quicksilver and 
leaves its high-pressure mark in the tube. 

Ericsson's improvement is to cause the volume of 
water thus forced in to pass over into a second tube. 

b. A TiDE-GAGE (which see). 

Sea-gates. {Hydraulk Engineering.) A pair 
of dock or tidal-ba.nn gates, opening outward, to re- 
sist the action of waves when the entrance is ex- 
posed thereto during storms. 

Seal. 1. A species of die having a device or 
motto cut in intaglio on its face for the purpose of 
stamjung a device or motto in relief on clay, wax, or 
other material, while in a plastic state, or upon 

The signet of Taia, the Queen of Anienophis, is still in exist- 
ence, in the Egyptian Museum of the Vatican. 

The golden seal of Menes is in the Abbott Collection, Histori- 
cal Society of New York. 

The signet-rings of Thothmes III. (gold) and Amunoph III. 
(silver) have been preserved. 

In ancient times the ring usually served as a peal. The most 
ancient heroes are described as wearing Feals. A law of Solon, 
to prevent counterfeiting feals, forbade the feal-cngraver to 
keep the form of a seal made by him. Ancient feal-riugs were 
of gold, iron, ivory, etc. They were worn by both t^cxea in 
Greece, commonly on the fourth finger, but the fingers were 
Fometimes loaded. Gems were frequently used, the onyx being 
the favorite. The modern have not exceeded the beauty of the 
ancient gem and cameo cutting. 

Ilollow cylinders of agate, amethyst, chalcedony, onyx, etc., 
one and a half to three inches long, and with a diameter one 
third the length, and engraved with arrow-head characters, are 
found among the ruins of Babylon, and were used as seals, 
by impressing upon either clay or was. The axial hole was for 
a metallic rod, by which the seal was rolled upon the clay to 
deliver the impression. Hence theexpression in Job xxxviii. 14 : 
" It is turned as clay to the seal, 
And they stand as a garment.-* 

Or otherwise rendered, 

" It turneth round like a seal of clay. 
And things stand out as though in dress." 

In the metaphor, the earth itself is as a clay seal, rolling upon 
its axis, and all its scenery and busy life are but as images upon 
the face of the roller. 

By inking the surface and delivering an impression, the char- 
acter might be left white upon the material impressed. 

A Babylonian cylindrical seal of jasper is in M. Durero's col- 
lection. It has a ouneiform inscription and the image of a 
winged genius in a flowing Babylonish garment. A clay seal, 
now in the British Museum, was probably attached to a treaty 
of peace between Assyria and Egypt, as it displays upon one 
piece ot clay, side by side, the signets of the kings Senna- 
cherib and Sabaco. 

Fig 4783 shows two seals of Assyria (« 6), and also impres- 
sions (c (I) from two cylindrical seals. 

c represents the tiah god. 

f/ is the royal cylinder of Sennacherib, found in the ruins of 
his palace at Koyunjik. The seal cylinders of Assyria were 
made of a great variety of hard stones, including agate, chal- 
cedony, quartz, and jasper. The fides were slightly concave or 
convex, genemlly the former. It was perforated axially. The 
art culminated in the time of Sennacherib Tiie Fcal, whose 
impression i^ shown at it, is equal in e.'cecution to the best 
Greek intaglios Besides the king and certain religious em- 
blems, the ibex is shown upon the lotus flower. The material 
is of traijslucent green feldspjir 

Fig. 47H4 represents seals, a cj'Hnder, and two tablets of the 
ancient Assyrians. 

The materials for sealing in ancient times were terra-sigillaris 
(a kind of clay), cement, paste, was, and lead. 

King Ahab affixed his seal to the death-warrant of Naboth, 
899 B c. 

Impressions on lead were attached to Saxon documents. 




Wax was first used on documents about 1213. 

Magna Chartais se iled with white wax. In 1445, red wax was 
used in England, 'i'avernier mentions the use of gum-lac in 
Surat. A (Jerman recipe of three centuries since recommends 

Fig 4784. 




■JHI '.*'/''>v'. 


Si^H '^-f*..'-!. 

jkjTj '•'-»'''•,! 


!«.'.'' t '• ' 














;'.'•'.'. • ' 


i-'-- ••'.;■■ 





Seat-Engraver^ s Lathe. 

plate, whose lower edge is beneath the level of the 
water in the tar-well. See Dip-pipe, page 705. 

Seal-en-grav'er's Lathe. A table hollowed 
out at one side, 

and having a Fig. 4785. 

treadle connected 
with the shaft of 
a pulley, which 
has belt connec- 
tion with the 
quill of the en- 
gine a, fastened 
on its upper sur- 
face, fc is a de- 
vice for holding 
the tools, and near 
it is a cap for con- 
taining diamond- 
powder paste. See 


Sea 1-e n- 
grav'ing. Seal - engraving was very common in 
ancient Babylon and other cities of Mesopotamia of 
that era. 

The materials were amethyst, carnelian,_ rock-crys- 
tal, agate, bloodstone, chalcedony, onyx, jasjier, ser- 
pentine, pyrites, etc. 

The stones of Ethiopia, used for arrow-heads by 
the contingent from that country in the army of 
Xerxes, are spoken of as "the kind used for engi-av- 
ing seals." — Hep.odotus, Vll. 69. 

Gems, precious stones, glass, and other hard sub- 
stances which do not admit the ajiplica- 
tion of tools with cutting edges, are en- 
graved either in relief or in intaglio by 
means of small revolving wheels charged 
on their edges w ith fine abrasive powders 
and lubricated with oil or water. The 
object to be engraved is a]iplied to the 
lower edges of the wheels by the fingers, 
and is turned about during the process, 
so as to expose every part of the device 
successively to the action of the little 
wheels, which gradually produce small ^ 
hollows and grooves that are, in section, ^ 
nearly counterparts of the sections of the 
tools employed in their formation. ' 

The wheels have a great variety of sizes 
and shapes, and are, in conjunction with 
the abrading powders, the only means Wkeei-H,afi. 
employed to produce the device. 

For engraving hard stones, the wheels are made 
of iron and charged with diamond powdei-, and aie 
generally lubricated with oil of brick, and tlie sur- 
faces are polished by means of copper wheels charged 
with rottenstone and watei'. 

For engraving glass, similar but larger tools of 
copper, charged with emery-powder and olive-oil, 
are employed, and the polishing is eifected with 
leaden tools charged with immice-powder and 

The wheels, called /o-i/a (n to *:, Fig, 47871. have long, coni- 
cal stems fitting into the hollow mandrel or ir"" of » *"»"" 
lathe-head or engine (Fig. 

Fig. 47 

Assyrian S^ais, Cylinder, and Tablets. 

pare resin, with cinnabar, lampblack, smalt, white lead, or 
orpiment, according to the color de>iired. 

An early specimen of sealing-wax is on a letter, August .3, 
1.5.54, from " Gerard Hermann '' to " P. H. Von Dann," in 
Germany. See SEALtNQ-WAX. 

2. (Gas-vmrlcs.) A water-trap joint, as in gas- 
works, where the gas is drawn or forced beneath a , steel, about 2 inches long and i 

4786), mounted on a fcible, 
which is hollowed out in front, 
and has a light treadle for turn- 
ing the engine with a steady 
motion. The lathe-head / has 
a conical cap to prevent access 
of dust, and for steadying the 
hand of the operator. It con- 
tains a pulley tn , through the 
hollow bearing- of which the 
quill pa.«ses. The rjuill is of 

Fig. 47 

Heat-Ensraver's W/'teeis. 




Incb in diameter, and has a longitudinal groove, into which 
a feit-ier on tiie tool tits. It is a pirt of the latue, Fi^. 478o. 

The general sb ipe of the tool is that of a disk ronndel on the 
ejges. For cutting fine lines, the edge is sometimes made 
almost a-s thia as tout of a knife, but for some purposes the tool 
it mule n0J.rly spUerical. Tne tools with rounded edges cut 
more rapi lly, anj are used for removing the bulk of too ma- 
terial, w.iile those with Hatter edges are employed for smooth, 
ing tae surfi-^. To prevent the stem from interfering with 
the action of the tool in this, it is made tapering. The 
tools seldom exceed ' « of an inch in diameter, and are mitde jia 
small ad ' im of an inch. Their surfaee-t must be smooth, as 
aiiy ir.-egul irity ten.l^ to chip o.T pieces of toe stone. The dia- 
mond po.vJer is mixed into a p.Lste with oil, is kept iu a 
b.ix, and i^ applied to the edge of the tool as require.!, being 
moistened from to time with oil of brick or sperm oil to 
k.nip it fro.n drying on the tool. 

Toe stones are s laped to their general form by the lapidary, 
and are frequently set befjre being engr-ivel : if set, they are 
ifi-e.'teJ in a notched piece of cork or bimboi; if otherwise, 
tnev are cemented to a woolen hi'idle. If tne surface is hard 
an 1 polislied, it i^ roughened by rubbing on a steel plate 
en irged with diamond powder and oil ; if soft, on a leaden plate 
wi'.a emery. The outline of the design ii sketched on the stone 
wit 1 a brass point, and the surface within this outline is sunk; 
the det-iils are then sketche I a, id sunk in succession. 

A lens is mounted on the stand, t'lrougi wiich the engraver 
watches tue progress of his work, occasion illy ta'iing a proof 
with blue modeling clay, or a composition of beeswax and fine 
charcoal powder 

Seal'ing. 1. (Building.) Securing an object in 
a wall or other surface by means of mortar or cement. 

2. (Hijdraulics.) Preventing flow or retlux of air 
or gas in a pipe by means of carrying the end of the 
inlet or exit pipe below the level of the liquid. See 
S:':.\i, ; Seal-imi'E ; Dip-i'ipe, Fig. 1660. 

SaaVing-press. See SE.A.t,-PKESs. 

Seal'ing-wax. A compojition for securing let- 
ter.-* and packets. 

Bitumen from .\sia was used among the Egyptians 
and lioium.s. Pipe-clay, or a cement of pitch, wax, 
piaster, and fat, was also used. 

Sealing-waxes made of resin, and colored with 
vnrinilioii, lampblack, white-lead, or orpiment, were 
m tde in Europe in the sixteenth century. The art 
see'ns to have been derived by the Portuguese from 
India, and to have reached the rest of Europe 
through Spain. It was long known as Spanish 
•m ir. 

Sealing-wax has a resin for its basis, and has no 
wax in its composition ; but as it took the place of 
wax as a material for sealing documents, the old 
name was retained. 

The best is made of shellac and Venice turpen- 
tine, coIore<i by vermilion or ivory black. 

The great otficial seals of England, Scotland, and 
India are naade of different colors respectively, and 
of various ingredients, and a great fuss is made 
a')o It it. 

The great seal of England is made according to a 
reei|)e preserved by the Lord Chancellor, and it 
mikes excellent grafting-wax, a-s the writer knows 
by experiment. It comes rather high for the pur- 
]io ;(!. 

The following is a good recipe: — 

Melt 4 pounds of shellac : 1 pound of Venice turpentine ; 3 
\>t uni^ of vermilion Incorporate by stirring, weigh into por- 
tions, a id roll into sticks. Polish by exposure to a charcoal fire. 

Co union sealing-wax consists of resin, turpentine, red-lead. 

A', the Vienna Exposition were shown small sticks of vari- 
ously colored sealing-wax, tipped with an inflammable coin- 
pouni, waich, when ignited by friction, burns and fuses the 
wax, permitting it to be nseil very conveniently, without wast- 
ing or dropping, as is usually the case. The quantity in each 
stick is su.ficient for one common or two small seals Ooin- 
inenting on this, the " Technologist " save that the device is 
by no means ne.v, being even older than the invention of fric- 

Seal-lock. A lock provided with a seal wliicli 
must lie ruptured in the act of unfastening, and 
which tlius indicates the fact in case of its being im- 
properly opened or tampered with. 

In Fig. 4788, the paper seal is held down upon 


the plate through which the key F'K. *V88. 
is to pass to reach the tumbler, 
by a sluitter hinged at one end, 
and, when closed, fitting within a 
raised frame upon the lock-plate ; 
the shutter has a hook projecting 
from its free end, which is grasped 
I by a projecting portion of the 
tumbler at the same instant that ' 
another portion of the same tum- 
bler engages with the nose of the 
, hasp. 

The lock-bolt has two catches 
which simultaneously engage with 
or disengage from the has]) and from the seal-cover, 
so that a seal cannot be removed from the lock with- 
out unlocking the same. 

In later locks of this kind variegated glass is em- 
ployed in making the seals. These are cut into 
squares J or | inch in diameter, each containing a 
letter and number, a photograph having been pre- 
viously taken of the sheet, and the photograph is 
also divided into corresponding S()uares. 

The keyhole of the lock is covered by a sliding 
plate which receives a seal and pushes it into posi- 
tion over the keyhole. The plate is held by a spring- 
catch, whicli may be released by a stud on the key, 
allowing the plate to be slid back to expose the key- 
hole, without moving the seal with it. When once 
in place the seal cannot be removed without breaking 
it, whicli must necessarily be done to obtain access 
to the keyhole. 

In case the lock has been opened in any way, and 
an attempt made to conceal the fact by inserting a 
fresh seal, it is at once detected by a comparison 
with the photograph of the original, which may be 
forwarded to the person who is to receive the ]iack- 
age. Locks of tliis kind have been employed on 
freight-cars, mail-bags, and for custom-house and 
various other purposes. 

Seal-pipe. {Gas.) A jiipe whose inlet or exit 
is beneath the surface of the water in a hydraulic 
main to prevent reflux of gas. A Dip-pipe, Fig. 

Seal-press. A press for imprinting an inscrip- 
tion or device on pa- 
per or jilastic ma- 
terial. In tile exam- 
ple, the lu'ndle de- 
presses the seal by 
means of a cam, and 
is thrown up by a 

A fly between the 
die and the bed pie- 
vents the surround- 
ing parts of the jiaper 
from receiving an im- 

Seal-skin. The 
skin of the seal is 
light, but of a close 
texture, and makes 
a vei-y dense, heavy 
leather. It is made 
into black enameled 
leather for ladies' 
shoes, for hunting Seal-Pfess. 

.and rilling boots and 

knapsacks. The pelt is also largely applied for caps 
and fur clothing. The long hairs are pulled out, 
leaving the short, fine, soft fur, which is thick on the 
skin ; after which the fur is dyed. 

Seam. 1. (Shipwrighling.) The space between 




two planks of a ship's skin, filled with oakum by 

2. {Fabric.) The junction of two widths of fabric 
united by sewing. 

3. (Mininy.) a. A narrow rein or layer. 
b. A horse-load. 

Seam-ham'mer. (CoppcrsmUhing.) A creasing- 
hammer for Hatteiiing seams and joints. 

Seam'iag-ma-chine'. A machine for forming 
the joints at the edges of sheet-metal plates. In that 
shown, Fig. 4790, this is effected by placing the 
work on a fornier at the top of a mandrel in the 

Fig. 4790. 


horizontilly adjustable shaft a and bringing down 
upon it the rotating head 6, jourualed in a casing, 
the upper part of which is hinged, on top of the 
standard c. A screw d forces the head tightly down 
on the seam, and by turning the handle c it is caused 
to rotate, carrying with it the former/, pressing the 
two parts hrmly, and closing the seam. See also 
Double-seaming Machine ; Roof-seaming Ma- 

In Fig. 4791, when the cylindrical part of the 
can is formed and the flange turned upon the bot- 
tom, the seam is completed by the grooved rotary- 
Fig. 4791. 


roller A and adjustable rotary pressure-head E. The 
pressure-head is drawn downward by a treadle and 
raised by a spring. 

In Fig. 4792, the bottom of a pan or other vessel 
is struck up between the dies a b, and united to 
the body by a single pressure between two rollers of 
proper shape to close the seam, forming the joint j 
shown at c. Other methods of performing this oper- 
ation, and the seams produced thereby, are seen at ! 
de f ghi k. See also Stamplng-machine ; Strik- 

Seaming Sheet-Melai Ware. 

Fig. 4793 is another form of seaming-mm-lii 
which the upper 

nc, m 

axis, carrying the 
flanging-roller I, 
is depressed by 
turning the hand- 
screw r, depress- 
ing the tin plate 
into the gi-oove of 
the roller d. The 
axis c is then 
turnedbythe han- 
dle A'' spinning up 
the edge of the 
tin plate as it 
passes between 
the two rollers. 

S eam'in g- 
tool. A tool for 
joining or work- 
ing the edges of 
sheets of metal. 

Fig 4793. 

Tinman's Seajnin^. Machine. 




Fig. 4794. 

Sfaming-Tool foT Pans. 

Fig. 4794 i.s a 
machine lor 
deHecting the 
bottoms of 
vessels maile 
The inverted 
pan is laid 
upon a disk 
which has a 
flat central de- 
pression and a 

flange ; against the edge of the latter the bottom of 
the pan is deflected by the rotary head. 

Fig 4795. 

2. (Shoemaking.) A tool for flattening Fig- 4797 
the seams of boots, shoes, or harness. 

Sear. (Fire-arms.) The pivoted piece 
in a gnn-lock, whicli enters the notches of 
the tumljler to hold the hammer at full or 
half cock, and is released therefrom by pull- 
ing the trigger in the act of firing. 

The half-cook notch is made so deep that 
the sear c;innot be withdrawn by the trigger. 

Search'er. 1. (Sunjical.) An instrument for 


Fig 4798. 

Tool and Holder for soldering Seams of Sheet-Metal Ware. 

Fig. 4795 is a devi<'e for seaming sheet-metal cans. 
The metallic cylindiical former receives the sheet- 
metal cylinders to be soldered ; an adjustable solder- 
troiigli clamps the suture, and a soldering-iron passes 
aloni,' to complete the operation. 

Seam-lace. (Fabric.) A narrow stuff used by 
oari'iai^i'-tnukcrs to cover seams and edges. 

Seam-press'er. 1. (Husbandry.) A heavy 
roller to flatten newly plowed land. 

2. (Tailoring.) A sadiron or goose, to flatten 

Seam-roll'er. (Boot-waking.) A burnisher, or 
r'lblicr. for Mattcnin;.; down the edges of leather where 
two thicknesses are .sewn together. Machines for 
.sreiui-rolling have a jack or holder for the boot-leg 
ami a rci-iproc;\tiiig rubber to flatten the .seam. 

Seam-rub'ber. The roller is attached by the 
curved spring to a sliding bar, which is recipro<:ated 
in ways in the cross-head through suitable gearing 


eommuuicatiug with the rotary shaft and pinion. 
The .seam to be j)ressed or rubbed is adjusted over 
the longer arm of the cross-heail beneath the roller. 

Seam-set. 1. (Tin-u-orkinij.) A punch used by 
tinuuMi fin' closing the seams ]irepared on a hatchet 
stake. (See Stakk.) The face has a groove which 
shuts down the edges, usually upon a wire. 

Lithotomy- Searcher. 

feeling after urinary concretions. It jiartakes of the 
character of a catheter, a douche, and a 
forceps. The staff is a cannula. The bent 
ends are joined in introducing the in.stru- 
ment into the urethra, and are separable to 
grasp the stone. Through the stem may be 

introduced liquids to wash out the bladder. 

2. A kind of probe used in examining a liorse's 

3. (Ordnance.) An instniment used for examin- 
ing the bore of a gun. It is attached to a stafl', and 
has steel points pressed outward by springs, so as to 
enter cavities, if any exist, when pushed in and 
drawn out and tinned around in the bore. 

Sear'ing-ir'on. A farrier's iron for cauterizing. 

Sear-spring. The spring which causes the sear 
to catch ill tlic notch of the tumbler. 

Sea'son-ing Tub. (Bakery.) The trough in 
which tlie dough is .set apart to rise. 

Seat. 1. (MaeliiiLcry.) The part on wliich 
another thing rests, as a valve-seat. 

2. (Saddlery.) a. The broad part of a saddle, on 
which the rider sits. 

b. The top piece on a gig saddle. 

3. (Furniture.) The flat portion of a chair or 
sofa, to support the 

person. Fig 4799. 

Reversible seats 
are used for concert 
and scliool rooms, 
for railway cars and 
in .someother places. 
The seat is usually 
fixed and the back 
connected to .seg- 
ments, which are 
pivoted to the arms, 
the pivots forming 
the centers of oscil- 
lation when ad- 

4. The lower or 
fixed plate of a pair 
of bellows. 

5. (Ordnance.) That part of the bore of a cham- 
bered piece of ordnance at which the shell rests 
when rammeil home. 

Sea-Tvall. (-Hydraulic Engineering.) A revet- 
ment along a line of coast, or the bank of a water- 

A sea-wall may form one or more sides of a har- 
bor, as in the ease of the Heptastadium of Alex- 
andria, the moles of the Pireus and Rhodes, of 
t'ivita Veechia, O.stia, and Antiuni, as well as those 
of many modern ports, especially in Europe, whose 
small rivers afford but narrow refuges. 

The Roman embankments of Effex and I.incolnstiire, in 
England, were steep mounds of eartla, defended by rows of 

Reversible Seat. 




piles, the intervals between the rows being filled up with i 
chatk. I 

Modern embankments on the estuary of the Thames consist : 
of three strata. The rise of tide is 10 feet, and the lower or 
main portion of the work is made with a ba--e of 5. to 1 vertical 
The top width of this portion is 20 feet, and on it rests the out- 
burst biink, 5 feet high and 8 feet wide at top ; having a slope 
of 1.^ to 1 ; thirdly, the stvash bank, 2^ feet high, and the same 
width lit top. 

The euibankmeots are pitched with ptone on a soUd facing of 
clay, in positions much exposed, while in others the surface is 
covered with clay and gravel where it is washed by the water, 
t'ae upper slope "being turfed or protected by a growth of coueh 
gra5.s, r.iy grass, or lucerne. 

Shore defenses are of four kinds : — 

1 constructions which break the force of the waves 
before they re;ich the sliore- 

2. Those which consolidate ami elevate the shore itself, so as 
to imiibk' it to resist the action of tbe waves. 

3. Tho'B which make or assist the accumulation of sand or 
shingle upon the .shore. 

4. fermaneiit breakwaters, which act as islands in the ofiBng 
ami exclude the waves. 

Of the first description icere the cones of Ces.sart, placed oflf 
Cherbourg. Being destroyed; a breakwater of coursed masonry 
on a bank of pi^rre perdue wa.s substituted. 

Of the same description also are the moored crates of timber, ■ 

through whose interstices the water passes, the timbers break- I 

ing the force of the waves See Bre\kw\ter. ! 

Of the second dt-scription are the dikes of Holland and of j 

France. Thei* are sea-ivnllSt and belong to this article 

Of the third de- | 
Fig. 4800. scription are groins 

or timber erections, 
which are common 
on the sandv coasts 
of England and 
Fmnce. See Groin. 
The works of Br^- 
m ntier in the 
Landes of Bordeaux 
are also of this char- 
acter, though they 
are rather those of 
the planter than the 
constrmtor. His de- 
vices were eminently I 
worthy of the en- | 
gineer on the prin- 
ciple of Leupold's 
maxim, — 

'' Artis est natu- 
ram imitare." 

Of the fourth de- 
scription are the 
solid breakwaters of 
Plymouth. Cher- 
bourg, Cette, at the 
mouth of the Dela- 
ware, Buflalo, and 

Sea-walls are made 
in many places to 
protect harbors or to 
save the land from 
When faced with 
coursed masonry, 
they may have the 
form shown at B. 

a is an earthen 
embankment ; 6, a 
solid wall or core of 
puddle ; c, a facing- 
wall of masonry ; d, 
the high-water level 
of the sea or bay ; 
and fj the natural 
bed. The form of 
the front wall must 
be adapted to resist 
the action of the 
waves, and the em- 
bankment must 
have nn internal slope, according to the nature of the materials 
of whirh it is composed ; for ordinary materials, a base of H to 
a perpendicular hight of 1 will insure the necessary stability 
and firmness. 

If the entire embankment be formed of loose stones, with oc- 
casional facing only oflaid masonry, as in the case of the cele- 
brated breakwater at Plymouth, a form of less steepness must 
be adopted for the sea-face of the embankment. 

j1, Fig. 4S0O, is a section of the Plymouth (England) broak- 
v/atcr. The line a a shows the level of high-wnrer spring-tiiles ; 
b b, low-water spriag-tides ; c c, original bottom^ var^ iug from 

Sea Hal ^ 

A, Plymouth breakwater. 
By tea/-dike with f icing wall and core. 
C D, inclosure of Zuid Plas, near Rot- 
terdam, Holland. 

jE", polder bank, Holland. 
F, Havre sea-wall. 

40 to 45 feet below low-water mark: rf, the foreshore: f, sea- 
slope ; /, top, 45 feet wide. The mass of the work is (■on;posed 
of limestoue, from the Overton quarries, distant 4 miles from 
the spot. The stone is rai-^^ed in blocks varying from i to 10 
tons and upward in weight, which are promi.-cuously tlirown 
into the sea, care being taken that the greater number «i the 
large blocks are thrown upon the outer or sea slope, aiid thitt 
the whole are so mixed together as to render the mass a.« solid 
as possible, the rubbish of the quarry and screenings of lime 
being Hung in occa^Monally to as.^^ist the consolidation of the 
materials. The form of the outer slope, below low-wyter line, 
has been effected by the action of the sea, and is JLStertained to 
be at from 3 to 4 feet of base tol of perpendicular altitude. Kum 
low water upward tbe work has been set artifitiallj and indii td 
atS to 1. The inner slope next tbe land isnearl.ii 2 fiet ba^e to 
1 altitude. The foreshore, shown at d, which is from 30 to TO 
feet wide at different parts of the work, rises from the toe of the 
slope to a hight of 5 feet above low water at its cuter extremity, 
and serves to break the waves before they reach the main \.ork ; 
thus diminishing their force, and, at the same tine, preventir % 
the recoil of the wave from undermining the ba>e of tbe f^lope. 

No other country in the world has so stern a contest tu wage 
with the waters for its existence as Holland. Many thousands 
of square miles of tillable land have been reclaimed, and aie 
only maintained by vigilance in the pref^ervation of the dvvts 
or banks of sand which oppose the waters of the ocean and the 
large e.-tuaries and rivers of the country. The conformation of 
these is indicated by the illustrations, one of which (D) shows 
a sea-wall, and the other ( C) one of the subonliuate embiink- 
ments, whereby the interior water-courses are lifted abr^e il e 
level of the country they tniveree. 

The materials of the Dutch sea-walU or (//if5 vary with the 
facilities, t-ituation, materials, exjiosure, slope, etc. 

Piling ; double sheet-piling, with interpo.-ed puddle or rubble; 
earthen embankments, with or witLout walls of puddle, to ren- 
der thim water-proof; bundles of reeds, fasiincs, or gabions, 
laid in cross tiers with strata of toil, and secured by strikes or 

Anothtr form of sea-wall E is extensively ufed in the banks 
of the polders of Holland. It consists of a double row of sheet- 
piling inclosing ^pvddte dike of retentive soil. The foot is pro- 
tected by an apron of rubble. 

At Havre an embankn.ent of earthwork is formed behind a 
vertical inclosure of sheet-pi. ing, as shown at F. The ]iiles of 
the face are fastened by diagonal ties to the lear row of piles. 
The foot i^ protected by rubble or coursed masonry, according 
to the character of the ground, the exposure to currents, etc. 

In Fig 4801, j1 .Biliufrtnites the sea-wall now being built along 

Fig. 4801. 




the water-front of New York (Mty. Beyond tbin, piers will pro- 
ject into tlie stream In tbe execution of the work the old 
woodun docks are removed, and the bi-d of tlio river drudged 
until solid bottom is reiiclied. Piles are then driven, for the 
width of 27 ftet, sa.vfd olT to a uniform depth below low water, 
and the interstit-ef between t.ieni tilled up to within two feet of 
their top.^ with f*toiio thrown over from barges. Upon this a 
layer of eonorete is spread by divers to the level of the tops ol 
the pile-(. The ronerete is composed of 1 part of Portland < em- 
ent, '2. sand, 4 crushed stone ; and, when it has set, blocks of 
the same are laid upon it to form the wall. These blocks are 
molded ; the larger blocks desi^nei for the front of the wall 
average 3fi tons in weight, and batter 2A inches to the foot on 
tho outer or water si Ic ; square, smaller blocks are used for back- 
ing. The upper part of the wall has a granite coping whose ex- 
po.''od portions are dressed. 

The sides of the large t'oncret« blocks are grooved to receive 
achiin by which it is lo-.vered from a derriek ; the setting is 
done by divers. Tho wall extends into the river to various dis- 
tances, — at Christopher Street 250 feet, — beyond the present 
front : the intermediate space will be filled in with rubbish and 
pwel. The work, when completed, is designed to extend 
around nearly the whole circumference of Manhattan Island. 
At present (November, 1874) operations are in progress at the 
Uattery, at the foot of Canal Street, and at the foot of Christo- 
pher Street ; all on the North River side. See Floati>g-der- 
rick; W'hvrf. 

Sea-way Meas'ur-er. {Nautical.') A self- 
registt'iiiii^ log iuventt;il by Smeaton. See Log. 

Se-bil'la. (Mn.'ionri/.) A wooden bowl, to bold 
tbe .sand and water used in sawing or grinding 
niaride, fto. 

Sec'ond-coat. (Plastering.) The second layer 
of pUisteriiig on lath. 

It is ealled ^ct in two-coat work, and floatiiuj in 
three-coat work. 

Sec'ond-cut File. A file whose teeth have a 
gr;ide of coars(Miess between the bastard and smooth. 
Tiie grade.s are : — 
Rough. Second-cut. 

Middle-cut. Smooth. 

Bastard . Dead-smooth. 

The nn^le of the chisel in cutting is about 7° from 
tbe pt'rp;'ndi('ular. 

Sec'ond Fut'tock. (Shipbuildimj.) A franie- 
titnber scarfed on the end of the futtock-tinibers. 
The fiUtocks are a series of lengths of timber, which 
unite to form the frame, beginning at the Jiooi'-tim- 
bers and terminating at the top-timbers. 

Sec're-ta-ry. {Printing.) A font of type in 
imitation of an engrossing hand. 

Itti- li- ct ^'ica, yecVetoAu- tJiiKe. 

2mti- li- ct xn- 


gJ Ivud- lA g; taLtaa. 



Se-cret'iiig. A process by which the hairs of 
liiuv mill ralibit skins are rendered fit for felting. 
Tlie skin is laid upon a table, and the hair side 
brushed with a solution of inei(uirv, 32 ; aquafortis, 
500 ; water, 300. Tlie skins aie then .stoved, caus- 
ing till' retraction and curling of the hairs. 

Sec'tion. (PriifUnij.) The geometrical projec- 
tion on a plane surface of that portion of an object 
lying beyond an imaginary intersecting plane. 

Sections are loiKjit.udinal, transverse, vcHiml, hori- 
zontal, ohlique, cen- 

Fig. 4302. 

line or line of construction 

tral, lateral, etc., ac- 
cording to position 
and direction. 
- pj 2. (Sarvcyinq. ) A 
.ijj view showing the in- 
equalities of the gi-ound 
in reference to a buse- 

3. {Machiiierij.) A detachable portion of a nm- 
cliine or instrument when made up of a number of 
jiarts : e. ij. one of the triangular knives ; a row 
which is attached to the cutter-liar of a harvesting- 

Sec'tion-al Boat. A boat made up of several 
independent sections, or, in fact, several iinais, 
jointed together at their ends, .so as to conform to 
sudden bends in the channel, or diseonnectid, so 
that each may be separately conveyed over a )iorlage. 
Boats of this kind were constructed for river navi- 
gation in Russia by General Sir Samuel, 

Fig. 4803. 

W' ^'^^ 

Sectional Boat. 

toward the close of the last century, and have been 
employed on the Morris and Essex Canal in New 
Jer-sey. See Fig. 2t)B5, page 1176. 

Sectional boats for canal or navigation subject to 
occasional interruption by bends or rapids are de- 
scribed in King's En','li.sli patent, 1S02. They are 
specifically intended for on inclined plane-s, as 
substitute for locks when* suiiimit witer is scni'ee. 

Bond's bout is mnde in two portions, united b.v )i joint neir 
the niid-Ieiigtll ; eacll iias u bullthe^d. po as to Im Fcp.-irnti-ly 
buoynnt : luid one i.s somewluit pii alii-r tlinn the otlier, so iis to 
park in tlie larf|:er for transportation when en'pty 

Ini^alls, January 3, 1S6-5. The bo;tts in-e lii-Iied togctlier ron. 
scciitivoiy by joints at their ends, which permit a c.eit;. in amount 
of Hexiou 

Heath, November 1.5, lSli4. The abutting ends of the t-.vo 
sections Jeave a recess between thcin. The end" of eacli 
project and lap over the deik of the other. The fci lions are 
drawn together by a windlass and rope, one of which is madj 
fast to a " dead-eye " arrangement on tile other. 

Sec'tiOD-al Dock. {Hiidranh'c Emiinr.crimi .) 
The sectional dock is intended to lift a ves.sel above 
the surface of the water, in order that its bottom 
may be cleaned. 

It consists of a series of caissons connected with a 
platform, which is introduced helow the vessel, ami, 
the water being jiuniped from these caissons liy 
means of steam-engines, the vessel is raised by their 
flotation. The apparatus is towed to any place 
where it is neces.sary to ap|ily it. 

Sec'tion-al Steam-boiPer. (Steam.) One 
built uji of portions .secured together in ^uch a way 
that the size may be increased by addition of sec- 
tions ; the working capacity being the sum of the 
whole, and the individual paits being .separately re- 
movable for re)iair or substitution of new pieces. 


Sec'tion-beam. (Warping, etc.) A roller which 
receives the yarn from the sjiools, either for the 
dressing-machine or for the loom ; in the latter case 
it is a ynrv-lvnm. See W.\rping. 

Sec'tion-Un'er. A device for ruling parallel 
lines. It comprises a triangle a, which is held 




against the side of a straight-edge i by a thumb- 
screw and a spring beneath the plate d, pressing 
against the under sides of both tlie ruler and trian- 
gle. The under side of the ruler is covered with 
rubber cloth, which, by its adhesion to the paper, 
prevents ready displacement, and the triangle is 
caused to advance ecjual intervals by depres.sing the 
button e, causing a pawl on the ruler to move tlie 
triangle a distance determined by the previous ad- 
justment of the pawl. This adjustment is effected 
by means of a screw over the spring, which throws 

Fig. 4801. 

rolling lever, which has the shape of a sector of a 
circle, a portion bounded by two radii and an arc. 

It is used as a gear-wheel in machines when an 
inii)ulse of moderate length is required, and has a 
reciprocating rotary motion. 

In the illustration shown, — as an example of the use of a 
sector-wheel, — it is embodied in a form of baling-pre.«s, in 
which the followers //are coincideutly advained or retracted, 
to press the bale or open for a new charge, iis the nia) be. 
The right and left hand screws of the shall i operate cogged 
sectors / /', whose o.^cillation actuates the toggles h ?n m' hy 
which the followers are mutually approached to press the bay, 
etc., into the compass of a bale. 

Fig 4806. 


^B-r ^, _ 

( '" '• 


Section- Luur. 

up the pawl after each depres- 
sion, and permits parallel and 

enuidibtaut lines to be ruled at 

various distances apart, at the 

will of the operator, as shown at/;/. 

Sec'tor. A mathematical instrument used for 

laying down plans, measuring angles, etc. It has 
two legs, united by a rule-joint, 
Fig. 4805. and graduated. The .scales put 

tipon sectors are divided into 
single and double : the former 
has a line with inches divided 
into eighthsor tenths ; a second, 
into decimals containing 100 
parts ; a third, into chords ; the 
fourth has sines ; the lifth, tan- 
gents ; the si.Kth, rhombs ; the 
seventh and eighth have lati- 
tudes, hours, etc. 

The double scale contains a 
line of lines ; a line of chords ; 
third, a line of sines ; fourth, 

tangents to 45° ; fifth, secants ; sixth, tangents above 

45°; seventh, polygons. 

In surveying, the instrument is mounted on a leg 

or tripod, and the bob depending from the axis of 

the rule-joint indicates the station exactly. 

2. {AslroHoniy.) An instrument of long radius 
and small arc, as the Dip-sector and Zenith-sec- 
tor (which see). 

Graham made the seclor by which Bradley detected 
aberration and the instrument which the French 
Academicians carried to Lapland to measure an are 
of the meridian. 

3. (Gearing.) A toothed gear shaped like the 
sector of a circle, its face forming the arc. Its action 
is reciprocating, and the pitch of its teeth is not 
necessarily an aliqnot part of the circumference. 

Sec'tor-al Ba-rom'e-ter. Invented by Ma- 
gellan. The hight of the mercurial column is 
found by the angle at which it is necessary to in- 
cline the tube, in order to bring the mercury to a 
certain mark on the instrument. 

Seo'tor-cyl'in-der Steam-en'gine. (Steam.) 
An engine whose working-chamber is a sector of a 
cylinder, in which a rectangular piston oscillates to 
and fro like a door on its hinge. The a.xle of oscil- 
lation is a rocking-shaft to which the piston is fixed ; 
and by means of an arm projecting from one of the 
outer ends of that shaft and a connecting-rod, motion 
is communicated to the crank. 

Sec'tor-gear. See Sector, 3 ; Sector-wheel. 

Sec'tor-wheel. (Gearing.) a. A wheel, or 

The motion derived from the worms on the shaft is imparted 
by means of three sector-gears, at each end. to toggles whit h 
move in unison, and are pivoted to different parts of the fol- 
lower, so as to make it move squarely in the box. 

b. A cog-wheel whose perimeter is formed of sec- 
tors of varying radii, imparting a vaiiable motion to 
a wheel of counterpart form. A variable wheel. 

Sec'troid. (Areliiteeture.) A tei-m applied to 
the surface of two adjacent groins in a vault. 

Se-dan' ; Se-dan'-chair. An upright convey- 
ance for one person, much in vogue during the last 
century. It was usually carried by two men, by 
means of a pole on each side. 

A similar contrivance, tenned sella, was used by 
the Romans under the Empire ; the poles (as.ieres) 
were removable. 

The name is derived from Sedan, in France, where 
they were originally made. Their introduction into 
England dates back to 1581. 

Sir Sanders Duncomb obtained a patent or mo- 
nopoly of their manufacture for 14 years. 

In the reign of James 1. the Duke of Bnckingham 
incurred great odium by using one, rei]uiring "free 
Britons to perform the work of bea.sts." 

'* Come in a sedan from the other end of the town.'' — Pepys's 
Diary. 1667. 

The reigns of Queen Anne and the first Georges seem to have 
been the golden age of the sedan-chair. 

Sed'i-ment-col-lect'or. (Steam.) A device 
to prevent the deposition of sediment on the bottom 
of boilers. An inverted hollow cone, whose mouth 
is a little above the water surface of the boiler. It 
communicates with the rest of the boiler by triangu- 
lar openings near its upper edge. Scum and tem- 
porarily floating crystals of .salt and solid matter 
passing into the comparatively still water of the 
cone, settle to the bottom, or apex of the cone, and 
are thence blown off. 

Scott's (English) patent, Fig. 4807. 

1S27, consists of a vessel or 
series of vessels placed lon- 
gitudinally of the boiler, and 
acting as a bottom to re- 
ceive the deposit. The water | 
within these remains tranquil, 
while that outside may be in a 
state of violent ebullition. 

The upper collector o is a 
cast-iron trough suspended be- Sediment- CoUfcior. 




tween the Hues, niiJ partially or entirely covered 
with one or two cast-iron lids. This catches and 
rctiiins the finer deiiosits whicli lloat near the surface. 
Tlie lower collector b is merely a shallow tray on 
lo'.ii- lef,'s, slightly elevated above the bottom of the 
boiler, which receives the heavier particles deposited. 


Seed-drill. A machine for sowing seed in rows. 
.See (li:.\iN-L)iiii.L ; Skeiiing-machine. 
Seed'er. Fig. 4S0S is a seed-sower for gardens. 
It has a gate to 
Fig. 4808. graduate the rate 

of discharge as the 
implement is drawn 
along in the little 
furrow made by 
pressure of the 
share, or previously 
by means of a hoe. 
See Seei)ING-m.\- 
CHiNE ; Grain- 
drill, etc. 

chine'. (Hus- 
bandry.) An im- 
plement for sowing 
•:.• seed. The term, 

Seeder. in itsgeneral sense, 

may include ma- 
chines for planting in hills, drills, or broadcast, hut 
it is confined more usually to machines for distribut- 
ing seed in drills or broadcast. 

Seceding in Egypt was done upon the mud left by 
the retiring Nile. When Osiris retired within his 
banks, the fertilized ground brought forth, and the 
husbandman who scattered the seed from his basket 

Fig. 4809. 

A native machine used in British India is sub8tantiaily similar. 

We tind drills, butli for seed and manure, mentioned by 
Worlidge in his " Husbandry,'* 1669. 

Evelyn, wiio was one of the founders of the Royal Society of 
England, and who died in 1706. wrote in high commendation of 
a (IriU which was the invention of Don Joseph de Le-scatello, u 
nobleman of Carinthia, in 1663. This consisted of a seed-box, 
having a cylinder .uruished with wheels to distribute the seed, 
and dropped the seed regularly in the furrow. It was fastened 
behind the stilts of the plow. The inventor was rewarded there- 
for by the Emperor Rudolphus II. Ue afterward took out a 
patent, in Spain ! 

It was recommended as saving t/^ of the seed otherwise neces- 
sary on a given area. The Earl of Sandwich forwarded it from 
Spain to England. 

In 1730, the invention came under the notice of Jethro Toll, 
the inventor of the horseshoe, lie was delighted with the 
suitability of the instrument for his mode of cultivation, and 
its success was thenceforth established. See Grain-drill ; Cul- 
tivator; Uoe; Plow, etc. 

Fig. 4810 is one form of seeding-machine having 
hollow shares 

drawn by drag- Fig- 4810. 

bars, and dropping 
into the furrow the 
seed whicli is uni- 
formly fed from the 
hopper above. 

In Fig. 4811, the 
seed mechanism is 
actuated by the rol- 
ler, which forms the 
eartli into ridges, 
for protection of 
the seed. The rela- Seed-DriU. 

tive vertical posi- 
tion of the parts is adjustable, to regulate the depth 
of planting. The rear rollers cover the seed. See 
also GuAlN-DMLL, Figs. 2278-81, pages 1002-4. 

Fig. 4811. 

Seeding in E^ijpt {from a Pyramid near Memphis), 

was followed by the jilows, the bush-harrow, or hy 
a flock of sheep or goats, whose feet hid the seed be- 
neath the surface of the soil. 

There were three diH'erent modes of seeding grain 
in use among the Romans in tlie times of Varro and 

1 The seed was thrown upon plowed ground and then plowed 

2. The land was ribbed, or, OB we say, listed, and the seed 
drilled hy hand along the top of the ridge. 

8. The land wii.'i listed, the seed sown broadcast, and covered 
by harrowing down the ridges. 

4. Tin seed (such as vetches) was sown broadcast on un- 
plnwed land, and was then plowed in 

The ('hinese have used agrain-drill for ages. At the present 
day their drill consists of a wheelbarrow carrying the seed-hop. 
per, and having throe hollow t^-eth, 'IS inches in length, which 
draw .a furrow int^) which tlie seed drops This machine follows 
the plow, and is itself followed by the roller. See Seeding plow. 


Howard's English grain-drill is driven hy steam, 
sows a land 16 feet wide, and drills and harrows 20 
acres per day. 

plow. A jilow 
with a box, 
which drops or 
scatters seed in 
the furrow or 
on the 
turned earth. 

a is an As- 
sy r i a n )ilow 
from the "black 
stone " of Lord 
Aberdeen. The 
lithic record is 
of the time of 
E.sarhaddon. It 
shows a grain- 
drill, with bowl 
for the seed, 
and a tube to 
lead it into the 

Fig. 4812. 

Orientetl Piotos. 




b is the modern Turkish plow. 

c, the nioileni Arab plow. 

Seed-plant'er. An implement for planting 
seed in lulls. 

Fig. 4813 is a hand implement, to be drawn by 
one horse. The seed-drill has a forward wheel, eun- 
nccting by a crank and rod with the rod-shait, which 


comnuiiiicates by roils with the seed-slides of the 
separate hoppers, which discharge into the seed- 
tubes of the shares. The side-ljars are jiivoted to 
the main frame, and are adjustable laterally by rack- 
bars and a central i>inion. 

Fig. 4814 is a machine for planting in cheek rows, 
so that the held may be cnlti^'ated both ways, in 
hills, instead of only one way, in drills. 

The ground, having been marked out one way, is 
crossed by this machine, and as it reaches each inter- 
section with the previous furrows, the lever is moved 
by the man who rides on the machine, and the seed is 
dropped. Wee l.'uUN-PL.'VNTER, page 627. 

Seed-sow'er. A machine for sowing giain, 
grass or clover seed, broadcast. 

It is properly distinguishable from a grain-drill 
and a corn-planter, the former of which deposits the 

Fig. 4814. 

seeds and the latter the com in hills. In hill, in 
drill, or broadcast are the three modes, and the latter 
h sowing. See CouN-puiNTER ; Guain-pkill. 

See'hand. (Fabric.) A tine muslin of a grade 
between nainsook and mull. 

See'saw Pan. {Sitgar-mannfacturc.) A rock- 
ing )ian or boiler for evaporating saccharine juices. 
See Fig. 1890, page 813. 

Seg^gar; Sag'gar. {Pottery.) An open box of 
clay, which receives articles of 
plastic clay orin the biscuit con- 
dition, and protects them while 
being baked in the kiln. The 
scgijars, with their contents, 
are placed one above another 
in the kiln, the bottom of one 
forming the cover of the one 
below it. See PoTTEKY-KiLN. 

The scggars vary in size and 
shajie with the form and pro- 
[tortions of the contained ware. 

Seggars are made of tire-clay 
and old ground seggars molded 
into the shape required and 
baked. The articles are suji- 
ported in the seggars liy rings, 
ridges, or studs of fire-clay. 
In some cases the pieces rest 
one on another. 

Fig. 4815. 




Fig. 4Rl<i. 


SeeU' Planter. 

Seggars in the Kiln. 

A kiln holds 30,006 average pieces inclosed 
in their seggars, a cylindrical pile of which is 
called a bm>g. 

Fig. 4817 shows seggars for dishes and 
jilates ; they of a series of rings, and 
the plates rest on pins. 

The term is one belonging to the potteries, 
J. and is variously spelt scggar, saggar, sajger, 

Seg-ment'alArch. (Architectnre.) One 
described from a center, and having less or 
more than 180°; usually less. The Washing- 
ton aqueduct bridge, 
built by General 
Meigs, over Cabin 
John Creek, Mary- 
land, consists of a sin- 
gle arch of this kind ; 
it has a span of 220, 
a rise of o7 feet, and 
its span is e.xceeded 
by but one other 
.stone arch in the 
world. See Stoxe 





Fig. 4817. 

Seg-ment'al Valve. A valve wliose .seating 
suifaci; is a purtioii of a ej'limler. In Fij^. -iSlS, the 
segmental valves are connected by link.s whicli enter 
tile slot of tlie stem. The links have rectangular 
holes traversed hy tapering bars having a wedge be- 
tween them which is sniveled in, and adjusted by a 

Fig. 4S18. 

Fig. 1820. 

Segment Gear and Rack. 

guides. In the example, the object is to convert the 
oscillating motion of one shaft into a continuous re- 
volving motion of another shaft. 

Fig. 48;i 

Sf^iiental Vatves/or Steam-Engine, 

temper screw in the end of the stem to adapt them 
to tneir seats. The valve-blocks are also forced to 
their seats by spiral springs. 

Se^'ment-gear. A curved cogged surface, occu- 
pying hut an arc of a circle. Fig. "4819 shows it as 
ap|ilieil to the hay-discharging apparatus of a sulky- 
rake. To discharge the rake, the operator presses 

Fig, 4819. 


Fig. 4822. 

Srs^ment Gear and WTieel. 

his foot upon tlie stop and disengages it from the 
lever, which is then drawn backward by hand to 
raise the teeth. 

Fig. 4820 shows a segment-rack applied to a rack 
on the staff of a dasher which recijirocates in a wash- 

Seg'ment-rack. A cogged surface differing from 
the ordinary r.ack in being curved, so as to oscillate 
upon a center instead of reciprocating in slides or 



Seg'ment-saw. 1. (Wood-wm-king.) a. A 
veneer -saw. One whose active perimeter consists of 
a number of segments attached to a disk or hub. 
The invention of General Sir Sam- 
uel Bentham before 1800. See 

b. A saw which cuts stuff into 
segmental shaiies ; as, for instance. 
Sir Samuel I?entham's saw, in 
whicli the work was guided in an 
arc by a radius arm. A chair-back 
saw. It may be band or jig. 

2. (Surgiail.) A nearly circular 
plate of steel serrated on the edge 
and riveted to a wooden handle (Fig. 2502, page 
1100). It is known as Hey's saw, and is used in 
surgical operations on the bo'nes of the cranium, and 
the metacarpal and metatarsal bones. 

Seg'ment-shell. (Ordnance.) An elongated 
proieetile invented by Sir W. Armstrong. 

The iron body is coated witli lead, and contains a 
number of segments of iron in successive rings, leav- 
ing a hollow cylinder in the center for the bursting- 

The charge bursts on impact or by a time-fuse, and 
scatters the segments in all directions. 

It may be used as case-shot by arranging the fuse 
to explode the .shell on leaving the muzzle. 

Seg'ment-valve. A valve having a seating sur- 
face consisting of a portion of a cylinder. The"valve 




(Fig. 4S23) for gas or water pipes is ailjustud to the 
desired width of opening by means of a bevel- pinion 

Segment- Valve. 

working into a corresponding rack on tlie back of 
the valve. The case has a removable cover enabling 
the working parts to be taken out without disturbing 
the main Jiipe. 

Seg'ment-'wheel. A wheel a part of wliose 
periphery is utilized. In the il- 
Fig. 4824. lustration, the wheel has two 

cogged segmental jiortions, which 
act alternately upon the jiinion, 
giving a slow forward and quick 
reverse motion. 

Seg'ment-Twin'do-wr. (Ai-- 
chitcclare.) A window of seg- 
mental shape. A form of dormer 
or attic window, commoner afore- 
Segment-Wheel. time tlian at present. 

Seine. A large fishing-net. 
Seine-boat. A fishing-boat from which tlie 
seine is cast. 

Seis'mo-graph. An electro-magnetic apparatus 
for registering the shocks and undnlatory motions 
of an earthipiake, 

Seis-mom'e-ter. An instrument for detecting 
earth(iuake shocks and recording their duration. 
The agitation or change of level of a mercurial 
column sets to woi'k a delicate electric apparatus, 
which records the time of the first shock, the inter- 
vals between the shocks, and the duration of each ; 
their nature, whether vertical or liorizontal, the 
ma.xiuuim intensity ; and, in the case of horizontal 
sUock.s, the direction is also shown. The observa- 
tory established by tile Jtalian government on the 
Hank of Mount Vesuvius for watching the indi- 
cations of threatened eruptions is provided with 
instruments of this class, wliich are sufficiently 
sensitive to be affected by any violent shocks occur- 
ring in the great Mediterranean basin. On the 
occasion of a late eruption in tlie Gi'eek archipelago. 
Professor Falmieri was enabled to announce that a 
great disturbance had occurred long before the news 
of the event had reaclii'd Italy. Sliocks occasioned 
by disturbances of Mount Etna are readily observ- 

The eruptions are preceded by earthquakes, in- 
creasing in intensity and frequency for some days 
beforehand, and by irreg\darities in the diurnal 
variations of tlie magnetic needle. 

Seis'mo-acope. An instrument for recording 
the mensuration of the force and duration of earth- 
quakes. A seismometer. 

Seiz'ing. (NmUical.) a. The rope-yarn or stufl' 
used for seizing. 

a, eye seizing. 

b, tliroat seizing. 

c e, round seizing. 
d, seizing secured with reef-knot. 
b. Binding two ropes, or the two parts of the same 
rope, together, by means of smaller stuff. 

Self-act'ing Valve. One moved by the fluid. 

Sel/-Closi7ig Faucet. 


in contradistinction to one moved by the application 
of mechanical devices. 

Self-olos'ing Bridge. A pivot bridge opened 
by canal-boats in passing. Made by Snyder Broth- 
ers, WiUiamspoit, Pa. See jiatents : — 

Schneider and Montgomerv, September 4. 1860 : Seizor, Oc- 
tober 9, 1861 ; Winkler and Berndt, January 19, 1869 ; May 28, 
1872 ; and October 8, 1872. 

Self-clos'ing Fau'cet. A faucet having a valve 
which is held 

down to its seat Fig. 4826. 

by a spring to 
prevent the es- 
cape of liquid, 
and is raised by 
means of a lever 
when the liquid 
is to be drawn 

The valve a 
has an opening 
to receive the 
tail of the lever 
6, by which it 
is raised when a 
li([uid is to be 
drawn ; at oth- 
er times it is held duwn by a spring. 

Self-feed'ing Fur'nace. A magazine furnace 
in which fiesh fuel from a hopper falls into the fur- 
nace as the coal is consumed. 

Self-con-tained' En'gine. An engine and 
boiler attached together complete for working. 
Similar to the portable engine, but without traveling 

Self-re-cord'ing Lev'el. This machine is 
adapted for obtaining a profile or vertical section of 
a line of survey by passing 
over the track. A grade- 

The carriage traverses on 
wheels of known circum- 
ference, and one of these 
is geared to a drum, so as 
to rotate the latter at such 
a rate that a given length 
of the profile paper wrajiped 
thereon will correspond to 
a certain distance traveled. 
The pajier unwinds from one roller and wraps upon 
another, being subjected to- the action of a pencil 
on the pendniuni, which swings toward one end or 
the other of the drum as the carriage ascends or 
descends a hill, only maintaining a central position 
when traveling a "dead-level. The drum can be 
shifted vertically to accord with any required scale. 

Self-reg'is-ter-ing Ba-rom'e-ter. A barome- 
ter provided with devices for automatically regis- 
tering variations of atmospheric pressure. See Ba- 


Self-reg'is-ter-ing Com'pass. An arrange- 
ment by which the compass piiiits a record of the 

Fig. 4827. 

SuTveyOT^s Level. 



course in which the ship is steered. The compass 
carries on its uniler side a number of types, corre- 
sponding with the points oi" the compass. A strip 
of paper, niov(_-d by clock-work, passes under the card 
at tluit side which is next tlie bow of the vessel, and 
bf^tween tlie paper stri[i and tiie card itself is an 
inked type, which also travtds slowly. At certain 
intervals the compass-eanl is tilted so as to bring the 
type which happens to be immediately above the 
paper strip at the time duwn upon the inked type, 
thus marking on the paper the course in which the 
vesselis being steered. The invention of Albini. 

Another .self-recording compass is that of Gordon, 
December 8, 186-3, in which the course of a ship is 
recorded by drop[iing little pellets into boxes. It 
consists of a registering marine log and a compass 
dividetl into compartments for the reception of pel- 
lets, and an ap()aratus for dropping a pellet into one 
of said com()artments whenever the vessel has made 
a certain distance, the delivering-tnbe or portion of 
the said dropping apparatus being so controlled as 
to always ponit in the direction in which the vessel 
is moving through the water. See Maiuneu's Com- 

Self-reg'is-ter-ing Ther-mom'e-ter. One in 

which the indi- 
Fji;. 4828. cations of the 

instrument are 
recorded at. reg- 
ular intervals of 
time. T h e 
needle is at- 
tached to a 
coiled metallic 
ribbon, whose 
expansion and 
contraction by 
change of tiMu-. 
perature oscillate the needle. The independent 
needles are actuated by tliis one, and denote the 
extremes reached. These independent nei'dles have 
tliainb-burrs by which they may be turned. See 

Sel'vage. 1. (Locksmithing.) The edge-plate 
of a lock through which the bolt shoots. 

2. (XauHcuL) A piece of very flexible rope, com- 
posed of yarns not twisted togt^ther, but laid parallel 
and bound with marline. 

3. (Fabric.) The edge or list of cloth, woven so 
as to prevent raveling. 

Sel'va-gee. (iVa/Uical.) A rope or ring made 
by a number of spun yarns laid parallel and secured 
by lashings. It is sometimes used in place of rope, 
being less likely to slip, and is more elastic. 

Sem'a-phore. An apparatus for conveying in- 
formation by visible signs, such as oscillating arms 
or flags by daylight, and by the disposition of lan- 
terns by night. The various combinations may 
serve to indicate the numbers corresponding to cer- 
tain expressions in a tabulated code, or may be era- 
ployed to represent the letters of the alphabet. 

In the prophecy of Jeremiah (588 b. c.), chap. vi. verse 1, 
we find : — 

" ve children of Benjamin, gather yourselves to flee out of 
the niid-st of .lerusalem, auil blow the trumpet in Tekoah. and 
net up a sign of fire in neth-hat-cerem ; for evil appeareth out 
of t'le north, and Rreat di^struction." 

Homer, some 400 years before, had compared the aureola 
which Buri-ounded the head of Achilles to the signals made in 
besieged cities, by fires at night and clouds of smoke by day ; 
and -Esuhylus, more than a century after Jeremiah, using per- 
haps* a poetical license, mikes Agamemnon announce the fall 
of Trov to Clyt^mnestni by beacon-fires, whose rays, darting 
from the Asiatic shore to Lemnos, were repeated from Mount 
Athos, whence the grateful news was in like manner telegraphed 
to Argos. Fire-signala were prepared by Mardooiiu to DOtify 

Self-Registering Thermometer. 

bis master, *' the great king^' Xerxes, then at Sordis, of the 
second taking of Athens. 

At a later period, Polybius describes a semaphoric system im- 
proved by him, in which messuges were traiiwmitled by siH.'lling 
out the words. The letters of the Greek alphabet wejc divided 
into five parts, which were inscribed ou an equal number of 
boards affixed to upright posts between two ualls. The num- 
ber of the post and the number of the letter on each board was 
indicated by the successive exhibition of from one toflvi- torches 
above the wall. The signal in each case, as in modern systems 
of scniaphoric telegraphy, was repeated at the receiving-station, 
to guard against mistakes. 

^'Eiicoa, who lived in the time of Aristotle, invented a method 
of ti'lej^raphiug in which a number of the phrases n.o^-t fre- 
quently occurring in war were written at various elevations 
upon an upright board on a fioat iu a vessel of water. Each 
station was provided with one of these, and at a given signal the 
water was allowed to flow from tlie vessels at each sbition until 
the required message ou the board was on a level with the top 
of the vessel at the transmitting station, when a second signal 
wa.-* made, and the flow of water stopped ; as the apparatus at 
each was precisely similar, the san.e intcription would at this 
moment be exactly on a level with the top of the vessel at both 

Signaling by the waving of flags and lanterns is practiced on 
railroads, and has been embodied into a code capable of great 
variety of expression in the United States Signal Service. 

The Chinese and the ancient Scythians were in tlie habit of 
communicating information by means of fires and pumke, and 
the same practice pievailed within comparatively ntent times 
aniorg the Scottish Highlanders and the inhabitants of the 

From exi--ting indications, fire telegraphy must have been ex- 
teni^ively emplo\edby the ancient nioucd-building race which 
preceded the lndi:ins who inhabited North Auierica when it 
first became known to Europeans. Throughout the West, no- 
tably in the Scioto and Miami A'alleys, mounds of earth thrown 
up in elevated positions are found which were evidently de- 
signed for this purpose. The perinantiit nature of the forti- 
fiiationsand the character of the entombed remains suggest that 
the region was at one tin e inhabilcd by a nation or nations 
more numerous and possessing a higher degree of political or- 
ganization than their successors. 

Fremont speaks of the signal-fires lighted by the Digger In- 
dians and other aborigines inhabiting the margin of the great 
basin inclosed by the Rocky MounUiins and the Sierra Nevada, 
to warn their neighbors of the progress of his party. 

General Custer, in the "Galaxy" for July, 1874, thus de- 
scribes the process : — 

" First gathering an armful of dried grass and weeds, this 
was carried and placed upou tlie highest point of the peak, 
where, everything being iu readiness, the match was apitlied 
close to the ground; but the blaze was no sooner well lighted 
and about to envelop the entire amount of grass collected, than 
Little Kobe coninienred smothering it with the unlighted por- 
tion. This afconiptiihcd, a slender column of gray smoke be- 
gan to a.'^cend perpendicularly. This, however, was not enough, 
as such a signal, or the appearance of such, might be created by 
white men, or it might take its rise from a wmple cump-fire. 

" Little llobe now took his scarlet blanket from his shoulders, 
and with a graceful wave threw it so as to cover the smoulder- 
ing grass ; when, assisted by Yellow Bear, he held the corners 
and sides so closely to the ground as to almost completely con- 
fine and cut off the column of smoke. Waiting but for a few 
moments, and until he saw the smoke beginning to escape from 
beneath, he suddenly threw the blanket a.«ide. and a beautiiul 
balloon-shaped column puffed upward like the white cloud of 
smoke which attends the di.-eharge of a field-piece. 

" Again casting the blanket on the grass, the column was in- 
terrupted as before, and again in due time released, so that a 
succession of elongated egg-shaped puffs of smoke kept ascend- 
ing toward the sky in the most regular manner. This bead-like 
column of smoke, considering the hight fiom whirli it began to 
ascend, was visible from points on the level plaiofiO miles distant.'' 
During the Revolution, viirious methods were em